Aldo Ometto

913 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
913
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Aldo Ometto

  1. 1. Life Cycle Assessment of Fuel Ethanol in Brazil Prof. Dr. Aldo Roberto Ometto Production Engineering Department Engineering School of São Carlos University of São Paulo
  2. 2. AGENDA • Sustainability and Environmental Management in Agribusiness • Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of sugar cane fuel ethanol in Brazil • Sustainable Future Strategies for Fuel Ethanol in Brazil
  3. 3. Sustainability Drivers Social Sustainability Environmental Economic Time Local Dimension Dimension Society
  4. 4. Environmental Diversity
  5. 5. Agribusiness Diversity
  6. 6. Premise
  7. 7. Environmental Management Environmental Process and Features Product Life Cycle Land Use Planning Inventory Analysis Environmental Analysis Monitoring Mitigation SOUZA (2000)
  8. 8. Environmental Analysis Territorial Analytical Analysis Tools Geoinformation Life Cycle Assessment Soils Topography Hidrography Geology Infrastructure Other variables: land use, socioeconomic aspects Potentials and constraints Source: www. ean-int.org/agr_food_meat_livestock
  9. 9. Monitoring Internet / Intranet Open Source (Geo) Traceability Monitored Products Life Cycle Units Life Cycle Unit Sensor Input Processing IT-Interface Actor Output Source for LCU: TU Berlin, 2004
  10. 10. AGENDA • Brazilian Experience in Fuel Ethanol Production • Sustainability and Environmental Management in Agribusiness • Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of sugar cane fuel ethanol in Brazil • Sustainable Future Strategies for Fuel Ethanol in Brazil
  11. 11. Brazilian Fuel Alcohol Positive Aspects  Ethanol: – a renewable fuel (better for global warming); – less pollutant than fossil fuel during use phase.  System: high potential biomass energy production. Negative Aspects  Environmental impacts and energy losses during the activities of the life cycle: – Poor biodiversity; intensive use of pesticides, water, erosion, burning and others.
  12. 12. Ethanol Life Cycle Activities Soil Preparation Sugar Cane Plantation Pesticide Application Irrigation with Recycled Products Harvesting Industrial Alcohol Process Electrical Cogeneration Plant Transportation The use of fuel alcohol
  13. 13. Ethanol Life Cycle Activities
  14. 14.  Soil Preparation Equipment
  15. 15. AMA
  16. 16. AMA
  17. 17. AMA
  18. 18. AMA
  19. 19. AMA
  20. 20. AMA
  21. 21. AMA
  22. 22. AMA
  23. 23. AMA
  24. 24. AMA
  25. 25. AMA
  26. 26. AMA
  27. 27. AMA
  28. 28. AMA
  29. 29. AMA
  30. 30.  Sugar cane milling
  31. 31.  Decanter for the juice
  32. 32.  Fermentators
  33. 33.  Distillation collums
  34. 34.  Vinasse Channels for irrigation
  35. 35. AMA
  36. 36. Electricity Cogenerator  Boiler  Energy Generator
  37. 37. Matrix: Life Cycle Impact Assessment A) Systems Establishing (Acquisition of Land and Equipment, Civil and Industrial Projects and Civil and Industrial Buildings) 1) Soil Preparation 2) Sugar Cane Plantation 3) Application of agrochemicals 4) Harvesting 5) Industrial Production of Alcohol 6) Steam and electricity cogeneration 7) Irrigation 8) Ethanol Distribution 9) Use of Alcohol as fuel B) Decommissioning of installations
  38. 38. Environmental System Life Cycle Fuel Ethanol Activities Environmental Environmental Environmental Raw Material Extraction Industrial Pos Industrial Sub-system Component Factor A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B Atmospheric Atmospheric Climate - - -+ - + + Air quality - -+ - - - - - - + + Soil Quality and - - - - - + + Terrestrial Physical Erosion Agricultural - - - Biological Vegetation - - - - Fauna - - - - Land Use - - - - - Physical- Rivers - - - - - - - - - Aquatic Chemical- Groundwater - - - - - - - - Biological Biodiversity - - - - - - - - Infrastructure Transport + - - - - Water use - - - Demography Habitant - - Migration - -+ - - - - Cultural - Economical Agriculture -+ + -+ - - -+ + + -+ Economic - Social Industry + + + - + + - + -+ Business + - + + + + Life quality Education - - + Health - - - - - - - Employment - - - - + + - - Landscape - Historical - Cultural - - - - + Political - Institutional -+ -+ -+ - -+ + - - + -
  39. 39. Matrix Results Most harmful activities: 1. Harvesting – burning:  Air emissions; health problems; erosion;  Losses of organic matter, microorganisms, vegetation, industrial productivity and energy 2. Conventional Soil Conservation; Plantation and Pesticide Application:  High toxicity: health problems, water and soil contamination 3. Manufacturing:  High water consumption and vinasse production
  40. 40. EDIP Method Main Assumptions  The functional unit of this study is 10000 kilometers. Considering a mean consumption of 8 km/l, the reference flow is 1000 kg of ethanol. The results are calculated assuming the average sugar cane and ethanol productivity from 2001 to 2008, which are 72t sugar cane/ha and 85 l ethanol/ t sugar cane, according to the primary data. For the reference flow (1t of ethanol), the sugar cane plantation area is 0,20 ha, which is the needed land-use for this one-year crop cultivation.
  41. 41. Fuel Ethanol Product System
  42. 42. Life Cycle Impact Assessment EDIP Environmental Impact Categories (Impact Potentials) • Global Warming • Ozone Formation • Acidification • Nutrient Enrichment • Ecotoxicity • Human Toxicity
  43. 43. Global Warming
  44. 44. Photochemical Ozone Formation
  45. 45. Acidification
  46. 46. Nutrient Enrichment
  47. 47. Nutrient Enrichment
  48. 48. Ecotoxicity in Soil
  49. 49. Ecotoxicity in Water (Chronic)
  50. 50. Human Toxicity via Air
  51. 51. Human Toxicity via Soil
  52. 52. Human Toxicity via Water
  53. 53. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Thermodynamic Analysis Exergy: work potential that can be obtained as the system changes from the given state to a state of equilibrium with the environment (dead state) while exchanging heat solely with the environment ex straw = B (LHV + hw Zw) + exw Zw (1) ZH 2 ZO 2  ZH 2   1.0412 0.2160 0.2499 10.7884 ZC ZC  ZC   2  palha ZO 2 10.3035 ZC
  54. 54. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Exergy Results • The specific exergy of sugarcane straw is calculated as 17,761.53 kJ/kg • Bagasse has a specific exergy of 10,259.335 kJ/kg
  55. 55. Life Cycle Assessment • Social • Costs
  56. 56. AGENDA • Brazilian Experience in Fuel Ethanol Production • Sustainability and Environmental Management in Agribusiness • Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of sugar cane fuel ethanol in Brazil • Sustainable Future Strategies for Fuel Ethanol in Brazil
  57. 57. Sustainable Future Directions  No Burning  Electricity production from straw  Less pesticides  Less internal transportation  Less fossil fuel use  Less water consumption in industry  Species diversity mantaining natural vegetation  Ethanol combustion otimization in vehicles  Economic, Social and Environmental integrated system
  58. 58. GERIPA: Ethanol and Food Production
  59. 59. Thank you Prof. Dr. Aldo Roberto Ometto E-mail: aometto@sc.usp.br Tel. +55 (16) 3373-8608

×