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  1. 1. 1OVERVIEW OF INDIAN POLICY“Electro Magnetic Field(EMF)RadiationfromMobile Towers & Handsets”Rakesh Kumar Bhatnagar, Advisor (Technology)Department of TelecommunicationsGovernment of India+91-9868133450;
  2. 2. Growing Tele-Density Unprecedented growth in telecommunication sector Manifold increase in mobile voice & data traffic => Exponential increase in a number of cellular towers inIndia with more & more towers erected each year.2Telecom subscribers inIndia:892 Million (Wireless segmentis the Growth Key Driver with861.7 Million subscribers)Tele-density: 75.5% (Wireless 73%, wiredline 2.5%)Feb 2013 data
  3. 3.  The popularity of cell phone and wireless communicationdevices has resulted in a proliferation of cell towers across thecountry 736 K mobile towers in the country with about 10Service Providers in each of 22 Licensing Service Areas . There has been public concerns on possible health hazards andimpact on biota & environment due to EMF radiation fromMobile Towers /Handsets.3
  4. 4.  Govt of India, in the year 2008, adopted theInternational Commission for Non IonizingRadiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines License conditions of Operators were amended on4.11.2008, with directions to comply to ICNIRPprescribed radiation norms. Directions to report compliance of radiation limits/levels through self certification of their BTS to therespective Telecom Enforcement Resource &Monitoring (TERM ) Units of Licensor (DoT).4
  5. 5.  TERM Cells carry out the compliancemonitoring on Radiation levels on randombasis for 10% of towers. If a site fails to meet the EMF Radiationcriterion, there is a provision of penalty of US $10,000 per BTS per service provider along withclosure of site.5
  6. 6.  Based on the Recommendations of an InterMinisterial Committee constituted by DoT in theyear 2010, limiting reference levels ofElectromagnetic Radiation from Mobile towers isreduced to 1/10th of the limit prescribed by theICNIRP with effect from 01.09.2012.6Frequency ICNIRP RadiationNormsRevised DoTNorms effectivefrom 01.09.2012900 MHz 4.5 Watt/ Sqm 0.45 Watt/ Sqm1800 MHz 9.0 Watt/ Sqm 0.90 Watt/ Sqm2100 MHz 10.5 Watt/ Sqm 1.05 Watt/ Sqm
  7. 7.  Adoption of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limit of1.6watt/Kg (averaged over 1 gm of tissue) alsoimplemented from 01.09.2012.7Frequency(10 MHz to10 GHz)ICNIRPSAR LimitRevisedSAR Limiteffective from01.09.2012General Publicexposure2watt/Kg(averaged over10 gm tissue)1.6watt/Kg(averaged over 1gm tissue)
  8. 8.  Mobile handsets with existing designs, compliant with2.0 Watt/Kg averaged over a mass of 10 gram tissue, tocontinue to co-exist upto 31st August 2013. From 1st September 2013, only the mobile handsets withrevised SAR value of 1.6 Watt/Kg shall be permitted formanufacturing or to import in India for domestic market. It will be mandatory for manufacturers to display the SARlevel on each mobile handset like IMEI (InternationalMobile Equipment Identity) display from 01.09.2013. SAR Test Laboratory has been set up in the TelecomEngineering Centre DoT, for testing of SAR value of Mobilehandsets imported/ manufactured in India.8
  9. 9. IndiaOne of the very few countries in the worldhaving toughest EMF Radiation Standardsfor Mobile Towers & handsets(after 1st September 2012)9
  10. 10.  Before installation of tower, the licensee company obtainssiting clearance from DoT to ensure that no interference withother wireless users, no aviation hazards and no obstruction toany other existing microwave links. Telecom service providers have to obtain the necessarypermission from the concerned local authorities/ municipalcorporation before installation of tower.10
  11. 11.  Ensure that no nearby buildings right in front of theantenna with height comparable to the lowest antenna ontower at a distance threshold as specified .11Number of Multipleantennas withsame orientationBuilding/Structure distance from the antenna(safe distance) (in mtrs)1 202 354 456 55* The number of multiple antennas related to those facing in the same directionOperators through actual peak traffic time measurements,need to establish that exclusion zone does not cover areaswith public exposure .
  12. 12. Wall Mounted/Pole mounted Antenna:•Pole mounted Antenna height ≥ 5 metre above ground/road level on flyovers.••No Residential place /office directly in front of the Wallmounted antenna at a height comparable to the antennain the exclusion zone. No restriction for installation of tower on/ near specificbuildings such as schools/ hospitals/ playground etc. asnew tougher standards based on precautionary principlesapply equally to all locations with human presence.12
  13. 13.  Broad guidelines issued by DoT for issuingclearances for installation of Mobile Towers. Precautionary Guidelines issued for MobileUsers advising them to take precautions whileusing/ purchasing the mobile handsets.These guidelines are available at DoT website.13
  14. 14.  A Handbook on EMF Radiation IssuesMobile Communications-Radiois available on DoT website.The Handbook covers : Basic introduction to radio waves, Various Terminologies, Clarification of various myths Revised Standards – Mobile Towers & Handsets Frequently asked questions (FAQs) relating to Mobile phones &Human health.The handbook enhances awareness of Public and helps creating anenvironment where everyone can use the radio wave safely. Advertisement for ensuring safety from radiations of Mobile Towers &handsets are published for awareness of General public in National &Regional Newspapers .14
  15. 15.  Public complaint handling system for ElectroMagnetic Field (EMF) Radiation from MobileTowers has been made operational Surprise checks are being conducted by DoT.15
  16. 16. Scientific Study jointlybyDept. of Science & TechnologyandDepartment of Telecom(Government of India)16
  17. 17.  Department of Science & Technology (DST) constituted acommittee on 01.10.2012, under the Chairmanship FormerDirector General (ICMR), having representative from : Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Chennai, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, ICMR , Ministry of Health, Department of Telecom, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Dept. of Science & Technology Request for Proposals (RFPs) on scientificassessment of possible health hazards and adverseimpact on ecology in India specific context fromMobile Hand Sets & Mobile towers.17
  18. 18.  High Population Density In-organic Urban Growth Narrow Lanes Low Body Mass Index Low Fat Content No of Operators much higher: 10-12 in each Licensed Area High Concentration of RF exposure : Site Sharing Per Operator Spectrum Lesser and more Towers Antennas mounted at lower heights Compliance Verification needs improvement18
  19. 19. Scientific Study in India Specific context-Factors Wall mounted and Pole mounted antennas. Age group of users and duration of the exposure,and sensitivity to radiation. Difficulties in RF design for effective planning ofmobile / wireless infrastructure complying toexclusive zone.19
  20. 20. EMF Radiation : Further Analysis Identifying critical areas GIS mapping for quick view and visual analysis Medical study to analyze possible harmful effectsfrom mobile tower & handsets: Population living in the vicinity of towers Age based Mobile Usage analysis High Usage of mobile phones by population20
  21. 21. GIS Mapping Layers21BTS TowersPopulationArea
  22. 22. Thank You22