Water / Waste Water | Biocity Studio


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Sydney’s water supply is in crisis scenario due to drought and population increase. The Metro Water Plan hopes to supply Sydney’s water need by 2015. This plan focuses on three main areas, saving water, recycling and finding additional supplies.

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Water / Waste Water | Biocity Studio

  2. 2. For every bucket of the Earth’s water that there is, only one drop of it could we drink (without pre-treating it). Water is apart of a closed system meaning that the same water that existed on the earth millions of years ago is still present today. A person can live without food for 1 month , but can only survive for about 1 week without water. Water has many functions and uses, Water is the basis for all life. It essential to our survival as our bodies are made up of 70% of it. Elemental Geosystems, Robert W. Christopherson, 2004. http:// www.tear.org.au/resources/target/022/water_facts.htm Groundwater represents a major proportion of the Earth’s usable water resources , approximately 22.04% of all freshwater . Of all the earths water supply, only 2.78% of it is fresh water.
  3. 3. SYDNEYS DAM SYSTEM TALLOWA DAM Construction 1971-1976 85,000 ML Capacity Part of the Shoalhaven Scheme SHOALHAVEN-RIVER WATER EXTRACTION SCHEME 7,500 ML pumped into Warragamba Dam annually, or 205 ML daily This pumping system is part of the Shoalhaven Power Scheme, where water is pumped up hill from Tallowa Dam to Fitzroy Falls Dam and released back, generating 240 MW. WINGECARRIBEE DAM 24,121 ML Capacity Water pumped from Shoalhaven can be diverted into Warragamba Dam or into the Nepean River. AVON DAM Construction 1921-1926 Capacity 214,260 ML NEPEAN DAM Construction 1925-1935 Capacity 81,360 ML These 4 Dams are the oldest supply of water in Sydney, and feed directly into prospect reservoir. CORDEAUX DAM Construction 1918-1926 Capacity 93,640 ML CATRACT DAM Construction 1902-1907 Capacity 94,300 WARRAGAMBA DAM Construction 1948-1960 Capacity 2,027,000 ML Supplies 80% of Sydney's water PROSPECT RESERVOIR Filtration Plant Supplies 4 million People with clean water The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoalhaven_River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Nepean_Scheme Metro Water Plan 2006
  4. 4. http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SavingWater/ReducingLeaks/ Sydney’s average annual rainfall is 1200mm compared with Australia’s average rainfall of 400 mm. Sydney loses 2.8 billion Litres through Leaking pipes every year which is around 13 Thousand Olympic sized swimming pools. Sydney has 21 000 Km of Water Pipes The total capacity of Sydney’s water supply is around 4.6 sydney harbours Sydney’s current storage system could provide Sydney with four years of supply with no inflow. Sydney’s total catchment size is 15 651 Km2 About 40% of the flow of Australian streams comes from groundwater.
  5. 5. Increased evaporation from dams and reservoirs Increase in infiltration of runoff in catchment areas Climate Change in New South Wales Part 1: Past climate variability and projected changes in average climate: Climate Impact Group, CSIRO Atmospheric Research Scenarios Shows: Rainfall will become more varied with longer and dryer periods in between rainfall, Though when it does rain, the rainfall will be much more intense. = Less water for use . = PREDICTED CHANGE IN RAINFALL FOR NSW USING DIFFERENT CLIMATE MODELS
  6. 6. CRISIS SCENARIO: DUE TO DROUGHT AND POPULATION INCREASE SYDNEYS DAMS FALL TO 10% CAPACITY 2 0 0 6 M e t r o p o l i t a n W a t e r P l a n This graph shows that Sydney at regular intervals experiences water shortages. Using this data coupled with the predicted increase in population and trend of global climate change, this could be a possibility for Sydney Population graph showing population growth predicted population for the years 2015 and 2030 http://www.metrostrategy.nsw.gov.au/dev/uploads/paper/housing/index.html
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF METRO WATER PLAN The Metro Water Plan hopes to supply Sydney's water needs by 2015 The plan has three main focuses; saving water, recycling and finding additional supplies. The plan has a good chance at success, however there are improvements and changes which can be made to make sure Sydney’s dam levels never reach 10% Metro Water Plan 2006
  8. 8. A key aspect of the Metro Water Plan is its proposed recycling scheme This scheme hopes to recycle 180 GL per year. This recycling scheme is the basis of the first proposed policy change Or 72 thousand Olympic pools Metro Water Plan 2006
  9. 9. The Metro Water Plan aims to recycle 180 GL of water yearly by 2015 reducing usage to 542 GL annually. If current level 3 water restrictions are in place water usage will have dropped by 25% by 2015 . This has a flow on effect of reducing recycling capabilities to 135 GL. This means that water usage will be reduced to 420 GL annually. POLICY 1: WATER RESTRICTIONS <ul><li>This is an annual reduction of 122 GL, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR 48 thousand Olympic swimming pools </li></ul></ul></ul>Metro Water Plan 2006 http://www.metrostrategy.nsw.gov.au/dev/uploads/paper/housing/index.html SYDNEYS PREDICTED YEARLY WATER CONSUMPTION YEAR PREDICTED POPULATION NO WATER RESTRICTIONS CURRENT LEVEL 3 RESTRICTIONS 2007 4.1 MILLION 637 GL 474 GL 2015 4.8 MILLION 746 GL 555 GL 2030 5.3 MILLION 824 GL 613 GL
  10. 10. Mandatory restrictions No sprinkler use No hosing of hard surfaces, unless law requires. <ul><li>Level 3 Mandatory restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when storage levels reached 40% </li></ul><ul><li>No sprinkler use </li></ul><ul><li>No hosing of hard surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Hand held hosing of lawns and gardens before 10am and </li></ul><ul><li>after 5pm on Sundays only </li></ul><ul><li>No filling of new or renovated pools or dams without a Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>water permit </li></ul><ul><li>Fines for breaking such enforceable laws upwards of $550 </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 Mandatory restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when storage levels reached 70% </li></ul><ul><li>No sprinkler use </li></ul><ul><li>No hosing of hard surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Hand held hosing of lawns and gardens before 10am and </li></ul><ul><li>after 5pm on Wednesday Fridays and Sundays only. </li></ul><ul><li>No filling of new or renovated pools or dams without a Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>water permit. </li></ul><ul><li>Fines for breaking such enforceable laws are upwards of $100 </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Mandatory restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when storage levels reached 60% </li></ul><ul><li>No sprinkler use </li></ul><ul><li>No hosing of hard surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Hand held hosing of lawns and gardens before 10am and after </li></ul><ul><li>5pm on Wednesday and Sundays only </li></ul><ul><li>No filling of new or renovated pools or dams without a </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney water permit </li></ul><ul><li>Fines for breaking such enforceable laws are upwards of $200 </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Mandatory restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when storage levels reached 15% </li></ul><ul><li>No sprinkler use </li></ul><ul><li>No hosing of hard surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>No Hand held hosing of lawns both hoses and watering cans </li></ul><ul><li>No filling of new or renovated pools or dams </li></ul><ul><li>Water supplies to homes and businesses being cut off at certain times of day. </li></ul><ul><li>Standpipes set up in streets </li></ul><ul><li>Water rationing issued. </li></ul><ul><li>Fines for breaking such enforceable laws are upwards of $8000 </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Mandatory restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when storage levels reached 25% </li></ul><ul><li>No sprinkler use </li></ul><ul><li>No hosing of hard surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>No Hand held hosing of lawns and gardens except through </li></ul><ul><li>watering cans on Wednesdays and Sundays before 10am </li></ul><ul><li>and after 5 pm. </li></ul><ul><li>No filling of new or renovated pools or dams </li></ul><ul><li>Fines for breaking such enforceable laws are upwards of $1000 </li></ul>POLICY 1: NEW WATER RESTRICTIONS www.sydney water .com.au/Saving Water / WaterRestrictions / http://www.thameswater.co.uk/UK
  11. 11. <ul><li>METRO WATER PLAN: </li></ul><ul><li>KEY POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement for new buildings to use 40% less water than the NSW average </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water use is determined by the number of household occupants, the size of the garden area, the size of the swimming pool (if nominated) and the influence of local climate </li></ul><ul><li>Very flexible, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficient fixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater tanks for garden watering and toilet flushing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative water supplies including domestic grey water, groundwater and recycled water supplied via a third pipe system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant plantings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming pool coverings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In multi-unit dwellings, grey water treatment systems or water efficient clothes washers and dishwashers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided certain criteria are met, other water saving technologies as they come to market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In alterations rainwater tanks are required only if a swimming pool is being installed. </li></ul><ul><li>In alterations the additions need to meet BASIX guide lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory water tank installation for all new houses and multi-unit dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory grey water system installation for all new homes and multi-unit dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>For alterations to existing houses, rain water and grey water tanks are compulsory additions. </li></ul><ul><li>Other strategies for water reduction are optional, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficient fixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant plantings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming pool coverings </li></ul></ul>The installation and use of rainwater and grey water tanks can reduce the consumption of water in an average house hold by 40%-50% POLICY 2: Water Use Around the Home Metro Water Plan 2006 http://www.basix.nsw.gov.au/information/index.jsp OUR PLAN : KEY POINTS
  12. 12. The new water pricing system is based on a taxation system , which is used in Canada rather than the penalty system used in Australia. With this system the average 4 person family will pay the same water bill with out rainwater and gray water capabilities, however they will save over 60% of their bill with rain water and grey water systems. This would save them around $504 yearly Under the governments plan you can only save $472.40 POLICY 3: WATER PRICING Drinking Water Consumption by Sector Metro Water Plan 2006 Water Rates & Charges By-law, Council of the City of London, Ontario, Canada 2006 Sydney Water, Usage charges 2007-2008 NEW WATER PRICING SYSTEM RESIDENTIAL PRICE SYSTEM USE UP TO 75KL $1.20 PER KL 76KL – 150KL $3.00 PER KL ABOVE 150KL $3.50 PER KL COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL, INSTITUTIONAL AND MULTI-UNIT DWELLINGS FIRST 10KL $4.00 PER KL 11KL - 2000KL $1.80 PER KL ABOVE 2000KL $2.00 PER KL GOVERNMENT WATER PRICING SYSTEM ALL USERS UNDER 100 KL $1.339 PER KL OVER 100 KL $1.828 PER KL
  13. 13. <ul><li>Dam Level 100% </li></ul><ul><li>New Water Pricing Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>New BASIX Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory water restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Water Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 Water Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 Water Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 Water Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4 Water Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination Plant running at full capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Level 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5 Water Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Pumping from Shoal Haven </li></ul>POLICY IMPLEMENTATION