15th International Colloquim Tribology—Automotive and Industrial Lubrication
January 17-19, 2006

API CJ-4: New Oil Categ...
Despite these continuous improvements in in-cylinder com-                    Because of the changes to EGR rates, the appl...
Since the proportion of NO2 in the raw exhaust is relatively             Unfortunately, there was no field data to support ...
of these EMA concerns, there are five new diesel engine tests                    C13 uses 15 ppm fuel sulfur and the Caterp...
in the Mack T-11 test. This test was incorporated into the API
CI-4 category in 2004 as API CI-4 PLUS.
Fig. 12. Mack T-12 limits rings, liner and bearings wear. The test limits lead increase from copper-lead bearing preventin...
Table 2. API CJ-4 tests. This includes 10 fired engine test and 6 bench tests. Diesel fuel sulfur ranges from 15 to 500 ppm...
tor. The total merit cannot exceed the number defined by that                 tests completed in ISM, with the results and ...
Reference oil. BOI was established in the previous oil catego-                Statistical analysis of data and test limits...
Table 9. Caterpillar C13 test results for delta oil consumption, top-land carbon, top groove carbon, second ring top-carbo...
Table 11. Mack T-12 test results with reference oils, TMC 820-2, PC-10B and PC-10E. Passing results require
PROGRAM TIMELINE                                                                                     ed ash to 1.0%, the p...
Tribology, January 13-15, 2005.                                       Content of Engine Oil on Deactivation of Monolithic
Oxides of Nitrogen (g/bhp-hr)                                                                                             ...
Caterpillar C-13                                 Mack T-12                        Cummins ISB                             ...
Raw Oil                                                           Raw Oil             Relative Oil Consumption
Table A-3. API oil categories for four-stroke engines.

                                            Fuel                  ...
Api cj 4
Api cj 4
Api cj 4
Api cj 4
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  1. 1. 15th International Colloquim Tribology—Automotive and Industrial Lubrication January 17-19, 2006 API CJ-4: New Oil Category for 2007 Low Emission Diesel Engines Using Particulate Filters Authors: J. A. Mc Geehan, Chevron, Chairman; J. Moritz, Intertek, Secretary; G. Shank, Volvo; S. Kennedy, ExxonMobil; W. Totten, Cummins; M. Urbank, Shell; M. Belay, Detroit Diesel; S. Goodier, Castrol; A. Cassim, Caterpillar; B. Runkle, Ashland; H. DeBaun, International; S. Harold, CIBA; K. Chao, John Deere; S. Herzog, RohMax; R. Stockwell, GM Powertrain; C. Passut, Afton; P. Fetterman, Infineum; D. Taber, ConocoPhillips; L. Williams, Lubrizol; W. M. Kleiser, Oronite and J. Zalar, TMC. Statisticians: P. Scinto, Lubrizol; E. Santos, Infineum and J. A. Rutherford, Oronite. ASTM Heavy-Duty Engine Oil Classification Panel ABSTRACT In order to meet the U.S. EPA’s 2007 on-highway emission standards for particulate and NOx, all diesel engines will re- quire diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and will utilize ultra-low sulfur fuel. As this will be the first time that all on-highway diesel engines will employ DPFs combined with ultra-low-sulfur fuel, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) requested that a new oil category be developed to provide compatibility with DPFs in the exhaust system, as well as engine durability for both new and legacy engines. This paper reviews the development of this new oil category called API CJ-4, which will be introduced in October 2006. This diesel engine oil category is the first in the U.S. which limits the oil’s sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur in order to insure adequate service life of the DPF. The API CJ-4 oil category includes 10 fired engine tests and 6 bench tests. The new multi-cylinder tests in the category include Caterpillar ACERT C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, Mack T-12, and Mack T-11, which cover oil consump- tion, piston deposits, ring-liner, bearing wear, valve-train wear, soot dispersancy, oil oxidation, and viscosity shear. These tests are juxtaposed on existing tests selected from the API CI-4 category. It is the most robust API oil category ever de- veloped in the U.S. INTRODUCTION of improvements in in-cylinder combustion. These im- provements include the use of: The U.S. EPA has defined specific emission reductions of • Turbocharging, air-to-air intercooling, four valve particulate and NOx for both on- and off-highway diesel- cylinder heads, and changes in the piston bowl powered vehicles. This has enabled engine manufactur- design combined with high top rings. ers and their suppliers to focus on meeting these targets and delivering new emission-controlled diesel engines to • High-pressure direct injection or high pressure market on time. common rail electronically controlled fuel systems with rate shaping. Similar reductions in diesel emissions are also defined for • Retarded fuel injection timing to lower peak flame Japan and Europe (1). These step reductions in emissions combustion temperatures, which reduces the NOx include particulate which is composed of soot and sulfate formation by displacing the combustion event until bound with water, unburned oil, and fuel. These small later in the expansion stroke. particles are associated with health issues, and the NOx, • Cooled EGR, which is a dilution of the intake which is formed by oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen at charge with an inert gas that in turn reduces peak high temperatures in cylinder, can result in smog and acid flame temperature and NOx formation. This was rain pollution. often combined with more powerful computer systems which allowed multiple fuel injections dur- The reductions in particulate have been achieved by im- ing the combustion event to control peak cylinder provements in combustion and the reductions in NOx by temperatures. controlling the peak-cylinder temperature. These im- • Variable geometry turbocharging providing airflow provements for on-highway vehicles have been achieved for high torque, EGR delivery, and maintaining the by attacking the emission at the source through a series optimum air fuel ratio at all conditions. 1
  2. 2. Despite these continuous improvements in in-cylinder com- Because of the changes to EGR rates, the application of DPFs bustion by attacking the emissions at the source, diesel engines to the exhaust system for 2007 engines, the mandatory use of cannot meet the 2007 and 2010 U.S. on-highway particulate low sulfur fuel, and the emission compliance requirements, the standards which mandate a tenfold reduction from 0.10 to 0.01 EMA requested a new engine oil category on September 24, g/bhp-hr (1.3 g/kWh). Consequently, all U.S. 2007 diesel en- 2002. This paper reviews the development on this new oil cat- gines will employ DPFs in the exhaust system, which removes egory which is designed to be compatible with DPFs, and to more than 90% of the carbon particulates (2). (See Fig. 1 and provide engine durability for both new and legacy engines. Appendix Fig. A-1.) This new oil category, designated PC-10, was developed through the cooperation of two teams -- New Category Devel- Particulate (g/BHP-Hr) opment Team and ASTM Heavy-Duty Engine Oil Classifica- tion Panel. Upon its completion, the American Petroleum In- 0.25 stitute has now designated it category API CJ-4. 1991 API CF-4 Diesel Particulate The paper on the development of the category is organized into Filter the following sections: • DPFs to meet 2007 particulate standards • Incombustible materials in DPF • Chemical limits for API CJ-4 • Tests selected in API CJ-4 0.10 • Matrix oil tests 2002 1998 1994 API CI-4 API CH-4 API CG-4 • Testing and final limits • Program timeline 0.01 2010 2007 • Conclusions 0.2 1.2 2.0 4.0 5.0 API CJ-4 DPFs TO MEET 2007 PARTICULATE STANDARDS NOx (g/BHP-Hr) Fig. 1. US EPA on-highway emission standards. Particulate standards Passive system. DPF can be a passive self-regenerating fil- can only be met with DPF’s. ter which continuously converts diesel soot to carbon dioxide (CO2). The system is composed of diesel oxidation catalysts installed upstream of a wall-flow ceramic honeycomb filter, In addition, in order to reduce particulate and to assure com- with alternative channels blocked at opposite ends of the filter patibility with the DPFs, 95% of highway fuel will be ultra- such that the exhaust gases have to pass through the porous low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which limits sulfur to a maximum of ceramic walls. 15 ppm compared to the current maximum limit of 500 ppm. The actual average numbers are nominally 350 ppm, and re- Clean Air fineries will produce the ultra-low sulfur fuel at 6-8 ppm to en- sure that the 15 ppm is not exceeded as a result of sulfur picked up in the pipeline distribution system. Exhaust Diesels will also employ some form of EGR to control NOx in all 2007 engines. The level of EGR will be increased over the 2002 high pressure EGR rates, though this will not change the external architecture of engines. In the case of Caterpil- Clean Air lar’s Advanced Combustion Emission Reduction Technology 15 ppm Max Fuel Sulfur (ACERT) engine, they have selected low pressure EGR. This NO-NO2 requires taking the exhaust at the outlet of the DPF and return- Engine ing it to the inlet air via an external piping system. Caterpillar Exhaust refers to this as “clean air induction.” Temperature Oxicat DPF Control The 2007 standard requires that the engine emission system must remain compliant for the following specified mileages, depending on vehicle type: • 700, 000 km (435,000 miles) for heavy-duty vehicles Auxilary Heat NO + 1/2 O2 NO2 over oxicat (1) and transit buses Additional Exhaust Heat For Cold-Duty NO2 + C NO + CO in DPF (2) • 290,000 km (180,000 miles) for mid-range vehicles Cycle NO2 + C 1/ N2 + CO2 in DPF (3) 2 • 240,000 km (150,000 miles) for light-duty vehicles Fig. 2. Active diesel particulate filter shown with wall-flow filter substrate. 2
  3. 3. Since the proportion of NO2 in the raw exhaust is relatively Unfortunately, there was no field data to support chemical lim- low, the main role of the oxidation catalyst is to convert en- its. Nevertheless, research data from dynamometer tests indi- gine NO to NO2. (NO is the main NOx component in diesel cated a direct relationship between sulfated ash level and in- exhaust.) This NO2 combusts the particulate matter at a low combustible material in the DPF at constant oil consumption temperature range of 250-350°C (1-3). (See Fig. 2.) (4). In addition, Heejung et al. suggested that the presence of metallic ash in the filter might modify the oxidation kinetics Active regeneration. In cold temperature duty cycles where (10). This type of data combined with limits imposed on Eu- the exhaust temperature is too low to oxidize carbon, active rope’s ACEA E6 and JASO DH-2 oil categories influenced the regeneration is required. This can be achieved by late cycle ASTM task force on this topic to agree on the following limits, post-injection, using a high pressure common rail system to as shown in Fig. 3 and Table 1. The phosphorus level was con- raise the exhaust temperature, or a fuel burner system which trolled at 0.12% because of concerns about the platinum oxi- takes diesel fuel from the fuel tank and burns it in a carefully dation catalyst’s life. There was not data to support this limit designed combustor. In low temperature oxidation systems it for diesel engines which have lower exhaust temperatures than is possible to heat exhaust systems to temperatures in the range gasoline engines, where limits on phosphorus are imposed to of 400-600°C which is ideal for rapid particulate matter filter minimize deactivation of the catalysts (11-13). In regard to regeneration (3). diesel engines, the greater concern was valve train wear, since the phosphorous level is critical to its control. INCOMBUSTIBLE DPF MATERIALS 1.0% Ash 0.12% Phosphorus Since the filter media is designed to trap soot particles of the order of 60 nm in diameter, the media is also capable of trap- ping ash derived from the engine oil’s metallic components (3). Previous research studies indicate that the incombusti- ble material is dominated by the combustion products of lubri- API CJ-4 cants additives. It is primarily derived from the lubricant’s cal- Chemical Limits cium or magnesium detergents and from zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTP), which is both a wear and oxidation inhibitor (2-9). The most recent study by Mc Geehan et al. in 2005 character- ized the incombustible particle size. The distribution of these elements is bimodal, with a large number of particles of 0.4- 13% Volatility 0.4% Sulfur micron diameter and the remainder at 8 microns. Overwhelm- ingly, the majority of particles are submicron. Also, the carbon Fig. 3. API CJ-4 chemical limits: ash, phosphorus, sulfur and volatil- (soot) remaining in two different DPFs ranged from less than ity. 2 to less than 1%, indicating excellent performance of the DPF system (2). Table 1. Comparison of API CJ-4 to ACEA E6 and JASO DH-2 chemical limits. These incombustible materials can cause the exhaust back- pressure to increase, which would change the air fuel ratio, Oil Category API CJ-4 ACEA E6 JASO DH-2 increase soot, and reduce fuel economy. So the filter requires % Sulfated Ash 1.0 1.0 1.0 cleaning after prolonged service, and this is done with cleaning % Phosphorous 0.12 0.08 0.12 machines that reverse flush the filter with compressed air. % Sulfur 0.40 0.30 0.5 CHEMICAL LIMITS OF OIL FOR API CJ-4 % Volatility 13 13 18 Due to the collection of incombustible materials in DPFs, the EPA has mandated that DPFs can only be cleaned at 150,000 ENGINE TESTS IN API CJ-4 OIL CATEGORY miles (241,350 km) or 4,500 hours in pick-up and delivery ve- hicles. So, a team within the ASTM-HDEOCP agreed with The process of upgrading heavy-duty engine oil categories is EMA to impose chemical limits on the API CJ-4 fresh oil in designed to keep existing tests from previous categories which order to limit the lubricant derived components that collect in have successfully eliminated oil-related failures and addressed the DPF. This would guide EMA’s sizing of DPFs and the ro- EMA’s concerns with oil performance. As engines change due bustness of the platinum catalysts. to emission requirements, these old tests are juxtaposed with new engine tests that will address the expected performance In previous API heavy-duty engine oil categories there were issues of newer engines. Due to the increased levels of EGR no chemical limits on the engine oil, because there were no in 2007 engines, coolant temperatures will increase moder- after-treatment systems in the exhaust. In the most recent cat- ately, which increases engine oil temperatures and potential egory—API CI-4 introduced in 2002—the oil’s sulfated ash oxidation of the oil. In addition, as phosphorus levels will be derived from detergents and ZnDTP or other metallics was gen- reduced to a maximum of 0.12% from the current levels of erally in the range of 1.3-1.5% ash; phosphorus levels were in 0.14%, there were significant concerns about valve train wear the range of 0.12-0.14%, with sulfur ranging from 0.45-0.8%. performance for both new and legacy engines. To address all 3
  4. 4. of these EMA concerns, there are five new diesel engine tests C13 uses 15 ppm fuel sulfur and the Caterpillar IP/IN test uses and one new gasoline test shown below: 500 ppm fuel sulfur. • Caterpillar ACERT C13 Valve train wear control at high soot levels. Wear control • Cummins ISB is critical for engine durability and fuel efficiency because • Cummins ISM ZnDTP levels are now limited to 0.12% phosphorus for cata- • Mack T-12 lyst compatibility. It was agreed to have three valve train wear tests in API CJ-4, ranging in used oil soot levels from 3.5-6% • Mack T-11 to prevent soot wear (16). They are Cummins ISB, Cummins • GM Sequence IIIG ISM, and GM Roller Follower tests, all of which have different configurations. (See Figs. 8-11 and A 2-4.) The ISB uses 15 Oil consumption control. Because oil consumption increases ppm fuel sulfur and the other two use 500 ppm. both particulate levels and the rate of buildup of incombus- tibles in the DPF, there are three tests in the category for pis- Ring liner, bearing wear, and oil oxidation control. The Mack ton deposit and oil consumption control. They are Caterpillar T-12 uses the 2007 EGR rate which is approximately dou- ACERT C13, Caterpillar IP, and Caterpillar IN. These engines ble the EGR rate on 2002 engines. Because of the increased do not use EGR. heat rejection, the oil gallery temperatures are raised to 116°C (240°F). Also, the combustion pressure is raised to 240 bar Top-land piston deposits can be related to oil consumption, (3500 psi) in order to exacerbate ring and liner wear for pur- and these deposits can be related to piston temperatures (14- poses of the test. This test is similar to the Mack T-10, where 15). The Caterpillar tests listed above cover a wide range of ring and liner wear are controlled and the lead levels result temperatures and applications ranging from light-duty alumi- from oxidation of the oil which causes lead corrosion of the num pistons to mono-steel forged heavy-duty pistons. (See bearings. (See Fig. 12.) To supplement Mack T-12 oxidation Figs. 4-7.) To ensure backward compatibility, the Caterpillar control, the gasoline engine oxidation tests Sequence IIIG or IIIF are incorporated into the category as they operate at an oil Land Groove temperature of 149°C (300°F). 294 187 239 Soot dispersancy. API CI-4, which was introduced in 2002, 155 172 incorporated the Mack T-8E, a non-EGR engine with a high- 155 swirl head, with viscosity limits set at 4.8% soot. However, to 140 267 meet the 2002 emission standards, Mack launched a different cylinder head design with a low-swirl head which had field viscosity increase issues due to soot. In addition, Internation- Fig. 4. Caterpillar IP forged steel with an aluminum skirt used for al’s new 6-liter HEUI engine used in Ford F250 trucks had oil consumption and piston deposit control. Piston temperatures some oils shearing out of grade with API CI-4 oils. To resolve measures in degrees C at operation conditions. each of these problems, a new Mack T-11 test was developed which incorporated low EGR rates and low-swirl heads. In Land Groove this test, minimum viscosity is first determined after a 90-cycle 246 pass in the Kurt Orbahn bench-injector test. In contrast, 30 cycles are used in API CI-4 to resolve the shear-down issues, 159 195 and the viscosity increase due to soot is controlled at 6% soot 138 143 123 236 Piston Temperature - Degrees C 400 123 CAT 1N 350 CAT 1P Fig. 5. Caterpillar C13 forged steel piston used for oil consumption and CAT C13 piston deposit control. Piston temperatures measured in degrees C at 300 Deere 4045T International 6.0 l operating conditions. MBE S900 250 Groove Land 340 360 200 240 150 275 145 190 100 50 0 Top Top Second Second Third Third Oil Land Groove Land Groove Land Groove Sump Piston Location Fig. 6. Caterpillar IN aluminum piston used for oil consumption and Fig. 7. Comparison of Caterpillar piston temperatures in API CJ-4 to piston deposit control. Piston temperatures measure in degree C at other commercial piston temperatures. operating conditions. 4
  5. 5. in the Mack T-11 test. This test was incorporated into the API CI-4 category in 2004 as API CI-4 PLUS. Lifter Axle Wear In summary, the tests in the API CJ-4 category include 10 fired From Small Needle Bearings engine tests and 6 bench tests which build on previous cat- egory requirements, as shown in Table 2 and Tables A-1 to A- 3. The details of new test operating conditions and cycles are shown in the Appendix. Body of Hydraulic Lifter Tire to Body Clearance Needle Bearing (Rotating) Shaft (Stationary) Push-Rod Tire (Rotating) Cam Lobe Fig. 8. GM 6.5 liter Roller-follower configuration. Fig. 9. GM 6.5 liter stationary shaft showing low wear and high wear at the end of the test which generates 5% soot in 50 hours. Fig. 10. Cummins ISB cam and tappets showing cam and tappet follower wear. The limits include tappet and cam wear in this 350 hour test generating 3.5% soot. 5
  6. 6. Fig. 12. Mack T-12 limits rings, liner and bearings wear. The test limits lead increase from copper-lead bearing preventing the type of distress show above. Swivel Foot Cross Head Wear Adjusting Screws Wear Control Low Wear High Wear High Wear Fig. 11. Cummins ISM test which is design to minimize cross-head and injector screw wear. Test limits include cross-head wear, injector screw wear, filter pressure increase and sludge at the end of 200 hour test generating 6% soot. 6
  7. 7. Table 2. API CJ-4 tests. This includes 10 fired engine test and 6 bench tests. Diesel fuel sulfur ranges from 15 to 500 ppm depending on test type. Fuel Sulfur, API CJ-4 Performance Criteria ppm Test 2006 Engine Tests Aluminum Piston Deposits, Oil Consumption 500 Caterpillar 1N ASTM D 6750 1 Forged Steel Piston Oil Consumption / Deposits 500 Caterpillar 1P ASTM D 6681 2 Oil Consumption and Piston Deposit 15 Caterpillar C-13 3 Viscosity Increase Due to Soot at 6.0%* 500 Mack T-11 ASTM D 7156 4 Ring, Liner Bearing Wear & Oil Consumption 15 MackT-12 5 Valve Train Wear, Filter ∆P and Sludge 500 Cummins ISM 6 Valve Train Wear 15 Cummins ISB 7 Roller-Follower Valve Train Wear 500 GM 6.5-L RFWT ASTM D 5966 8 Aeration 500 Navistar EOAT ASTM D 6894 9 Oil Oxidation 1,000 See III G or IIIF (CI-4 Limits) (D 6984) 10 Bench Tests Foam Sequence I, II, III – ASTM D 892 (non opt. A) 1 Volatility – Noack D 5800 2 Elastomer Compatibility EOEC (DXXXX) plus Vamac 3 High Temperature/High Shear Viscosity After Shear D 4683 4 Corrosion HTCBT 135°C D 6594 5 Shear Stability – 90 Cycles – Bosch Injector ASTM D 7109 6 Total Number of Engine and Bench Tests 16 MATRIX OF OIL TESTS IN EACH ENGINE To insure that this category equaled the performance of API CI-4 oils which had no chemical limits, the Cummins refer- Because of the chemical limits described above, two additive ence oil for API CI-4 was TMC 830-2 which was used in the technologies which meet these chemical requirements were se- ISB and ISM tests; and the Mack reference oil for API CI-4 lected by EMA to be part of the matrix testing for this category. used in the T-12 and T-11 tests was TMC 820-2. In the case of They are called Technologies A and B. the Caterpillar C13, Oil D (included in the matrix as PC10G) was a high reference API CI-4 product. The statisticians sup- Using Technology A blended with API Group II stocks was porting this program defined the number of tests required in designated PC10B and Technology B blended with API Group each of these engines for statistical difference, as shown in Ta- II base stocks was called PC10E. Both were blended as SAE ble 4. The total cost of this matrix was $5,532,000, as shown 15W-40 oils. These were called “featured” reference oils as in Table A-4. they were used in the Cummins ISB, Mack T-12, and Cater- pillar C13. The above tests were run in four different laboratories which enabled test repeatability and reproducibility to be established, The previous oil categories had established base-oil inter- and also provided for LTMS charting to be established for ref- change (BOI) guidelines for Cummins and Mack tests, and erence testing during the life of the category. consequently, only the Caterpillar C13 needed a completed BOI matrix. The base oils selected for the Caterpillar C13 Table 4. Planned test and actual completed tests in Mack T-12, Cum- study were API Groups I, II, and III base oils blended with mins ISB and Caterpillar C13. Technologies A and B as SAE 15W-40 oils, as shown below in Table 3 and Fig. A6. Planned Tests Aborted / Completed Test Type Tests Started Invalid Tests* Table 3. Matrix oils for Caterpillar C13, Cummins ISB, and Mack T-12 16 20 4 16 T-12. Two additive technologies-A and B-blended in three different ISB 15 18 3 15 base stocks. C13 26 27 1 26 Base Oils Group I Group II Group III *Operationally valid and reported to the TMC Technology A PC10A PC10B PC10C TESTING RESULTS AND TEST LIMITS DI/VI C13 C13, ISB, C13 T-12 The Cummins ISM, Mack T-12, and Caterpillar C13 have four Technology B PC10D PC10E PC10F to five different parameters to be controlled, and consequently DI/VI C13 C13, ISB, C13 a merit system is used in each of these tests. This allows a spe- T-12 cific number of parameters to be higher or lower than the “An- chor” or “Target” point which is multiplied by a weighting fac- 7
  8. 8. tor. The total merit cannot exceed the number defined by that tests completed in ISM, with the results and the merit rating test. The Cummins ISB test has only two control parameters, shown in Tables 5 and 6. Test limit 1000 merit. and therefore, a merit system is not used in this test. Table 6. Cummins ISM Merit Rating System. The performance of reference oil TMC 830-2 and its standard deviation. Cummins ISM Engine, Test Results and Limits Engine. Cummins ISM is a 2002 model year, 11-liter engine Crosshead Top Ring Oil Filter Adjusting Screw Criterion Weight Loss Weight Loss Delta P Weight Loss Sludge with electronic controlled unit-injectors, combined with cooled Weight 350 0 150 350 150 EGR and variable geometry turbocharger. The engine is rated at 330 bhp (236 km) at 1800 rpm. This engine uses 500 ppm Maximum 7.1 100 19 45 8.7 fuel sulfur for backward compatibility. Anchor 5.7 13 27 9.0 Minimum 4.3 7 16 9.3 Test cycle. This engine uses the same test cycle as the Cum- mins M11-EGR test, cycling between 1800 and 1600 rpm for 50-hour time periods. The engine target soot is 5% at 150 TMC 830-2 5.3 58.9 11.3 24.6 9.0 hours, which is achieved by over-fueling and retarded timing Avg. Std. Dev. 1.42 15.64 5.93 11.03 0.15 at 1800 rpm to produce the soot, followed by 1600 rpm at stan- dard conditions. At the end of the 200-hour test the soot level Cummins ISB Engine, Test Results and Limits is 6%. Engine. Cummins ISB is a 2004 model year, 5.9-liter engine Test parameters. The test measures crosshead wear, top-ring with common rail fuel system combined with EGR and vari- wear, filter delta P (at 150 hours), and sludge rating on the able geometry turbocharger. The engine is certified at 2.0 g rocker cover and oil pan combined. In addition, the test mea- NOx/bhp-hr and is rated at 300 bhp (215 km) at 2600 rpm. sures the average injector adjusting screw weight loss. This is This engine uses 15 ppm fuel sulfur. added to the ISM test in API CJ-4 based on previous research and field issues though it was not in previous categories such Test cycle. It is set up to generate 3.0-3.5% soot in the first 100 as API CH-4 and CI-4 (9). hours at 1600 rpm due to retarded timing. The remaining 250 hours of the test comprises cycling every 27 seconds from low Reference oils. This test was not in the matrix, as it was a re- speed idle, to rated load and speed, to peak-torque. In this sec- placement test to M11-EGR. The test included only the high ond stage the engine completes 32,000 cycles. (See Fig. A5.) reference oil TMC 830-2 and lower reference oil TMC 1004, along with an oil-ISMA which Cummins regards as an excel- Wear parameters. The cam has a tapered face profile and the lent performer based on field data. tappet has a convex face profile which assures tappet rotation. The severity of this test is due to the rapid speed changes at Statistical analysis of data and test limits. The crosshead relatively high soot levels which minimize the film between swivel foot replaces the previous steel-foot design (see Appen- the cam and tappet. The cam, tappet, and crosshead wear were dix) which significantly lowers crosshead wear, so limits were measured in the test matrix program; however, only the cam established based on the above reference oils. There were 15 and tappet wear became test parameters. Table 5. Cummins ISM test results with reference oils TMC 1004, TMC 830-2 and ISMA. Passing results requires a 1000 Merits. Adjusting Crosshead Top Ring Oil Filter Screw Calculated Weight Loss Weight Loss Delta P Weight Loss Sludge Merit Final Merit 28402 1004-3 8.3 61 35.0 139.2 9.0 -3779 Fail 30048 1004-3 7.4 72 238.0 155.0 9.0 -9117 Fail 35313 1004-3 9.4 62 24.0 137.5 9.0 -3713 Fail 47644 830-2 5.7 57 9 20 9.2 1408 1408 50224 830-2 4.6 44 10 38 9.0 1001 1001 50226 830-2 6.4 62 6 18 8.9 1211 1211 51799 830-2 4.4 56 12 34 9.1 1189 1189 52996 830-2 2.4 68 7 24 9.0 1587 1587 52997 830-2 7.0 34 11 25 9.1 833 833 54195 830-2 4.7 40 13 27 9.1 1287 1287 54204 830-2 4.9 78 27 41 8.8 284 Fail 55570 830-2 7.1 77 8 9 9.0 1125 1125 55571 830-2 6.1 73 10 9 8.7 1175 1175 50769 ISMA 5.9 76 10 137 8.6 -2657 Fail 51224 ISMA 5.9 44 3 43 9.1 662 Fail 8
  9. 9. Reference oil. BOI was established in the previous oil catego- Statistical analysis of data and test limits. Statistical analysis ry, so only three oils were used in this matrix, including TMC of these 26 tests indicated: 820-2 from the API CI-4 program and the two PC-10 featured • No statistical correlation between delta oil consumption oils -- PC-10B and PC-10E. Using these oils, 15 successful and piston deposits (p less than 0.4) tests were completed in this matrix. • Delta oil consumption increased with base oil API Statistical analysis of data and test limits. As cam and tappet Groups I, II, and III for Technology B wear are the only parameters in this test, there is no merit sys- • No significant differences among base oils for Technol- tem, just limits and MTCA limits if more than one test is com- ogy A pleted. (See Tables 7 and 8.) • Top-groove and top-land deposits in general are higher with base oil API Group III compared to I/II. Table 7. Cummins ISB test results with reference oil TMC 830-2, PC- 10B and PC-10E. • Labs differed in their ratings of oil consumption, top- land carbon and top-groove carbon Oil 830-2 PC10B PC10E LS Mean = 88.23 LS Mean = 93.47 LS Mean = 67.54 The merit rating and the test results are shown in Tables 9 and Tappet Wear (mg) 10. Test limit 1000 merit. Mean = 85.8167 Mean = 88.6833 Mean = 57.86 Soot Adj S = 16.1416 S = 15.8176 S = 9.4796 LS Mean = 40.20 LS Mean = 44.85 LS Mean = 36.86 Table 10. Caterpillar C13 merit system. Passing results require a 1000 Camshaft Wear Mean =40.2667 Mean = 41.9833 Mean = 34.14 (um) S = 9.2058 S = 5.6722 S = 5.0093 merits. Anchor Max Mix Table 8. Cummins ISB test limits for cam and tappet. Parameter Limit Cap Max Merit Weight Delta OC 25 31 10 300 Tappet Wear Limit • Target limit 100 mg weight loss • MTAC limits are: 100/108/112 mg for TLC 30 35 15 300 1/2/3 tests TGC 46 53 30 300 Cam Wear Limit • Target limit 50 μm wear by Mitutoyo 2RTC 22 33 5 100 snap gauge • MTAC limits are: 50/54/56 μm for 1/2/3 tests Mack T-12 Engine, Test Results and Limits Caterpillar C13 Engine, Test Results and Limits Engine. Mack E-Tech V Mac 111, 12-liter engine has elec- Engine. Caterpillar C13 ACERT has an air management system tronically controlled unit injectors and cooled EGR with two which incorporates twin turbochargers, twin air coolers (water- turbochargers, one of which is variable geometry. This is the air and air-air), and variable inlet valve timing. This 2004 mod- only engine in the API CJ-4 category which operates at a high el year, 12.5-liter engine meets the 2004 EPA emissions config- EGR level of 35% in Phase 1, followed by 20% in Phase 2. uration. It is rated at 430 bhp (307 km) at 1800 rpm. The engine uses a 2002 cylinder head with low swirl and 15 ppm fuel sulfur. Test cycle. The test runs at constant 1800 rpm at nominal- ly 430 bhp, and is controlled at a constant fuel rate of 1200 Test cycle. The total test cycle is 300 hours, with the first 100 g/min. (159 lb/hr) with oil gallery temperature controlled at hours at 35% cooled EGR with retarded timing at 1800 rpm to 98°C (208°F). At the end of this 500-hour test, the soot levels produce a target soot level of 4.0%. This is followed by 20% are in the extremely low range of 2%. EGR rate for 200 hours at peak-torque, at which the peak-cyl- inder pressure is 240 bar (3500 psi). This is designed to pro- Control parameters. In the Caterpillar test, the oil consump- duce ring and liner wear at 1200 rpm. In addition, the oil gal- tion is calculated by averaging the oil consumption at the 100- lery temperature is controlled at 116°C (240°F) to produce oil and 150-hour points, and comparing this to the final oil con- oxidation, which can result in lead corrosion from the bear- sumption at 500 hours to determine the delta increase. (See ings. The end of test soot is 6%. Fig. A7-A8.) This process was defined due to the variation in initial oil consumption which is dependent on the engine build. Reference oils. BOI was established in the previous oil cat- The pistons are rated for top-land carbon, top-groove carbon, egory, so only three oils were used in the matrix: TMC 820-2 and carbon on the top face of the second rectangular ring. It and two feature oils, PC-10 B and PC-10E. was the judgment of the surveillance panel for this test that the Wear parameters. Ring and liner wear is measured only at the deposits on the ring top face were an indication of potential end of the test. In contrast, used oil lead is monitored through- ring sticking. out the test, with limits on the lead increasing after 300 hours Reference oils. Beyond the precision of this test, BOI inter- and between 250-300 hours. change needed to be established. Consequently, there were 26 Statistical analysis of data and test limit. The test results are tests run in this matrix at a cost of $2.2 million. The oils tested shown in Tables 11 and 12, along with the merit system. Test were PC-10A, PC-10B, PC-10C, PC-10D, PC-10E, and PC- limit 1000 merit. 10F. Prior to the start of the matrix test, discrimination was established between Oil A and Oil D, both of which where CI- 4 products. 9
  10. 10. Table 9. Caterpillar C13 test results for delta oil consumption, top-land carbon, top groove carbon, second ring top-carbon deposits and final merit rating. Passing results require a 1000 merits. (Oil D and PC-10G are the same oils.) Test Results (Outlier Screened) IND OC TLC TGC 2RTC Total P/F OILA 28.4 36.13 51.79 21.46 260.4 Fail OILA 26.6 31.25 54.54 22.29 536.0 Fail OILD 18.5 26.38 47.71 12.50 1225.3 Pass OILD 13.3 23.75 44.17 11.88 1477.0 Pass OILD 20.2 20.42 41.42 19.58 1380.6 Pass PC10G 8.3 29.58 33.54 12.08 1590.5 Pass PC10G 16 29.50 39.00 17.25 1341.3 Pass PC10G 20.6 28.08 35.00 16.46 1347.1 Pass PC10A 52 20.83 50.48 7.00 -194.2 Fail PC10A 32.5 29.54 48.00 11.46 655.8 Fail PC10A 34.7 19.17 38.25 13.54 927.4 Fail PC10B 27.7 30.38 29.25 19.79 1112.0 Pass PC10B 29.5 17.00 51.83 13.96 897.6 Fail PC10B 32.8 27.38 44.71 17.92 718.7 Fail PC10B 33.4 38.00 52.96 19.38 -125.4 Fail PC10B 35.2 24.17 49.13 21.04 503.3 Fail PC10B 54.4 27.96 42.08 12.71 -286.0 Fail PC10B 28.4 20.21 45.71 19.17 1055.4 Pass PC10C 19.2 26.83 56.65 33.96 635.7 Fail PC10C 49.9 27.13 52.50 19.38 -396.5 Fail PC10D 35.6 23.21 40.00 8.13 822.0 Fail PC10D 8.8 26.08 32.96 16.04 1634.7 Pass PC10D 6.7 21.46 44.58 11.67 1584.1 Pass PC10E 59.1 28.63 47.54 14.38 -665.3 Fail PC10E 16.8 24.21 42.75 9.38 1442.0 Pass PC10E 9.8 17.38 33.75 30.21 1632.0 Pass PC10E 26.8 35.63 41.96 12.50 719.5 Fail PC10E 17.3 16.88 41.75 19.17 1507.9 Pass PC10E 25.4 24.70 57.83 24.79 625.3 Fail PC10F 29.9 35.63 41.33 37.71 276.2 Fail PC10F 50.6 33.92 59.46 43.33 -1286.6 Fail PC10F 51.8 39.42 61.46 62.08 -2003.7 Fail 10
  11. 11. Table 11. Mack T-12 test results with reference oils, TMC 820-2, PC-10B and PC-10E. Passing results require a 1000 merits. 250-300 Top Ring EOT Delta Hour Delta Cylinder Weight Oil Calculated Final Pb PB Liner Wear Loss Consumption Merit Merit 55205 820-2 16 5 22 56 77 1085 1085 55213 820-2 25 11 18 30 76 1140 1140 55216 820-2 24 14 22 44 63 897 897 55217 820-2 12 6 22 42 64 1298 1298 55715 820-2 20 8 18 56 67 1234 1234 55722 820-2 20 7 15 45 60 1476 1476 55723 820-2 16 5 13 101 66 1254 1254 56153 820-2 24 8 16 45 71 1276 1276 55712 PC10B 24 8 15 46 60 1397 1397 55728 PC10B 34 12 15 44 62 1075 1075 55935 PC10B 22 9 15 96 53 1188 1188 56010 PC10B 30 8 8 31 61 1430 1430 56562 PC10B 40 17 11 41 65 836 Fail 55713 PC10E 43 23 17 35 57 494 Fail 55718 PC10E 18 7 13 36 63 1586 1586 55725 PC10E 23 8 11 106 62 1141 Fail 55937 PC10E 27 10 21 65 55 1026 1026 55940 PC10E 26 7 15 87 59 1159 1159 56726 PC10E 23 9 14 67 57 1331 1331 Table 12. Mack T-12 Merit system and below the average one stan- Control parameters. There were concerns both from Cum- dard deviation of reference oil TMC 820-2. mins and Mack about viscosity increase due to soot in both legacy and 2007 engines. Consequently, it was agreed to de- 250-300 Top Ring fine three limits for viscosity increase after the 90 cycle shear EOT Hour Cylinder Weight Oil down in the Kurt Orbahn injector test. They are: Criterion Delta Pb Delta PB Liner Wear Loss Con. Weight 200 200 250 200 150 • 4 cSt increase at 100°C at 3.5% soot Maximum 35 15 24 105 85 • 12 cSt increase at 100°C at 6.0% soot Anchor 25 10 20 70 65 • 15 cSt increase at 100°C at 6.7% soot (See Fig. 13) Minimum 10 0 12 35 50 Mack Merit 1000 min 250-300 Top Ring 20 Viscosity 100°C cSt TMC EOT Hour Cylinder Weight Oil 820-2 Delta Pb Delta PB Liner Wear Loss Con. Average 19.62 8.0 18.21 53.37 68 Pass Limits 15 Std. Dev. + 4.65 + 3.1 + 3.49 + 21.30 + 6.14 15 12 Mack T-11 Engine and Test Limits 10 Engine. The Mack E-Tech, 12-liter engine has electronical- ly controlled unit-injectors and cooled EGR with normal twin turbochargers using low-swirl cylinder heads. 5 Test cycle. The engine operates at 1800 rpm at 350 bhp (250 4 km) for 252 hours, with soot control targets identified at three points: 96-hour soot window 2.5-3%, 192-hour soot window 5.1-5.85%, and 228-hour soot window 6.09-6.97%. These 0 limits were imposed to insure that the rate of soot buildup was 0 1 2 3 4 5 controlled, as previous data indicated that a rapid soot increase 3.5 6.0 6.7 delayed viscosity increase. Reference Oil is TMC 820-2. TGA Soot % Fig. 13. Mack T-11 test limits for viscosity increase at 3.5%, 6.0% and 6.7% soot. Starting viscosity increase after 90 cycle shear down test in Kurt Orbabn test. 11
  12. 12. PROGRAM TIMELINE ed ash to 1.0%, the phosphorus to 0.12%, sulfur to 0.4%, and volatility to 13%. This program was initiated in September 2002 and finished within the ASTM-HDEOCP on January 26, 2006, with all the API CJ-4 was developed to provide engine durability for new tests accepted and limits established on all the tests in the both new 2007 and legacy engines within the chemical limits category. Following the limit setting for all the tests, there is above. This oil category includes 10 fired engine tests and 6 a 9-month qualification period before the API license on Oc- bench tests. The new multi-cylinder tests in the category in- tober 26, 2006. (See Fig. 14.) This program differed from clude Caterpillar ACERT C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, previous oil category programs in that after the matrix design Mack T-12, and Mack T-11, which cover oil consumption, pis- testing was completed, there was a 4-month “technology dem- ton deposits, ring-liner-bearing wear, valve train wear, soot onstration” time which allowed both additive suppliers and oil dispersancy, oil oxidation, and viscosity shear. These tests are companies to conduct product development in all the new tests juxtaposed on existing tests selected from API CI-4 category. —Caterpillar C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, Mack T-12 It is the most robust API oil category ever developed in U.S. and T-11—before limit setting was finalized. API CJ-4 is the latest in a series of six API categories devel- oped since 1988, each of which significantly improved the 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 ‘07 ASTM Task Name 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q quality and performance of diesel engine oil. Categories have been adopted on an average of every 3 years. (Fig. A9.) This EMA Request Matrix Start is a tribute to the effectiveness of teamwork among the engine Funding Group May 2005 manufacturers, oil companies, and additive suppliers within Chemical Limits Finalize Limits the framework of ASTM, and with the support of excellent Dec 6-Feb 1, 2005 Test Development statisticians and test task forces. Precision Matrix API Licensing Freeze Chemical Box API CJ-4 Oct 2006 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Tests Accepted Ash, Phosphorus Product Qualification/ API Licensing and Sulfur June 2004 The authors would like to thank the many task forces involved Oils in Market in the development of this oil category and express their ap- preciation to: Fig. 14. API CJ-4 Time-Line. API CJ-4 license date October 2006. • Eric Olsen, Oronite, for leading the TGA Sulfated Ash Task Force The ASTM-HDEOCP met approximately every 3 months in • Rick Finn, Infineum, for leading the “Chemical Box” this development process to insure that an appropriate cate- Task Force gory was delivered on time. Limits were agreed to through • Steve Kennedy, ExxonMobil, for leading the Matrix the use of “Exit-Criteria” ballots issued to the panel and other Design Task Force interested parties within ASTM. This enabled early identifica- • Bill Runkle, Ashland, for leading the New Category tion and documentation of potentially divisive issues, which Development Team could then be discussed and resolved within the panel prior to the final vote. (See Appendix). • Scott Richards, SwRI, for overhaul engine test data and support This process was supported by specific task forces on each new • Warren Totten, Cummins Inc, for leading the Cummins test development, on the chemical limits, on TGA sulfated ash ISM and ISB Task Force repeatability and reproducibility, valve train wear tests, testing • Riccardo Conti, ExxonMobil for Mack T-12 Task Force program, and base oil interchange. All of this is documented in the ASTM-HDEOCP minutes which are posted on the Test • Tom Franklin, Intertek, Automotive Research and James Gutwiller, Infineum, for Caterpillar C13 Monitoring Center (TMC) website. REFERENCES CONCLUSIONS 1. J. A. Mc Geehan, “Diesel Engines Have a Future and In previous oil category developments, the primary need was That Future is Clean,” SAE Paper 2004-01-1956 (2004). to focus on providing engine durability. This has been suc- 2. J. A. Mc Geehan, S. W. Yeh, M. Couch, A. Hinz, B. Ot- cessfully achieved since 1988 when diesel emission controls therholm, A. Walker, and P. Blakeman, “On The Road to for both particulate and NOx were first imposed. These were 2010 Emissions: Field Test Results and Analysis With implemented by frequent improvements in oil quality through DPF-SCR System and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel,” the oil categories CE, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4, and CI-4 (17-19). SAE Paper 2005-01-3716 (2005). 3. S. J. Charlton, “Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ul- In order to meet the U.S. EPA’s 2007 particulate standards for tra-Low Emission Standards,” SAE Paper 2005-01-3628 on-highway diesel vehicles these will employ exhaust DPFs (2005). for the first time, and consequently, both engine durability and DPF service life became design targets for the new oil catego- 4. A. Hertzberg, W. Moehrmann, S. Mueller-Lunz, N. Pelz, G. Wenninger, W. H. Buck, W. A. Givens, A. Jackson, ry -- API CJ-4. In order to limit the lubricant incombustible and A. Kaldor, “Evaluation of Lubricants Compatibility material collected in the DPF and provide compatibility with With Diesel After-treatment Devices,” Tribology and the oxidation catalysts, API CJ-4 limits the fresh oil’s sulfat- Lubrication Engineering, 14th International Colloquium 12
  13. 13. Tribology, January 13-15, 2005. Content of Engine Oil on Deactivation of Monolithic 5. E. Bardasz et al., “Investigation of the Interaction Three-Way Catalysts and Oxygen Sensors,” SAE Paper Between Lubricating-Derived Species and After-treat- 920654 (1992). ment Systems on a State-of-the-Art Heavy-Duty Diesel 13. B. Williamson, J. Perry, R. L. Gross, H. S. Gandhi, and Engine,” SAE Paper 2003-01-1963 (2003). R. E. Beason, “Catalysts Deactivation Due to Glaze For- 6. B. Otterholm, “Globalization of Diesel Engine Oil Spec- mation From Derived Phosphorus and Zinc,” SAE Paper ifications,” Proceeding of Annual Fuels and Lubricants 841406 (1984). Asia Conference and Exhibition (2003). 14. J. A. Mc Geehan, B. J. Fontana, and J. D. Kramer, “The 7. M. Barris, S. Reinhart, and F. Washliquist, “The Influ- Effect of Piston Temperatures and Fuel Sulfur on Diesel ence of Lubricating Oil and Diesel Fuel on Ash Ac- Engine Piston Deposits,” SAE Paper SAE 821216 cumulation in an Exhaust Particulate Trap,” SAE Paper (1982). 910131 (1991). 15. J. A. Mc Geehan, “Effect of Piston Deposits, Fuel 8. Y. Takeuchi, S. Hirano, M. Kanauchi, H. Ohkubo, M. Sulfur, and Lubricants Viscosity on Diesel Engine Oil Nakazato, M. Sutherland, and W. Van Dam, “The Impact Consumption and Cylinder Bore Polishing,” SAE Paper of Diesel Engine Lubricants on Deposit Formation in 831721 (1983). Diesel Particulate Filters,” SAE Paper 2003-01-1870 16. J. A. Mc Geehan, W. Alexander, J. N. Ziemer, S. H. (2003). Roby and J. P. Graham, “The Pivotal Role of Crankcase 9. Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Con- Oil in Preventing Soot Wear and Extending Filter Life trol (APBF-DEC), Lubricants Project, Phase I Report in Low Emission Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 1999-01- 2004. 1525 (1999). 10. H. Jung, D. B. Kittelson, and M. R. Zachariah, “The 17. J. A. Mc Geehan et al., “The First Oil Category for Die- Influence of Engine Oil Diesel Nanoparticles Emissions sel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation,” and Kinetics of Oxidation,” SAE Paper 2004-01-3179 SAE Paper 2002-01-1673 (2002). (2004). 18. J. A. Mc Geehan et al., “New Diesel Engine Oil Cat- 11. J. A. Spearot and F. Caraccioio, “Engine Oil Phosphorus egory for 1998,” SAE Paper 981371 (1998). Effects on Catalytic Converter Performance in Federal 19. J. A. Mc Geehan et al., “The World’s First Diesel Engine Durability and High Speed Vehicle Tests,” SAE Paper Oil Category for Use With Low-Sulfur Fuel: API CG- 770637 (1977). 4,” SAE Paper 941939, 1994. 12. I. Inoue, T. Kurahashi, T. Negishi, K. Akliyama, K. Arimura, and K. Tasaka, “Effects of Phosphorus and Ash APPENDIX Oil Hole API CH-4 M11-HST API CI-4 Rocker Pad M11 EGR Steel Rocker Pad Oil Hole Fig. A-2. Cummins ISM valve train system showing the cross-head Fig. A-3. Cummins rocker-arms for API CI-4 and CH-4. and swirl-foot. 13
  14. 14. Oxides of Nitrogen (g/bhp-hr) Particulate Matter (g/bhp-hr) 20 2.0 Steady State Test NOx PM Year g/bhp-hr g/bhp-hr NOx + HC NOx 2007 1.2 0.01 15 1.5 (Unregulated) 2010 0.2 0.01 Transient Test NOx NOx + HC 10 1.0 PM (Unregulated) PM NOx 5 0.5 NOx PM NOx 0 0.0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Model Year Fig. A-1 - EPA heavy duty on-highway engine emissions standards. AXHWL 3,100 1,200 Step Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 Torque, 150 lbf-ft per Division 2,500 900 RPM RPM, 300 per Division 1,900 Torque 600 1,300 300 ATWL 700 0 Time in Seconds, Cam Lobe ACLW Approx 5 Seconds per Division Fig. A-4. Cummins ISB valve-train system. Fig. A-5. Cummins ISB test cycle. 14
  15. 15. Caterpillar C-13 Mack T-12 Cummins ISB Cummins ISM Valve Train Wear, Oil Consumption Power Cylinder Slider Valve Ring Wear, Filter Life and and Piston Deposits Wear and Oxidation Train Wear Sludge Control ACERT High EGR — 100 Hr No EGR High EGR — 200 Hr Low EGR Low EGR 15 ppm Fuel Sulfur 15 ppm Fuel Sulfur 15 ppm Fuel Sulfur 15 ppm Fuel Sulfur Oil PC-10D TMC 820-1 TMC 830 TMC 830 PC10B/10E PC-10B/10E PC-10B/10E PC-10B/10E 10A/10F Fig. A-6. New engine tests in API CJ-4 and reference oils. 14.4 16 14 8.05 12 6.7 6.7 10 5.4 8 NO , g/kW-Hr 3.3* 6 1988 1990 x 4 1991 1.5 CE 2 1994 0.27 CF-4 0 1998 .013 CG-4 2000 0.134 Pa 2002 CH-4 rt 0.33 ic ul at CI-4 e, g/ 2007 kW 0.80 -H r 2010 CJ-4 PC-11 *(NOx + NMHC) Fig. A-9. US EPA heavy-duty emission standards and the development of API oil categories. 15
  16. 16. Raw Oil Raw Oil Relative Oil Consumption Consumption, lbs/hr Consumption, lbs/BHP-Hr 2.0 0.40 PE2 Ref Oil A PE2 Ref Oil A 1.8 CAT Ref Oil A 0.35 CAT Ref Oil A .00081 Sw Ref Oil A Sw Ref Oil A PE1 Ref Oil D 1.6 PE1 Ref Oil D 0.30 XOM Ref Oil D .00069 XOM Ref Oil D PE Ref Oil D 1.4 PE Ref Oil D 0.25 .00058 1.2 0.20 .00046 1.0 0.15 .00035 0.8 0.10 .00023 0.6 0.05 0.4 0.00 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 Oil Hours Oil Hours Fig. A-7. Cummins C13 oil consumption in lbs/bhp-hr and lbs/hr. Fig. A-8. Cummins C13 relative oil. Table A-1. API CJ-4 engine tests and performance criteria. Cummins Cummins GM Cat Cat Cat Mack Mack Gasoline Navistar Performance ISM ISB 6.5L C13 1P 1N T-12 T-11 IIIG 7.3L Valve Train Wear X X X Liner Wear X Ring Wear X X Bearing Corrosion X Oxidation X X Oil Consumption X X X X Iron Piston Deposits X X Aluminum Piston X Deposits Soot Viscosity X Increase Sludge X Filter Plugging X Aeration X Table A-2. API CJ-4 diesel fuel sulfur levels in each test. Fuel Sulfur 500 ppm 15 ppm Engine Test Caterpillar 1N X – Cat 1P X – Caterpillar C-13 (CCV) X Cummins ISM X – Cummins ISB – X Mack T-12 – X Mack T-11 X – Sequence IIIF – – Sequence IIIG (Sulfur 1,000 ppm) – – GM 6.5 Liter Roller-Follower Test X – Navistar 7.3L Aeration X – 16
  17. 17. Table A-3. API oil categories for four-stroke engines. Fuel API Category & Introduction Dates Sulfur, CD CF CE CF-4 CG-4 CH-4 CI-4 CJ-4 Performance Criteria Wt % Test 1972 1988 1991 1994 1994 1998 2002 2006 L-38 – Gasoline Engine: Leaded Bearing Corrosion – X X X X X – – Fuel Aluminum Piston Deposits 1956 Model 0.40 Caterpillar 1G2 Indirect Injection X X – – – – – Caterpillar 1M-PC Indirect Aluminum Piston Deposits 0.40 – X Injection Oil Consumption, Piston Deposits, and 0.40 Cummins NTC 400 DI 1980 Model – X X – – – Bronze Pin Wear Oil Consumption, Piston Deposits 0.1-0.4 Mack T-6 DI – X X – – – Ring Wear, and Viscosity Increase Viscosity Increase Due to Soot 0.1-0.4 Mack T-7 DI 1980-1987 – X X – – – Oil Consumption, Aluminum Piston 0.40 Caterpillar 1K 1990 Model DI – – X – X – Deposits Aluminum Piston Deposits, Oil 0.05 Caterpillar 1N X – – X Consumption Mack T-8 – 1991 Model Viscosity Increase Due to 3.8% Soot 0.05 X – – (250 Hours) Mack T-8E – 1991 Model Viscosity Increase Due to 4.8% Soot 0.05 – X (300 Hours) Viscosity Increase Due to Soot at 6.0% 0.05 Mack T-11 X Roller-Follower Valve Train Wear 0.05 GM 6.5-Liter PC – Diesel X X X X Oil Oxidation – GM 3.8-Liter Gasoline IIIE Test X X – Corrosion – Cummins Corrosion Bench Test X X X X Aeration 0.05 Navistar HEUI 7.3-Liter EOAT X X X X Foam – Bench Test Sequence I, II, III X X X X Oil Consumption, Steel Piston Deposits 0.05 Caterpillar IP 1994 X – X Ring Liner and Bearing Wear 0.05 Mack T-9 1994 – 12-Liter VMAC X – Valve Train Slider Wear, Filterability, 0.05 Cummins M11 HST 1994 X – Sludge Shear Stability – 30 Cycles – Bosch Injector ASTM D 3945 X X Volatility – Noack D 5800/Distillation D 2887 X X X Oil Consumption and Piston Deposits 0.05 Caterpillar 1R X Ring, Liner Bearing Wear & Oil 0.05 Mack T-10 (EGR) X Consumption Valve Train Wear, Filter ∆P and Sludge 0.05 Cummins M11 (ER) X Used Oil Viscometrics at Low – J300 Bench Tests MRV TP-1 Soot X – Temperature Elastomer Compatibility D-471, Ref. Oil X Aluminum Piston Deposits & Oil Caterpillar 1K or Caterpillar 1N X Consumption Oil Oxidation GM – Liter Gasoline IIIF X High Temperature/ High Shear Bosch Injector X X Valve Train Wear, Filter ∆P and Sludge 0.05 Cummins ISM X Valve Train Wear 15 ppm Cummins ISB X Oil Consumption and Piston Deposit 15 ppm Caterpillar C-13 X Ring, Liner Bearing Wear & Oil 15 ppm Mack T-12 X Consumption Oil Oxication 0.10 See III G X Shear Stability – 90 Cycles – Bosch Injector ASTM D 3945 X Total Number of Engine and Bench 2 2 5 5 7 12 14 16 Tests DI = Direct Injection 17