CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
<ul><li>11.1  Immune Response (2½)  </li></ul><ul><li>11.2  Development of Immunity (1½)  </li></ul><ul><li>11.3  Immune D...
<ul><li>Describe what is meant by immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of ...
<ul><li>What is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody...
Cell mediated Humoral Immune Response <ul><li>Involve mainly B cell  </li></ul><ul><li>Produce antibody in plasma (body fl...
<ul><li>Our cells has a special glycoprotein on the plasma membrane    MHC </li></ul>MHC Class I Class II <ul><li>found o...
a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for  class I MHC-Antigen complex  Classes o...
<ul><li>Macrophage ingest & destroy the antigen by phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fragment of antigen is displayed on the ...
Antigen Presenting Cell
<ul><li>T H  with a specific receptor bind to the complex </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophage secrete Interleukin-1 (IL-1) </li><...
<ul><li>Divide rapidly to form many T H  which has identical MHC-antigen receptor (clone) </li></ul>Proliferate Differenti...
1. Humoral Immune Response
1. Humoral Immune Response
<ul><li>When B lymphocyte binds to a specific antigen, it becomes activated (with the help of T H )  </li></ul><ul><li>The...
<ul><li>Effective to protect against free antigen found outside the host cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen receptor on B cel...
<ul><li>Involve mainly T cell  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective against antigen found inside the host cells, cancer cell & tran...
a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for  class I MHC-Antigen complex  Classes o...
<ul><li>Also involve macrophage & T H  cell  </li></ul><ul><li>*refer humoral immune response </li></ul>2. Cell Mediated I...
<ul><li>Antigen infect cells with class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Fragment of antigen is displayed on the cell surface toget...
Cell Mediated Immune Response
<ul><li>IL-2 stimulates T C  to proliferate & differentiate to form 2 clones:- </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate TC to release p...
Cell Mediated Immune Response
 
Cell Mediated Immune Response
<ul><li>3 possibilities : </li></ul><ul><li>Ingested by macrophage </li></ul><ul><li>Infect cells (not involved in immune ...
<ul><li>B & T cells has a unique receptor on the cell surface  </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors bind to a specific antigen </li...
Humoral Immune Response
 
 
<ul><li>Engulf & destroy antigen by phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Display fragments of antigen & class II MHC  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Bind with class II MHC – antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete IL-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Which stimulates prolife...
<ul><li>Bind to free antigen </li></ul><ul><li>With the presence of IL-2, B cell proliferate & differentiate into </li></u...
<ul><li>Display fragments of antigen & class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>To warn other cells, intruder is present </li></ul>Ro...
<ul><li>Bind to class I MHC – antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>With the presence of IL-2, T C  cell proliferate & differe...
<ul><li>Regulatory cell </li></ul><ul><li>Release lymphokine </li></ul><ul><li>That suppress / slow down the activity of B...
<ul><li>If exposed to the same antigen:- </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferate faster to form clone </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiat...
<ul><li>Antibody binds to antigen to form Antigen-antibody complex </li></ul>Antigen-antibody Interaction Neutralization A...
<ul><li>Simplest mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Virus / bacterial toxin have receptors that is needed to infect our cells </l...
<ul><li>Antibody : usually involves Ig M  </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen : foreign cell  </li></ul><ul><li>Ig M is large    ca...
<ul><li>Antigen : soluble (in form of molecules, not cell)  </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody bind to antigen </li></ul><ul><li>F...
<ul><li>Antibodies bind to antigen    antigen-antibody complex  </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate plasma protein (complement) t...
Complement Fixation
Antigen-Antibody Interaction
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Hr 2 immune response

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Hr 2 immune response

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
  2. 2. <ul><li>11.1 Immune Response (2½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.2 Development of Immunity (1½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 ) </li></ul>CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Describe what is meant by immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and compare humoral and cell mediated immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the roles of lymphoid organs in immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe various types of antigen and antibody reactions. </li></ul>11.1 : Immune Response (Objectives)
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen & antibody reactions </li></ul>11.1 : Immune Response
  5. 5. Cell mediated Humoral Immune Response <ul><li>Involve mainly B cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produce antibody in plasma (body fluid ~ humor) </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of T H cell </li></ul><ul><li>Involve mainly T cell </li></ul>Immune response
  6. 6. <ul><li>Our cells has a special glycoprotein on the plasma membrane  MHC </li></ul>MHC Class I Class II <ul><li>found on all cells (except RBC) </li></ul><ul><li>found on cells involved in immune response (macrophage, B cell) </li></ul>Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
  7. 7. a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for class I MHC-Antigen complex Classes of T cells Lymphocyte T T4 / CD4 cell Cytotoxic T cell (T C ) Suppressor T cell (T S ) T8 / CD8 cell Helper T cell (T H )
  8. 8. <ul><li>Macrophage ingest & destroy the antigen by phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fragment of antigen is displayed on the cell surface together with a class II MHC </li></ul><ul><li>To form a class II MHC-antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>These cells  Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) </li></ul>1. Humoral Immune Response
  9. 9. Antigen Presenting Cell
  10. 10. <ul><li>T H with a specific receptor bind to the complex </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophage secrete Interleukin-1 (IL-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Which activates T H to secrete Interleukin-2 (IL-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Which stimulate the activated T H to proliferate & differentiate to form 2 clones:- </li></ul>Activated T H clone Memory T H clone 1 2 1. Humoral Immune Response
  11. 11. <ul><li>Divide rapidly to form many T H which has identical MHC-antigen receptor (clone) </li></ul>Proliferate Differentiate <ul><li>Form different types of T H (activated T H & memory T H ) </li></ul>1. Humoral Immune Response
  12. 12. 1. Humoral Immune Response
  13. 13. 1. Humoral Immune Response
  14. 14. <ul><li>When B lymphocyte binds to a specific antigen, it becomes activated (with the help of T H ) </li></ul><ul><li>These activation causes B cells to proliferate & differentiate to form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma / effector cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasma cells secrete the same antibody that can bind to the invading antigen to form antibody-antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody-antigen complex does not destroy the antigen but only prepare them for further process </li></ul>1. Humoral Immune Response
  15. 15. <ul><li>Effective to protect against free antigen found outside the host cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen receptor on B cell can only bind directly to antigen </li></ul>1. Humoral Immune Response
  16. 16. <ul><li>Involve mainly T cell </li></ul><ul><li>Effective against antigen found inside the host cells, cancer cell & transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor on T cell can bind to MHC-antigen complex </li></ul>2. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  17. 17. a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for class I MHC-Antigen complex Classes of T cells Lymphocyte T T4 / CD4 cell Cytotoxic T cell (T C ) Suppressor T cell (T S ) T8 / CD8 cell Helper T cell (T H )
  18. 18. <ul><li>Also involve macrophage & T H cell </li></ul><ul><li>*refer humoral immune response </li></ul>2. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  19. 19. <ul><li>Antigen infect cells with class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Fragment of antigen is displayed on the cell surface together with class I MHC molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Forming a class I MHC-antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>Tc with a specific receptor binds to the complex on infected cell </li></ul><ul><li>When activated T H secrete IL-2 </li></ul>Cell Mediated Immune Response
  20. 20. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  21. 21. <ul><li>IL-2 stimulates T C to proliferate & differentiate to form 2 clones:- </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate TC to release perforin </li></ul><ul><li>Which form pores in the infected cell’s membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Causes it to lyse </li></ul><ul><li>Activated T C clone circulate & kill other infected cells </li></ul>Activated T C clone Memory T C clone Cell Mediated Immune Response 1 2
  22. 22. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  23. 24. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  24. 25. <ul><li>3 possibilities : </li></ul><ul><li>Ingested by macrophage </li></ul><ul><li>Infect cells (not involved in immune response) </li></ul><ul><li>Bind with B cell with a specific receptors </li></ul>1. Cell Mediated Immune Response
  25. 26. <ul><li>B & T cells has a unique receptor on the cell surface </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors bind to a specific antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell has the same receptors  can only bind to the same epitope </li></ul><ul><li>B cell recognize antigen & bind to antigen (antigen receptor </li></ul><ul><li>T cells cannot bind to free antigen </li></ul><ul><li>T cell can only recognise & act on the processed antigen displayed on APC </li></ul>Lymphocytes
  26. 27. Humoral Immune Response
  27. 30. <ul><li>Engulf & destroy antigen by phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Display fragments of antigen & class II MHC </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete IL-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Which activates T H cell to secrete IL-2 </li></ul>Role of Macrophage
  28. 31. <ul><li>Bind with class II MHC – antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete IL-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Which stimulates proliferation & differentiation of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itself (activated T H & memory T H ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T C (activated T C & memory T C ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells (plasma cell & memory B cell) </li></ul></ul>Role of T H cell
  29. 32. <ul><li>Bind to free antigen </li></ul><ul><li>With the presence of IL-2, B cell proliferate & differentiate into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma cell : secrete antibody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory B cell </li></ul></ul>Role of B cell
  30. 33. <ul><li>Display fragments of antigen & class I MHC </li></ul><ul><li>To warn other cells, intruder is present </li></ul>Role of infected cell
  31. 34. <ul><li>Bind to class I MHC – antigen complex </li></ul><ul><li>With the presence of IL-2, T C cell proliferate & differentiate into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activated TC cell : secrete perforin to lyse antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory TC cell </li></ul></ul>Role of T C cell
  32. 35. <ul><li>Regulatory cell </li></ul><ul><li>Release lymphokine </li></ul><ul><li>That suppress / slow down the activity of B & T cells </li></ul><ul><li>When antigen has been successfully destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Important to prevent unnecessary immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Help prevent autoimmune reaction </li></ul>Role of T S cell
  33. 36. <ul><li>If exposed to the same antigen:- </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferate faster to form clone </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate faster to form activated cells & memory cells </li></ul>Role of memory cell (all types)
  34. 37. <ul><li>Antibody binds to antigen to form Antigen-antibody complex </li></ul>Antigen-antibody Interaction Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation Complement fixation Antigen-Antibody Interaction
  35. 38. <ul><li>Simplest mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Virus / bacterial toxin have receptors that is needed to infect our cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies block these receptors  cannot infect our cell ~ inactive </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody is called antitoxin </li></ul>Neutralization
  36. 39. <ul><li>Antibody : usually involves Ig M </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen : foreign cell </li></ul><ul><li>Ig M is large  can bind to many antigen at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Form cross-linkage to form a large complex  clump </li></ul><ul><li>This process is called agglutination </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody is called aglutinin </li></ul><ul><li>Basic test for blood typing </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody bounded to antigen ~ stimulate macrophage to conduct phagocytosis </li></ul>Agglutination
  37. 40. <ul><li>Antigen : soluble (in form of molecules, not cell) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody bind to antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Form cross-linkage to form large complex  become insoluble & settle out of the solution (precipitate) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody is called precipitin </li></ul>Precipitation
  38. 41. <ul><li>Antibodies bind to antigen  antigen-antibody complex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate plasma protein (complement) to bind to the antigen-antibody complex </li></ul><ul><li>Complement protein form a membrane attack complex (MAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Causing formation of pore on the target cell’s membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cell lyse </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody is called lysin </li></ul>Complement Fixation
  39. 42. Complement Fixation
  40. 43. Antigen-Antibody Interaction

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