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CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
<ul><li>11.1  Immune Response (2½)  </li></ul><ul><li>11.2  Development of Immunity (1½)  </li></ul><ul><li>11.3  Immune D...
<ul><li>Describe and explain the primary and secondary immune responses to antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept ...
Active Natural Artificial Passive Immunity Natural Artificial <ul><li>Antibody from:  </li></ul><ul><li>pregnant mom to fe...
<ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain antibody from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Effect : immediate but short-liv...
<ul><li>For active immunity, it develops within 2 stages:- </li></ul>Primary immune response Secondary immune response Imm...
Primary & Secondary Immune Responses
<ul><li>Has a longer lag period (where no antibody is produced) </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the time needed for the specific ...
<ul><li>Has a very short lag period (due to the presence of memory B cells ~ immunological memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Produ...
<ul><li>Obtained by vaccination / immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained by injecting small amount of vaccine into the bo...
Vaccination
Vaccination <ul><li>BCG (tuberculosis) </li></ul><ul><li>After birth / 13 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>a.k.a Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Is known as self antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Each person has a...
<ul><li>Our immune system can recognize foreign cells & own body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Due to presence of MHC </li></ul>...
Concept of Self & Non-self Recognition Antigen receptors are tested for  self-reactivity Lymphocytes  carrying  receptors ...
Skin Grafting Blood transfusion Organ transplant Self & Non-self Concept 1 2 3
<ul><li>Transfer of blood from 1 person to another </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group must be determined before it can be trans...
Antibody B Has antigen A Blood A Blood B Blood AB Blood O Has antigen B Has antigen A & B No antigen  Antibody A No antibo...
<ul><li>If the antigen & complementary antibody is present in the blood, agglutination occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Blood O  ...
Blood Transfusion Why is it easier to transfer blood compared to transfer organ ?? RECALL  that RBC doesn’t have MHC Type ...
Blood Transfusion
Skin Grafting
<ul><li>Replacement of damaged tissue / organs with a healthy one </li></ul><ul><li>3 kinds of transplant </li></ul>Autogr...
<ul><li>Tissue (skin) grafted from 1 area to another on the same person  </li></ul><ul><li>Same MHC    no rejection  </li...
<ul><li>A graft between genetically identical individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins </li></ul><ul><li>Same MHC   ...
<ul><li>A graft from 1 individual to a  genetically   different individual  of the  same species </li></ul><ul><li>Differe...
<ul><li>MHC causes rejection of tissue graft & organ transplant </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce rejection, chemicals are neede...
<ul><li>Involve major organs (heart, renal, liver, lung) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine ABO blood typing </li></ul><ul><li>De...
<ul><li>Selective drugs, that suppress helper T cell activation without crippling nonspecific defense or T-independent hum...
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Hr 4 development of immunity

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Hr 4 development of immunity

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
  2. 2. <ul><li>11.1 Immune Response (2½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.2 Development of Immunity (1½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 ) </li></ul>CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Describe and explain the primary and secondary immune responses to antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of self and non-self recognition and its application in organ transplant, grafting and blood transfusion. </li></ul>11.2 : Development of Immunity (Objectives)
  4. 4. Active Natural Artificial Passive Immunity Natural Artificial <ul><li>Antibody from: </li></ul><ul><li>pregnant mom to fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing mother to infant </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody from </li></ul><ul><li>Injected antibody from animal / people to another people </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed naturally to antigen </li></ul><ul><li>By immunization or vaccination </li></ul>Types of Immunity
  5. 5. <ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain antibody from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Effect : immediate but short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Active immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Produce own antibody due to entrance of antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Effect : longer time but long-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Has immunological memory </li></ul>Vaccination
  6. 6. <ul><li>For active immunity, it develops within 2 stages:- </li></ul>Primary immune response Secondary immune response Immunity <ul><li>1 st exposure to the antigen </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd exposure to the same antigen </li></ul>Development of Immunity
  7. 7. Primary & Secondary Immune Responses
  8. 8. <ul><li>Has a longer lag period (where no antibody is produced) </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the time needed for the specific B cell to: </li></ul>Become activated Proliferate (producing clone) Differentiate (plasma cell & memory cell) <ul><li>Plasma cell secrete antibody (mainly Ig M) </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of antibody is relatively low </li></ul><ul><li>After a short time, amount of antibody decrease </li></ul>Primary Immune Response 1 2 3
  9. 9. <ul><li>Has a very short lag period (due to the presence of memory B cells ~ immunological memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Production of antibody is :- </li></ul>faster higher amount more prolonged (remain longer) <ul><li>Antibody level tends to remain high for longer period </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma cell secrete antibody (mainly Ig G) </li></ul>Secondary Immune Response 1 2 3
  10. 10. <ul><li>Obtained by vaccination / immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained by injecting small amount of vaccine into the body </li></ul><ul><li>Which trigger immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Effect :- produce antibody against injected antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine is inactivated toxins or weakened / dead pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Which trigger immune system to produce antibody, </li></ul><ul><li>but can no longer cause disease </li></ul>Artificial Active Immunity
  11. 11. Vaccination
  12. 12. Vaccination <ul><li>BCG (tuberculosis) </li></ul><ul><li>After birth / 13 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>After birth / 1 mth / 6 mths </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Antigen (DPT) </li></ul><ul><li>Diphteria (sore throat) </li></ul><ul><li>Pertusis (whooping cough) </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul><ul><li>3 / 4 / 5 mths </li></ul><ul><li>Polio </li></ul><ul><li>3 / 4 / 5 mths </li></ul><ul><li>MMR </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul><ul><li>4 yrs </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>a.k.a Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Is known as self antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Each person has a unique MHC (except identical twins) </li></ul><ul><li>That differentiate our own cells with other person </li></ul>MHC Class I Class II <ul><li>found on all cells (except RBC) </li></ul><ul><li>found on cells involved in immune response (macrophage, B cell) </li></ul>MHC
  14. 14. <ul><li>Our immune system can recognize foreign cells & own body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Due to presence of MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Self antigen  does not provoke immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Non-self antigen  trigger immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Non-self includes:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells from other individuals / organisms </li></ul></ul>Self & Non-self Concept
  15. 15. Concept of Self & Non-self Recognition Antigen receptors are tested for self-reactivity Lymphocytes carrying receptors that can bind to molecules already present in the body are inactivated or destroyed by apoptosis Only lymphocytes that recognize foreign molecules continue to develop Helps to recognize self from non-self (self-tolerance) Failure to recognise self antigen leads to autoimmune diseases
  16. 16. Skin Grafting Blood transfusion Organ transplant Self & Non-self Concept 1 2 3
  17. 17. <ul><li>Transfer of blood from 1 person to another </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group must be determined before it can be transferred </li></ul><ul><li>By using ABO blood group system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group can be determined by antigen found on red blood cell (RBC) membrane </li></ul>Blood Transfusion
  18. 18. Antibody B Has antigen A Blood A Blood B Blood AB Blood O Has antigen B Has antigen A & B No antigen Antibody A No antibody Antibody A & B Blood Transfusion
  19. 19. <ul><li>If the antigen & complementary antibody is present in the blood, agglutination occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Blood O  universal donor </li></ul><ul><li>Because it has no antigen on the surface  does not trigger immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Blood AB  universal recipient </li></ul><ul><li>Because it has no antibody (for blood)  does not cause agglutination </li></ul>Blood Transfusion
  20. 20. Blood Transfusion Why is it easier to transfer blood compared to transfer organ ?? RECALL that RBC doesn’t have MHC Type of antigen present  A & B
  21. 21. Blood Transfusion
  22. 22. Skin Grafting
  23. 23. <ul><li>Replacement of damaged tissue / organs with a healthy one </li></ul><ul><li>3 kinds of transplant </li></ul>Autografts Isografts Allografts Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant 1 2 3
  24. 24. <ul><li>Tissue (skin) grafted from 1 area to another on the same person </li></ul><ul><li>Same MHC  no rejection </li></ul>1. Autografts
  25. 25. <ul><li>A graft between genetically identical individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins </li></ul><ul><li>Same MHC  no rejection </li></ul>2. Isografts
  26. 26. <ul><li>A graft from 1 individual to a genetically different individual of the same species </li></ul><ul><li>Different MHC  may cause rejection </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize rejection, tissue typing is done </li></ul><ul><li>Find a close match for both tissue donor & recipient’s MHC (at least 75% match) </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of identical twins, siblings usually provide the closest tissue-type match. </li></ul>3. Allografts
  27. 27. <ul><li>MHC causes rejection of tissue graft & organ transplant </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce rejection, chemicals are needed to suppress the immune response (immunosupressant ~ cyclosporine) </li></ul><ul><li>But, it causes the recipient to be more susceptible to infection during treatment </li></ul>Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant
  28. 28. <ul><li>Involve major organs (heart, renal, liver, lung) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine ABO blood typing </li></ul><ul><li>Determine tissue typing (MHC matching) </li></ul>Organ Transplant
  29. 29. <ul><li>Selective drugs, that suppress helper T cell activation without crippling nonspecific defense or T-independent humoral responses, can improve the success of organ transplant. </li></ul>Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant

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