Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science
Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  Chapter 15 Patenting Hum...
Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement
Keywords: eugenics; fetus/foetus; gene therapy; genetic diagnosis; genetic disease; genetic enhancement; GM; human genome;...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  Advances in human genetics have opened new possibilities in the detecti...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  It is possible to diagnose genetic disease/malfunction at all stages of...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  This provides information that enables prospective parents to make deci...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  Meanwhile, GM techniques facilitate gene therapy to replace ‘faulty’ ge...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  This is currently only permitted with somatic cells but germ-line gene ...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  However, the distinction between GM for therapy and GM for enhancement ...
Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement  Indeed, many of these developments raise ethical concerns, including th...
Chapter 15  Patenting Human Genes:  Ethical and Policy Issues
Keywords: ethics; gene; human genome; human rights; intellectual property; life forms; nature; patent; reform; value Chapt...
Patent regulations in the U.S. and Europe have evolved to favour commercial interests and to exclude the broader public in...
The patent system has thus extended its remit to encompass life forms by lowering the requirements for novelty, inventiven...
What is needed is a major reform of the system, preferably through an international policy forum with broad representation...
Far from being an obscure technical issue, this will have major impacts on the lives of current and future generations. Ch...
There needs to be a reexamination, both economic and ethical, of intellectual property regimes, particularly how the curre...
Any reforms in intellectual property standards must be internationally adopted and must reflect The Universal Declaration ...
All this will require awareness of the problems in the current system plus considerable public pressure. Chapter 15 Patent...
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T M 13 E T I K A M E D I S (2)

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  • Keywords: eugenics; fetus/foetus; gene therapy; genetic diagnosis; genetic disease; genetic enhancement; GM; human genome; mammal; transgenic Summary Advances in human genetics have opened new possibilities in the detection and treatment of genetic disease. It is possible to diagnose genetic disease/malfunction at all stages of life, including pre-implantation embryos, fetuses in established pregnancies and fully-formed live humans. This provides information that enables prospective parents to make decisions about the birth of babies with genetic disease/malfunction or even to select embryos with particular desirable characteristics. Meanwhile, GM techniques facilitate gene therapy to replace ‘faulty’ genes. This is currently only permitted with somatic cells but germ-line gene therapy is likely not to be long-delayed. However, the distinction between GM for therapy and GM for enhancement is not very clear either practically or ethically. Indeed, many of these developments raise ethical concerns, including the possible devaluation of the genetically ‘disabled’ and the possibility of a ‘new eugenics’ based on eliminating what is perceived as genetic disease, combined with the availability of genetic enhancement.
  • Keywords: eugenics; fetus/foetus; gene therapy; genetic diagnosis; genetic disease; genetic enhancement; GM; human genome; mammal; transgenic Summary Advances in human genetics have opened new possibilities in the detection and treatment of genetic disease. It is possible to diagnose genetic disease/malfunction at all stages of life, including pre-implantation embryos, fetuses in established pregnancies and fully-formed live humans. This provides information that enables prospective parents to make decisions about the birth of babies with genetic disease/malfunction or even to select embryos with particular desirable characteristics. Meanwhile, GM techniques facilitate gene therapy to replace ‘faulty’ genes. This is currently only permitted with somatic cells but germ-line gene therapy is likely not to be long-delayed. However, the distinction between GM for therapy and GM for enhancement is not very clear either practically or ethically. Indeed, many of these developments raise ethical concerns, including the possible devaluation of the genetically ‘disabled’ and the possibility of a ‘new eugenics’ based on eliminating what is perceived as genetic disease, combined with the availability of genetic enhancement.
  • Keywords: ethics; gene; human genome; human rights; intellectual property; life forms; nature; patent; reform; value Summary Patent regulations in the U.S. and Europe have evolved to favour commercial interests and to exclude the broader public interest. The patent system has thus extended its remit to encompass life forms by lowering the requirements for novelty, inventiveness and utility. What is needed is a major reform of the system, preferably through an international policy forum with broad representation: this is too important to leave to the patent examiners. Far from being an obscure technical issue, this will have major impacts on the lives of current and future generations. There needs to be a reexamination, both economic and ethical, of intellectual property regimes, particularly how the current system applies to raw genomic information. Any reforms in intellectual property standards must be internationally adopted and must reflect The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights. All this will require awareness of the problems in the current system plus considerable public pressure.
  • T M 13 E T I K A M E D I S (2)

    1. 1. Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science
    2. 2. Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    3. 3. Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement
    4. 4. Keywords: eugenics; fetus/foetus; gene therapy; genetic diagnosis; genetic disease; genetic enhancement; GM; human genome; mammal; transgenic Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement
    5. 5. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement Advances in human genetics have opened new possibilities in the detection and treatment of genetic disease.
    6. 6. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement It is possible to diagnose genetic disease/malfunction at all stages of life, including pre-implantation embryos, fetuses in established pregnancies and fully-formed live humans.
    7. 7. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement This provides information that enables prospective parents to make decisions about the birth of babies with genetic disease/malfunction or even to select embryos with particular desirable characteristics.
    8. 8. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement Meanwhile, GM techniques facilitate gene therapy to replace ‘faulty’ genes.
    9. 9. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement This is currently only permitted with somatic cells but germ-line gene therapy is likely not to be long-delayed.
    10. 10. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement However, the distinction between GM for therapy and GM for enhancement is not very clear either practically or ethically.
    11. 11. Chapter 14 Human Genetics and Genetic Enhancement Indeed, many of these developments raise ethical concerns, including the possible devaluation of the genetically ‘disabled’ and the possibility of a ‘new eugenics’ based on eliminating what is perceived as genetic disease, combined with the availability of genetic enhancement.
    12. 12. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    13. 13. Keywords: ethics; gene; human genome; human rights; intellectual property; life forms; nature; patent; reform; value Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    14. 14. Patent regulations in the U.S. and Europe have evolved to favour commercial interests and to exclude the broader public interest. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    15. 15. The patent system has thus extended its remit to encompass life forms by lowering the requirements for novelty, inventiveness and utility. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    16. 16. What is needed is a major reform of the system, preferably through an international policy forum with broad representation: this is too important to leave to the patent examiners. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    17. 17. Far from being an obscure technical issue, this will have major impacts on the lives of current and future generations. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    18. 18. There needs to be a reexamination, both economic and ethical, of intellectual property regimes, particularly how the current system applies to raw genomic information. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    19. 19. Any reforms in intellectual property standards must be internationally adopted and must reflect The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues
    20. 20. All this will require awareness of the problems in the current system plus considerable public pressure. Chapter 15 Patenting Human Genes: Ethical and Policy Issues

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