Moser

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Moser

  1. 1. International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation and Children’s Health Session 5 – Risk management and Prevention Discussion Mirjana Moser LJubljana, 18-20 Mai 2011NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 1
  2. 2. Are our children today sufficiently protected against NIR?NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 2
  3. 3. Are our children today sufficiently protected against NIR? Evidence  What is the level of evidence for particular, children related, risks from NIR?  What level of evidence do a risk manager need? High exposures, technology development  Which are critical / high exposures?  What technology development should we follow in order to anticipate potential future risks for children Research need  What are research priorities? Measures  What protection, precaution measures are feasible and “reasonable”?  What measures have been taken?  What measures should be taken?NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 3
  4. 4. Static Electric and Magnetic fields Evidence  Some data on pregnancy and occupational exposures up to ~ 2T  ??? effects for stronger fields High exposures, technology development  MRI - occupational exposure of pregnant women Research need  Effects of static fields > 3T Measures   revision of occupational exposure directive?NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 4
  5. 5. ELF EMF Evidence  childhood leukaemia (might be multistage, multifactor effect)  risk for brain cancer (some suggestions)?  no effect on development (animal studies) High exposures (> 0.4 μT), technology development  power lines  household installations and appliances (floor heating, transformers, electric blankets, waterbeds..)  transportation Research need  interdisciplinary research on leukaemia (genetic, animal, epi, different agents) like research programm in Germany (BfS)  big, worldwide prospective studies?  mechanisms (new ideas like radical pair mechanism – RPM)? Measures  precautionary measures mostly considering power lines  precautionary measures for other appliances (no waterbeds for children)?  recommendations or more strict regulations (limits, restrictions)?NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 5
  6. 6. Intermediate frequencies EMF Evidence  ???  High exposures, technology development  induction cooker  RFID, EAS  energy saving lamps  wireless power transfer Research need  research need in all disciplines!!  Measures   research programm covering all disciplinesNIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 6
  7. 7. HF-EMF Evidence  brain cancer (CEFALO –in publication, Mobi-Kids starting), no increase in cancer incidence  well-being, cognition, behaviour - some indications, but methodological problems; lifestyle influence, day-time sleepiness because of sending SMS during night  development, teratological effects (animal studies) – no effects  changes in EEG (human)?  animal studies on: brain structure and function – no effect, blood-brain barrier – some effects High exposures, technology development  mobile phones  emerging (telecommunication) technologies? change in exposures? change of lifestyle? Research need  interaction mechanisms (gene expression, mechanistic tumour promoters)  exposures and dosimetry of new technologies  prospective epidemiological studies  other end-points (hormonal level)  evaluation of co-exposure effects Measures  precaution  monitoring: exposures from new technologies, early detection of possible risks (prospective studies)NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 7
  8. 8. Infrared radiation Evidence   High exposures, technology development  infrared “saunas”  Research need   Measures  NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 8
  9. 9. Visible Light Evidence  burn (skin, eye), eye injuries – retina coagulation (laser)  photochemical retinal hazard - blue light hazard  effects on sleep? High exposures, technology development  Laserpointers (up to 5 W), Lasers,  IPL, cosmetic applications, laser epilation  LED, lamps Research need  blue light hazard, biological spectral relevance  night illumination Measures  ban strong laserpointers  no cosmetic applications for kidsNIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 9
  10. 10. UV Radiation I Evidence  skin cancers (high evidence, risk factors known) immunosuppression -> viral infections like herpes simplex (not high evidence), lower response by vaccination (hepatitis B, rubela), but might also be protective effect by vaccination against tuberculosis positive effects (risk reduction due to D-Vitamin or immunosuppresion?) - polymorphic light eruption – PLE, multiple sclerosis, asthma, allergies  photoaging, melanocytic naevi effects on eye: phototoxic, photosensitive, photoalergic effets  cancer, photokeratitis,cataract sensitivity is a function of age – children more sensitive Research need  positive effects and the role of vitamin D  in-vitro models for children  UV-sensitivity of children, epidermal stem cellsNIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 10
  11. 11. UV Radiation High exposures, technology development  Sun, ozone depletion increases skin cancer (20% depl -> 5%more cancers)  sunbeds Measures  optimal sun-protection? Protect from cancer, but allow D-vitamin (vitamin supplementation)  educational programmes + policy accreditation programs for preprimary school  since 1980 in Australia  decreasing of skin cancer incidence from 1995  sunbed problem!  no sunbed use for children!NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 11
  12. 12. Overarching Issues Evidence  combined exposures?  sensitivity?  High exposures, technology development   Research need  multifactor, multistage effects, cofactors?  Measures  NIR&Kids/ Ljubljana / Mirjana Moser / 18-20.05.20101 12

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