Anatomia foliar ingles

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  • good afternoon, my name is Ernesto Rodriguez. I am student of medical Physics. My topic is about “Anatomy of a plant leaf”
  • the aspects that are going to be developed in this presentation are
  • First of all, it is important to know that the cell is the basic unit of life. Plant cells (unlike animal cells) are surrounded by a thick and rigid cell wall. A Cell wall has up to three strata or layers, which may be found in plant cell walls. These can be identified depending on various tissues Besides this, a tissue is an aggregation of cell that has a common origin and structure, and performs similar functions. Tissues are meant for meeting the physical and physiological needs of the plant body
  • Here we have a diagram that shows two types of tissues that we found in plants. In angiosperm plant body is composed of two basic types of tissues: meristematic and permanent tissues. Meristematic tissue is formed by undifferentiated, embryonic cells called meristematic cells. Here we can see a photograph with apical meristema. These cells, which are kown as meristematic cells are responsible for growth of the plant body due to their capacity to undergo continuos mitotic divisions. For example, when we cut a plant this kind of tissue allows it to grow again. The leaf by itself doesn't have meristematic cells Besides, the permanent tissues are formed by the differentiated cells, which become specialized to perfom specific functions like protection, support, storage and conductions. .
  • Now, as different permanent tissues need to be explained, first I’m going to talk about of parenchyma It is the main tissue in the plant body, occurring in almost all regions. It is the least specialized among the permanent tissues. These cells are usually spherical or oval in shape. Sometimes the cells may be elongated. Very rarely, the cells become irregular shape. They are usually loosely arranged with prominent intercellular spaces. In certain region like epidermis, the cells become compactly arranged and hence, intercellular spaces are absent. We can see in the slide some pictures of it
  • Then, we have collenchyma cells which are a type of simple permanent tissue that is mainly meant for providing mechanical support to the shoot system of a plant. Collenchyma is completely absent in the root. Here there are two pictures to where we can see the collenchymatic tissue
  • Next , we have sclerenchyma cells Which are a type of simple permanent tissue mainly meant for providing mechanical support and protection to different parts of the plant body. Hence, sclerenchyma occurs in all the part of the plant body, including the fruit and seed. We can see these pictures in the slide
  • Here we can appreciate a picture showing sclerenchyma tissue They are fiber bundles view from a microscope
  • Furthermore this table tells us about location and function of tissue differents Moreover in the picture, We see differents wall cells in the permanent tissues First of all, the primary wall cell of parenchymatic cell, intracellular airspace, on the other hand there are
  • Now , Complex Permanent Tissues These tissues are characterised by the presence of dissimilar cells. Hence, they are described as heterogenous in their cellular composition. Xylem It is a complex permanent tissue, which is specialized for the conduction of water and mineral substances in the plant body. Xylem is a heterogenous tissue made up of four different types of cellular elements. On the other hand Phloem is a complex permanent tissue, which is specialized for the conduction of food and other organic substances. Phloem is also a heterogenous tissue.
  • A leaf is a plant organ and is a collection of tissues in a regular organisation. The major tissue systems present are Epidermis is the outermost covering of the stem. It is represented by a single layer of compactly arranged, barrel-shaped parenchyma cells. Intercellular spaces are absent. The cells are slightly thick walled. Epidermis shows the presence of numerous multicellular projections called trichomes. Externally, a thin transparent waxy covering called cuticle, which prevents excessive evaporation of water, surrounds the epidermis. The epidermis also contains numerous minute opening called stomata, which are mainly involved in transpiration. The epidermis, which covers the upper and lower surfaces The mesophyll inside the leaf, which is rich in chloroplasts (also called chlorenchyma) The arrangement of veins (the vascular tissue) These three tissue systems typically form a regular organisation at the cellular scale.
  • Anatomia foliar ingles

    1. 1. República Bolivariana de VenezuelaRepública Bolivariana de Venezuela Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Ciencia y TecnologíaMinisterio del Poder Popular para la Ciencia y Tecnología Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones CientíficasInstituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas Tissues andTissues and Anatomy of a plant leafAnatomy of a plant leaf G.S. Ernesto RodríguezG.S. Ernesto Rodríguez
    2. 2. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 2 ContentContent ● Introduction. ● Plant Tissues. ● Basic Leaf's anatomy. ● Leaf Dicots. ● Leaf Monocots. ● Difference between monocot leaf and dicot leaf.
    3. 3. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 3 Introduction ● The cell is the basic unit of life. Plant cells (unlike animal cells) are surrounded by a thick and rigid cell wall. ● Up to three strata or layers may be found in plant cell walls ● A tissue is an aggregation of cells that have a common origin and structure, and perform similar functions.
    4. 4. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 4 Plant TissuesPlant Tissues Meristimatic Tissues (These cells continuously divide throughout the life of the plant) Meristimatic Tissues (These cells continuously divide throughout the life of the plant) Permanent Tissues (Cells with specialised structure and function that have lost their ability to divide further) Permanent Tissues (Cells with specialised structure and function that have lost their ability to divide further) Simple Permanent TissueSimple Permanent Tissue ParenchymaParenchyma CollenchymaCollenchyma SclerenchymaSclerenchyma Complex Permanent Tissue Complex Permanent Tissue XylemXylem PhloemPhloem
    5. 5. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 5 Plant TissuesPlant Tissues (Permanent tissues)(Permanent tissues) ● Parenchyma – These usually spherical or oval in shape. – Sometimes the cells maybe elongated.
    6. 6. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 6 ● Collenchyma – It is a type of simple permanent tissue. – It's providing mechanical support to the shoot system of a plant. Plant TissuesPlant Tissues (Permanent tissues)(Permanent tissues)
    7. 7. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 7 ● Sclerenchyma – It is providing mechanical support and protection to defferent parts of the plant body. – These are found throughout the plant body, including the fruit and seed. Plant TissuesPlant Tissues (Permanent tissues)(Permanent tissues)
    8. 8. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 8
    9. 9. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 9 Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Location Stem, root, Leaves, flowers, fruit widely distribuited Below the epidermis Outermost boundaries of plant parts, cortex, pith, hard seed. Function ●Stores and assimilates food (Photosynthesis) ●Provides mechanical support (turgidity). Provides mechanical support and elasticity Provides mechanical support Plant TissuesPlant Tissues (Permanent tissues)(Permanent tissues)
    10. 10. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 10 ● Complex tissuesComplex tissues: the function of these tissues is the transportation of nutrients ● Xylem ● Phloem Plant TissuesPlant Tissues (Permanent tissues)(Permanent tissues) PhloemPhloem
    11. 11. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 11 Basic Leaf's anatomyBasic Leaf's anatomy Cuticle Upper Epidermis Mesophyll Lower Epidermis cuticle
    12. 12. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 12 Leaf Dicots Palised parenchyma Spongy parenchyma Midrib Upper Epidermis Lower Epidermis
    13. 13. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 13 Leaf MonocotLeaf Monocot Lower Epidermis Upper Epidermis Xylem Vascular Bundles
    14. 14. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 14 Differences between dicot leaf and monocot leaf Characters Dicot leaf Monocot leaf 1. Nature of orientation Typically Dorsi-ventral Typically Iso-bilateral 2. Mesophyll Differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Undifferentiated 3. Veins Irregularly scattered Parallely arranged
    15. 15. G.S. Ernesto Rodríguez 15 Thanks you! Any Questions?Any Questions?

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