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  1. 1. (Capture) mark – release – recapture
  2. 2. <ul><li>Step 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture a sample of organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: ensure the technique for trapping them matches the organisms being studied e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfall trap for crawling insects </li></ul><ul><li>Longworth trap for small mammals </li></ul> (Capture) mark – release – recapture
  3. 7. <ul><li>Step 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark the animals in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: ensure the technique matches the organisms being studied e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Nail varnish blobs on the back of beetles </li></ul><ul><li>Tags in small mammals ears </li></ul><ul><li>Rings for birds </li></ul>(Capture) mark – release – recapture
  4. 8. Step 3. Release the animals. (Capture) mark – release – recapture
  5. 9. Step 4. Recapture a second sample and count the number of marked individuals. Note: ensure the animals had time to mix with the rest of the population before capturing again. (Capture) mark – release – recapture
  6. 10. Step 6. Estimate population size using the formula. (Capture) mark – release – recapture
  7. 11. <ul><li>Assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>The # of organisms in the population does not change between samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Marked animals mix randomly with the rest of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Trapping and marking do not affect the animals in any way. </li></ul>(Capture) mark – release – recapture
  8. 12. <ul><li>Objective Estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute estimates - numbers/unit area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capture – recapture (mark-release-recapture) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capture animals, mark, release, recapture; determine proportion of marked and from this make total population estimate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>major assumptions: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i) marking doesn't affect animals (behaviorally, physiologically, or ecologically) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ii) marked animals are completely mixed in population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(iii) probability of capturing a marked animal is the same as capturing an unmarked animal (closed population) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(iv) marked animals don't lose their marks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(v) marked mix naturally with unmarked </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(vi) some other assumptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Mark-Recapture Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture, mark and release 64 monarch butterflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture monarchs at a later date. The number captured was 98 of which 22 were marked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The population size is estimated to be 285 butterflies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. 1. Blue tits are common British birds. Some aspects of the behaviour of blue tits at different times of the year are summarised below. (a) In a study of winter feeding flocks, 36 blue tits visiting a bird table were trapped, and before release each bird was marked by placing a small metal ring round one of its legs. The following day 43 blue tits were trapped. Of these, 21 were ringed. Estimate the size of the blue tit population visiting the bird table. Show your working. March – April Adult birds establish breeding territories. April – July Breeding season. Eggs laid and young hatch. Adult birds collect food for their young from within their territories. July – March Birds form flocks which forage for food over a wide area.
  11. 15. (a) Working or explanation of figures; Correct answer = 74/73.7; 2