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  1. 1. Chemicals In Organisms
  2. 2. Macromolecules <ul><li>Monomer: “Single” unit that makes up a polymer </li></ul><ul><li>Polymer : Organic(carbon present) molecules that have “many” units </li></ul><ul><li>Many organic polymers are SO LARGE they are called macromolecules(GIANT MOLECULES) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Macromolecules <ul><li>4 Major MACROMOLECULES </li></ul><ul><li>1.) CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>2.) LIPIDS(FATS) </li></ul><ul><li>3.) PROTIENS </li></ul><ul><li>4.) NUCLEIC ACIDS ( We will look at this at a later time) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Macromolecules <ul><li>What happened when your body doesn’t get the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to maintain a balanced nutrition? </li></ul>
  5. 6. - Anorexia and bulimia are major eating disorders suffered in the world
  6. 7. Normal RBC’s Iron deficiency
  7. 8. Goiter : Iodine Deficiency Thyroid Enlargement
  8. 9. Rickets: vitamin D deficiency
  9. 10. Bodybuilding                                      
  11. 12. Carbohydrates aka Sugar <ul><li>Foods classified as carbs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread, fruit, veggies, pasta, pop, candy, cereal, corn, wheat, rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of C, H, O (organic compounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually ends in “OSE” </li></ul><ul><li>Yields 4 Calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Digestion Time: 2 hours </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Answer questions on outline! </li></ul>
  13. 14. Three Classes of Carbs <ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul>
  14. 15. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Simple sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Easily absorbed into the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>No digestion needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: galactose, fructose, dextrose (man-made), and glucose( C 6 H 12 O 6 ), </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. DISACCHARIDES <ul><li>Polymers of carbs= ( 2 monosaccharides chemically bonded together ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: sucrose= fructose + glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maltose=glucose + glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lactose= glucose + galactose </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Where do these sugars come from? <ul><li>Maltose = grains </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose = table sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose = milk </li></ul>
  17. 18. POLYSACCHARIDE <ul><li>Three or more monosaccharides joined together </li></ul>
  18. 19. Examples of Polysaccharides <ul><li>Starch : plant form of sugar storage, starts to breakdown in the mouth by amylase (in saliva) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from corn, wheat, potato, and rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellulose (fiber) helps to maintain strength of the cell wall. You can not digest this form. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen : animal form of storage sugar, found in skeletal muscles and liver. Helps regulate blood glucose levels. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Combining and Breaking down Carbs <ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis : when molecules are combined, a water molecule is removed in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis: use of water molecule to separate or digest molecules. Di/Polysaccharide need to be digested or broken down to be absorbed. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>dehydration synthesis animation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a picture of what is happening during each of these processes. </li></ul>
  21. 22. So what’s the deal with all the sugar! <ul><li>How much sugar do you eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Detective </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Free Snacks </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 23. Carbs= monosaccharides Review mono and disaccharides
  23. 24. Lipids(fats)
  24. 25. Lipids <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>foods classified as lipids are oils, butter, salad dressing, peanut butter, mayo </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Lipids aka Fat <ul><li>Composed of C, H, O </li></ul><ul><li>Yields 9 Calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>Typical digestion Time= 6 hours </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Do the problem on your hand out. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Basic Structure of a lipid <ul><li>FATTY ACID and GLYCEROL </li></ul><ul><li>FATTY ACID: insoluble portion of molecule </li></ul><ul><li>GLYCEROL: soluble portion of the molecule </li></ul>
  28. 29. What does that look like in a molecular form?
  29. 30. Types of Fats <ul><li>Transfat : man-made hydrogenated fat, hard to semi-hard grey-white in appearance. Helps preserve shelf life of foods. Very bad for you. Tricks the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides : two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated (solid) warm-blooded animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated (liquid) cold-blooded animals and in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for insulation and long term energy storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Types of Fats Continued <ul><li>Phospholipids- cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids: components of cell membrane, hormone precursor such as testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, progesterone, vitamin D, and cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes: protection and waterproofing for feathers and fur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Es. Beeswax and earwax </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Proteins
  32. 33. Proteins <ul><li>Foods classified as protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beef, poultry, veal, eggs, peanuts, soy and fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of C,H,O,N </li></ul><ul><li>Yields 4 Calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>Typical digestion Time=3-4 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer of proteins= AMINO ACIDS </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Do the problem on the handout </li></ul>
  34. 35. Proteins <ul><li>AMINO ACIDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 different types of amino acids humans use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential A.A.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have to obtained through diet(10 of them) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Proteins <ul><li>When 2 amino acids bond together, they form a bond between the amino group of one A.A. and the carboxyl group of the other A.A. </li></ul><ul><li>This bond is called a peptide bond </li></ul><ul><li>A chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide </li></ul>
  36. 37. Proteins r H 2 O released when 2 A.A. bond Dehydration synthesis PEPTIDE BOND FORMS FROM THIS REACTION = DIPEPTIDE (2 A.A. BONDED TOGETHER)
  37. 38. Function of Proteins: <ul><li>Suppor t: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratin in hair and nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen that make up ligament, tendons, and skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>channel and carrier proteins embedded in cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Hemoglobin on RBC for O2 transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antibodies </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Functions Continued <ul><li>Hormones : regulation of homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin; regulates glucose storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Growth Hormone (HGH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes : allows reactions to take place by lower the amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur and helps speed up reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Amylase in saliva helps breakdown sugars in the mouth. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Think: </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to “feel” full and satisfied after eating, which of the food group(s) should you choose? Why? </li></ul>
  40. 42. What is a Chemical Reaction <ul><li>One or more substances changed into a new substance by the breaking or forming of chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Reactant + Reactant Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cake mix + eggs + oil = vanilla cake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when a cookie breaks down into soft pieces in your mouth, that is a chemical reaction releasing the nutrients from the cookie </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Draw this in your notes
  42. 44. Reaction Speed <ul><li>Chemical reactions take a very long time to occur </li></ul><ul><li>They all take place at different rates and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions occur in our body daily </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Our bodies need to use enzymes to make reactions happen easily and without a lot of heat! </li></ul>
  44. 46. Reaction Speed <ul><li>Chemical reactions can occur at a faster rate then they normally would </li></ul><ul><li>A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are catalysts in the body that speed up chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are specific to the chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate is the substance that can be changed by the chemical reaction </li></ul>
  45. 47. Add some illustrations to your notes after watching videos <ul><li>Enzyme animation good explanation, regarding substrate and enzymes! </li></ul><ul><li>Simple graphics with inhibition </li></ul>
  46. 48. Reaction Speed <ul><li>In a chemical reaction, the enzyme attaches to the specific substrate and helps speed up the reaction process </li></ul><ul><li>We use what is called the lock and Key method to demonstrate this process </li></ul>
  47. 49. How can enzymes be changed or denatured? <ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity (salt) </li></ul><ul><li>All these can change the active site of the enzyme, not allowing the substrate to bind and the reaction to take place. </li></ul>
  48. 50. <ul><li>Detailed Graphic long, but good </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  49. 51. Enzyme Feedback <ul><li>Textbook Explanation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  50. 52. So why are enzymes important? <ul><li> </li></ul>
  51. 53. What is ATP? <ul><li>ATP is composed of: </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul><ul><li>5 carbon sugar (ribose ) </li></ul><ul><li>3 phosphates groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The phosphate groups in ATP is the reason why ATP can store or release energy. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Function of ATP <ul><li>ATP is important for a variety of functions, such as active transport, muscle contraction and protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Although ATP is used for transferring energy, it isn’t good storing large amounts of energy for extended periods of time. </li></ul>