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“Biofuels in Argentina”

                  Carlos Apesteguía

    Catalysis Science and Engineering Research Group (GICIC)
                  INCAPE, Santa Fe - Argentina


Next Generation Biofuels and bio-based Chemicals, Trieste, April 2009
ARGENTINA: southernmost country in the world
ARGENTINA: southernmost country in the world

                                     Soybean area
 Where are we?                  AREA: 2,760,000 km2
 South America
                                POPULATION: 40 millions
                                30 million hectares for
                                 growing        food    (11%      of
                                RELIGION: mostly catholic
                                LANGUAGE: Spanish
                                 territory)
                                GDP(PPP): hectares: forestcapita
                                  90 million US$ 13,400 per
                                            SANTA FE:
                                GDP(nominal): US $6,500 per capita
                                  100 million hectares: pastures
                                            133,007 km2 8 %/year
                                ECONOMIChectares: unsuitable
                                  55 million GROWTH:
                                            3 million
                                ILLITERACY: 3%
                                  1.5 million hectares: protected
                                            people
                                UNEMPLOYMENT: 8 %
                                LIFE EXPECTANCY: 74 years


          Argentina produces food for 300 million people
          Argentina produces food for 300 million people
                    (population is 40 millions)
                    (population is 40 millions)
ENERGY MATRIX OF ARGENTINA

                                        Participationfuels
                                         87 % fossil
                                                          Natural
           Mineral
                                        in the use of
                                         6-9 % renewable sources
                                                           gas
           Carbon
                                       transportation
                       Others                              17%
             1%
                        3%
                                            fuels
                                                                 Naphta
Natural                                                           17%
 Gas                             Oil      Diesel
 45%                            41%        66%




                         Wood
                          1%
   Vegetable
                        Hydraulic
    residues
                          6%
       1%    Nuclear
               2%



                                                    Source: Secretary of Energy (Argentina)
What is ARGENTINA doing in biofuels?




Production for domestic market:   …will absorb:
  600,000 tons biodiesel/year       8 % of soybean
  160,000 tons bioethanol/year      3 % of corn
                                  national outputs
in ARGENTINA, biofuels from what?
    Biodiesel from vegetable oil
    Biodiesel from vegetable oil

        soybean
        algae
        algae
        rapeseed ?
        rapeseed ?

        jatropha ?
        jatropha ?



     Biogas from                   Bioethanol from

        residues                      sugar cane
        corn                          corn
        algae                         sugar beet ?
BIODIESEL
            IN ARGENTINA




 rapeseed
rapeseed
                           algae
              soybean
BIODIESEL FROM

SOYBEAN
    Soybean composition: 20 % oil, 40 % proteins, 35 %
    Soybean composition: 20 % oil 40 % proteins, 35 %
                              oil,
  carbohydrates and 5 % ashes
  carbohydrates and 5 % ashes

    Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of
    Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of
  soybean
  soybean                                                      NO
  PRODUCTION:                                                   NO
  PRODUCTION:                                             COMSUMPTION
 USA - 86 million tons                                    COMSUMPTION
 Population: 300 millions
  USA - 86 million tons
                                                           OF SOYBEAN
                            Brazil - 59 million tons
             186 millions                                  OF SOYBEAN
                            Brazil - 59 million tons
                                                          PRODUCTS IN
                            Argentina - 47 million tons
             40 millions                                   PRODUCTS IN
                            Argentina - 47 million tons
                                                            ARGENTINA
                            China - 17 million tons         ARGENTINA
                            China - 17 million tons
                            India - 8 million tons
                            India - 8 million tons
                            Paraguay - 6 million tons
                            Paraguay - 6 million tons
                                                            SOYBEAN IS
                                                            SOYBEAN IS
    Argentina is the largest world exporter of soyoil        THE FIRST
                                                             THE FIRST
                                                            CHOICE FOR
        Argentina – 5.7 million tons                        CHOICE FOR
                                                             BIODIESEL
        Brazil – 2.3 million tons                            BIODIESEL
        USA – 0.6 million tons
Soybean growth in Argentina
           1970 – 1971                       1995 – 1996                 2006 – 2007




                  59 thousand tons                                                47.5 million tons
                                                     12.4 million tons




Source:– Dirección de Agricultura – SAGPyA
SOYBEAN
                               Location and size of
                               Location and size of
                               vegetable oil milling
                               vegetable oil milling
                                    facilities
                                    facilities

                                 Main location of
                                 Main location of
                               biodiesel plants is
                               biodiesel plants is
                                 on Paraná river
                                 on Paraná river
                               (ships depart from
                               (ships depart from
                                here to EU or US)
                                here to EU or US)
   More than 30 plants
   > 200 million tons/year
   100-200 million tons/year
   50-100 million tons/year
   < 50 million tons/year
Biodiesel production worldwide in 2008

                     Production
                  (thousands tons)
    Europe              5.500
    USA                 1.500
    Argentina           1.200
    Brazil                900
    Rest of the           900
    world
                       -----------
    Total              10.000


Argentina accounts for more than 10 % percent of
       the biodiesel produced in the world
Argentina's external sales of biodiesel totaled to
1,104,783 tons in 2008 (319,093 tons in 2007)

Sales of approximately 1,500 million dollars in 2008
                                  Source: Argentine Camera of Renewable Energies
From June 2008, the soybean price
      dropped about 40 %
SOYBEAN
RECENTLY INAUGURATED
RECENTLY INAUGURATED
  BIODIESEL PLANTS
   BIODIESEL PLANTS




                                          RENOVA 240,000 tons/year

  ECOFUEL 200,000 tons/year (twin plant underway)

                              Opportunity for small businesses:
                                   Farmers account for about 75 %
                                 of diesel consumption
                                   Micro-refineries
                                   Sell-local principle
                                   Low shipping costs
 DIFEROIL 35,000 tons/year
BIODIESEL FROM
  ALGAE
    Algae composition: 5-50   % lipids, 40-60% proteins, fibers,
                              % lipids 40-60% proteins, fibers,
    Algae composition: 5-50     lipids,
  minerals, carbohydrates
  minerals, carbohydrates

    Biodiesel from algae
    Biodiesel from algae
        ADVANTAGES over soybean:
        ADVANTAGES over soybean:
                 No soil depredation
               Algae capture 4 times more CO2 during
             photosynthesis
                 Extremely rapid growth rates
                 Higher yields:
                                                              250
                 1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters
                                                             Times
                 1 hectare of algae = 100,000 oil liters     higher
                 algae oil costs 50 % less than soyoil
ALGAE       New locations of algae biodiesel
            New locations of algae biodiesel
                                  algae
                       Project of
              plants are on Paraná river
              plants are on Paraná river
                       biodiesel plant:
                        Biocombustibles del
                        Chubut (private and
                           state capitals)




         • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for
         • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for
         personnel transportation to nearby mines
         personnel transportation to nearby mines
         • Production: 5,000 tons/year
         • Production: 5,000 tons/year



        Main location of algae farms is the
        Main location of algae farms is the
          coast of Argentine Patagonia
          coast of Argentine Patagonia
              (Province of Chubut)
               (Province of Chubut)
OIL FOX S.A:
 ALGAE         OIL FOX S.A:
                 Start up: 200       hectares    (2000
                 Start up: 200       hectares    (2000
   RECENT      conservatories)
   RECENT      conservatories)
PROJECTS FOR     Investment cost is 4 times as high as
PROJECTS FOR     Investment cost is 4 times as high as
    ALGAE      a biodiesel plant but less expensive
    ALGAE      a biodiesel plant but less expensive
  BIODIESEL    than land + oil mill
  BIODIESEL    than land + oil mill
   PLANTS
   PLANTS        Fresh and seawater algae
                 Fresh and seawater algae
                 Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to
                 Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to
               be exported to the EU
               be exported to the EU
                 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue
                 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue
               sold as dietary supplement     + biogas
               sold as dietary supplement     + biogas
BIODIESEL FROM

RAPESEED
 Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina
 Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina
 Last year production: 10,000 tons
 Last year production: 10,000 tons
 Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions)
 Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions)
 ADVANTAGES over soybean:
      Higher yields                                                    Entre
      1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters                            Ríos
                                                            San Luis
      1 hectare of rapeseed = 1,200 oil liters
                                                                Buenos Aires
      rapeseed oil content = 40-45 %




                         La Paula, Córdoba. Rapeseed farm
BIODIESEL FROM

JATROPHA
  Project portfolio          INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE
                             TECNOLOGIA AGROPECUARIA



      Vegetable resources with energy application

   The project is initially focused on Jatropha
   valorization:

   Agronomical management of Jatropha fields
   Molecular genetic improvement Jatropha curcas L.
   Ecofisiology of J. curcas L.
   Micro propagations development
   Oil quality and biodiesel analysis
JATROPHA
           Highly suitable
           Suitable
JATROPHA




Jatropha local April 2008   Jatropha macrocarpa Salta 2008
BIOETHANOL
                      IN ARGENTINA




sugar cane
             sugar beet                        lignocellulose
                               maize
  SUGAR FEEDSTOCKS        STARCHY FEEDSTOCKS   CELLULOSIC
                                               FEEDSTOCKS
BIOETHANOL FROM

SUGAR CANE
 Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter
 Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter
 Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign:
 Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign:
    production of 2.44 million tons
    production of 2.44 million tons
    (20 million tons of sugar cane)
    (20 million tons of sugar cane)


Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel):
Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel):    Suitable
     160,000 tons/year in 2010
     160,000 tons/year in 2010                          areas for
                                                       sugar cane
Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane
Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane
     production: 180,000 tons in 2006
     production: 180,000 tons in 2006
     exports: 40 %
     exports: 40 %
SUGAR CANE                           TRADITIONAL PROCESS
                                     TRADITIONAL PROCESS
                               From sugar cane molasses: As a by-
                               From sugar cane molasses: As a by-
                                  product of sugar production
                                   product of sugar production
                              11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane
                              11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane
   SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS
   SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS
  Directly from sugar cane juices: No
  Directly from sugar cane juices: No
            sugar production
            sugar production
85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane
85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane

  Ingenio    La    Florida,    Los
  Ingenio    La    Florida,    Los
Balcanes S.A., Tucumán
Balcanes S.A., Tucumán
     Production     capacity:
     Production     capacity:
     80,000 tons/year
     80,000 tons
            tons/year
     Electricity
     Electricity
400 liters ethanol/ton
                             Maize
                             Maize
ALTERNATIVES TO                            41% bioethanol, 29%
                                           animal food, 30% CO2
MEET BIOFUEL
                                           Cost of feedstock:
ACT IN 2010:                               US$ 445/ton ethanol
                                           Cost of 100,000 ton
  Sugar Cane versus                        plant: US$ 50 millions
  Sugar Cane
                                          200 liters ethanol/ton
                  Lignocellulose
                   Lignocellulose
                                          Cost of 100,000 ton plant:
                                          US$ 300 millions
                                          Profitable in 10-15 years
                                          Enzymes: basic research
 85 liters/ton
                                          (genetic engineering)
 Cost of feedstock:
 US$ 223/ton ethanol
  Efficient photosynthesis
                             Sugar Beet
                             Sugar Beet        Experimental crops
  Easy to extract sugar
                                               with genetically
  Sevenfold advantage in
                                               manipulated seeds
 energy (energy yielded
 vs. energy to produce it)
 compared to corn
BIOGAS
                IN ARGENTINA




                           Organic residues
   Manure
                    Corn
(“cow power”)
Corn biogas to replace natural gas?
BIOGAS FROM
                                                      Biogas
                                                      Biogas
 CORN
  Corn                  Fermentation
  Corn                  Fermentation
                                                     Fertilizer
                                                     Fertilizer

  Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3// year of natural gas
  Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3 year of natural gas
  Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year
  Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year
  Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%)
  Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%)
  Plan Maizar 2017:
  Plan Maizar 2017:
         Biogas project to replace imports
         Biogas project to replace imports
         5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas
         5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas
  Corn biogas yield
  Corn biogas yield
   1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas
   1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas
  Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel
  Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel
  energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel
  energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel
In Santa Fe:

Professors of our Chem. Eng. School
Professors of our Chem. Eng. School
developed a biodigestor for biogas
developed a biodigestor for biogas


OBJECTIVES:
OBJECTIVES:                                Organic residues
  Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month
  Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month
   Rural or isolated areas
   Rural or isolated areas
   Small communities (schools)
   Small communities (schools)
   Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby
   Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby
farms
farms


                                           BIOREACTOR
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP IN SANTA FE
       ICS-UNIDO / INCAPE
Acknowledgements



  • Prof. Isabel Di Cosimo

Thank you !

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Biocombustíveis na Argentina

  • 1. “Biofuels in Argentina” Carlos Apesteguía Catalysis Science and Engineering Research Group (GICIC) INCAPE, Santa Fe - Argentina Next Generation Biofuels and bio-based Chemicals, Trieste, April 2009
  • 3. ARGENTINA: southernmost country in the world Soybean area Where are we? AREA: 2,760,000 km2 South America POPULATION: 40 millions 30 million hectares for growing food (11% of RELIGION: mostly catholic LANGUAGE: Spanish territory) GDP(PPP): hectares: forestcapita 90 million US$ 13,400 per SANTA FE: GDP(nominal): US $6,500 per capita 100 million hectares: pastures 133,007 km2 8 %/year ECONOMIChectares: unsuitable 55 million GROWTH: 3 million ILLITERACY: 3% 1.5 million hectares: protected people UNEMPLOYMENT: 8 % LIFE EXPECTANCY: 74 years Argentina produces food for 300 million people Argentina produces food for 300 million people (population is 40 millions) (population is 40 millions)
  • 4. ENERGY MATRIX OF ARGENTINA Participationfuels 87 % fossil Natural Mineral in the use of 6-9 % renewable sources gas Carbon transportation Others 17% 1% 3% fuels Naphta Natural 17% Gas Oil Diesel 45% 41% 66% Wood 1% Vegetable Hydraulic residues 6% 1% Nuclear 2% Source: Secretary of Energy (Argentina)
  • 5. What is ARGENTINA doing in biofuels? Production for domestic market: …will absorb: 600,000 tons biodiesel/year 8 % of soybean 160,000 tons bioethanol/year 3 % of corn national outputs
  • 6. in ARGENTINA, biofuels from what? Biodiesel from vegetable oil Biodiesel from vegetable oil soybean algae algae rapeseed ? rapeseed ? jatropha ? jatropha ? Biogas from Bioethanol from residues sugar cane corn corn algae sugar beet ?
  • 7. BIODIESEL IN ARGENTINA rapeseed rapeseed algae soybean
  • 8. BIODIESEL FROM SOYBEAN Soybean composition: 20 % oil, 40 % proteins, 35 % Soybean composition: 20 % oil 40 % proteins, 35 % oil, carbohydrates and 5 % ashes carbohydrates and 5 % ashes Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of soybean soybean NO PRODUCTION: NO PRODUCTION: COMSUMPTION USA - 86 million tons COMSUMPTION Population: 300 millions USA - 86 million tons OF SOYBEAN Brazil - 59 million tons 186 millions OF SOYBEAN Brazil - 59 million tons PRODUCTS IN Argentina - 47 million tons 40 millions PRODUCTS IN Argentina - 47 million tons ARGENTINA China - 17 million tons ARGENTINA China - 17 million tons India - 8 million tons India - 8 million tons Paraguay - 6 million tons Paraguay - 6 million tons SOYBEAN IS SOYBEAN IS Argentina is the largest world exporter of soyoil THE FIRST THE FIRST CHOICE FOR Argentina – 5.7 million tons CHOICE FOR BIODIESEL Brazil – 2.3 million tons BIODIESEL USA – 0.6 million tons
  • 9. Soybean growth in Argentina 1970 – 1971 1995 – 1996 2006 – 2007 59 thousand tons 47.5 million tons 12.4 million tons Source:– Dirección de Agricultura – SAGPyA
  • 10. SOYBEAN Location and size of Location and size of vegetable oil milling vegetable oil milling facilities facilities Main location of Main location of biodiesel plants is biodiesel plants is on Paraná river on Paraná river (ships depart from (ships depart from here to EU or US) here to EU or US) More than 30 plants > 200 million tons/year 100-200 million tons/year 50-100 million tons/year < 50 million tons/year
  • 11. Biodiesel production worldwide in 2008 Production (thousands tons) Europe 5.500 USA 1.500 Argentina 1.200 Brazil 900 Rest of the 900 world ----------- Total 10.000 Argentina accounts for more than 10 % percent of the biodiesel produced in the world
  • 12. Argentina's external sales of biodiesel totaled to 1,104,783 tons in 2008 (319,093 tons in 2007) Sales of approximately 1,500 million dollars in 2008 Source: Argentine Camera of Renewable Energies
  • 13. From June 2008, the soybean price dropped about 40 %
  • 14. SOYBEAN RECENTLY INAUGURATED RECENTLY INAUGURATED BIODIESEL PLANTS BIODIESEL PLANTS RENOVA 240,000 tons/year ECOFUEL 200,000 tons/year (twin plant underway) Opportunity for small businesses: Farmers account for about 75 % of diesel consumption Micro-refineries Sell-local principle Low shipping costs DIFEROIL 35,000 tons/year
  • 15. BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE Algae composition: 5-50 % lipids, 40-60% proteins, fibers, % lipids 40-60% proteins, fibers, Algae composition: 5-50 lipids, minerals, carbohydrates minerals, carbohydrates Biodiesel from algae Biodiesel from algae ADVANTAGES over soybean: ADVANTAGES over soybean: No soil depredation Algae capture 4 times more CO2 during photosynthesis Extremely rapid growth rates Higher yields: 250 1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters Times 1 hectare of algae = 100,000 oil liters higher algae oil costs 50 % less than soyoil
  • 16. ALGAE New locations of algae biodiesel New locations of algae biodiesel algae Project of plants are on Paraná river plants are on Paraná river biodiesel plant: Biocombustibles del Chubut (private and state capitals) • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for personnel transportation to nearby mines personnel transportation to nearby mines • Production: 5,000 tons/year • Production: 5,000 tons/year Main location of algae farms is the Main location of algae farms is the coast of Argentine Patagonia coast of Argentine Patagonia (Province of Chubut) (Province of Chubut)
  • 17. OIL FOX S.A: ALGAE OIL FOX S.A: Start up: 200 hectares (2000 Start up: 200 hectares (2000 RECENT conservatories) RECENT conservatories) PROJECTS FOR Investment cost is 4 times as high as PROJECTS FOR Investment cost is 4 times as high as ALGAE a biodiesel plant but less expensive ALGAE a biodiesel plant but less expensive BIODIESEL than land + oil mill BIODIESEL than land + oil mill PLANTS PLANTS Fresh and seawater algae Fresh and seawater algae Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to be exported to the EU be exported to the EU 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue sold as dietary supplement + biogas sold as dietary supplement + biogas
  • 18. BIODIESEL FROM RAPESEED Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina Last year production: 10,000 tons Last year production: 10,000 tons Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions) Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions) ADVANTAGES over soybean: Higher yields Entre 1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters Ríos San Luis 1 hectare of rapeseed = 1,200 oil liters Buenos Aires rapeseed oil content = 40-45 % La Paula, Córdoba. Rapeseed farm
  • 19. BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA Project portfolio INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNOLOGIA AGROPECUARIA Vegetable resources with energy application The project is initially focused on Jatropha valorization: Agronomical management of Jatropha fields Molecular genetic improvement Jatropha curcas L. Ecofisiology of J. curcas L. Micro propagations development Oil quality and biodiesel analysis
  • 20. JATROPHA Highly suitable Suitable
  • 21. JATROPHA Jatropha local April 2008 Jatropha macrocarpa Salta 2008
  • 22. BIOETHANOL IN ARGENTINA sugar cane sugar beet lignocellulose maize SUGAR FEEDSTOCKS STARCHY FEEDSTOCKS CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS
  • 23. BIOETHANOL FROM SUGAR CANE Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign: Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign: production of 2.44 million tons production of 2.44 million tons (20 million tons of sugar cane) (20 million tons of sugar cane) Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel): Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel): Suitable 160,000 tons/year in 2010 160,000 tons/year in 2010 areas for sugar cane Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane production: 180,000 tons in 2006 production: 180,000 tons in 2006 exports: 40 % exports: 40 %
  • 24. SUGAR CANE TRADITIONAL PROCESS TRADITIONAL PROCESS From sugar cane molasses: As a by- From sugar cane molasses: As a by- product of sugar production product of sugar production 11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane 11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS Directly from sugar cane juices: No Directly from sugar cane juices: No sugar production sugar production 85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane 85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane Ingenio La Florida, Los Ingenio La Florida, Los Balcanes S.A., Tucumán Balcanes S.A., Tucumán Production capacity: Production capacity: 80,000 tons/year 80,000 tons tons/year Electricity Electricity
  • 25. 400 liters ethanol/ton Maize Maize ALTERNATIVES TO 41% bioethanol, 29% animal food, 30% CO2 MEET BIOFUEL Cost of feedstock: ACT IN 2010: US$ 445/ton ethanol Cost of 100,000 ton Sugar Cane versus plant: US$ 50 millions Sugar Cane 200 liters ethanol/ton Lignocellulose Lignocellulose Cost of 100,000 ton plant: US$ 300 millions Profitable in 10-15 years Enzymes: basic research 85 liters/ton (genetic engineering) Cost of feedstock: US$ 223/ton ethanol Efficient photosynthesis Sugar Beet Sugar Beet Experimental crops Easy to extract sugar with genetically Sevenfold advantage in manipulated seeds energy (energy yielded vs. energy to produce it) compared to corn
  • 26. BIOGAS IN ARGENTINA Organic residues Manure Corn (“cow power”)
  • 27. Corn biogas to replace natural gas? BIOGAS FROM Biogas Biogas CORN Corn Fermentation Corn Fermentation Fertilizer Fertilizer Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3// year of natural gas Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3 year of natural gas Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%) Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%) Plan Maizar 2017: Plan Maizar 2017: Biogas project to replace imports Biogas project to replace imports 5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas 5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas Corn biogas yield Corn biogas yield 1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas 1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel
  • 28. In Santa Fe: Professors of our Chem. Eng. School Professors of our Chem. Eng. School developed a biodigestor for biogas developed a biodigestor for biogas OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Organic residues Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month Rural or isolated areas Rural or isolated areas Small communities (schools) Small communities (schools) Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby farms farms BIOREACTOR
  • 29. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP IN SANTA FE ICS-UNIDO / INCAPE
  • 30. Acknowledgements • Prof. Isabel Di Cosimo Thank you !