Urban Process Research: Transport | Biocity Studio


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Social, economic and environmental factors will fundamentally change the nature of urban transport systems and the way we use them. Demographic change, aging population, peak oil, reliance on fossil fuels, climate change and technological changes will be imposed as a consequence

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Urban Process Research: Transport | Biocity Studio

  2. 2. ADELAIDE TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT IN PAST CENTURY <ul><li>Development History: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1853, the 1st rough seaweed surfaced causeway was built by crossing the swamp, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which covered the western end of road ways at Glenelg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1957, the 1st railway opened between Adelaide and Gawler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1864, the 1st horsedraw transport service had been run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1908, Adelaide’s 1st private motorbus service was operated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1909, Adelaide’s 1st elective tramway system was officially opened </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ADELAIDE TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT IN PAST CENTURY <ul><li>Development Change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1953, a complete re-examination of the transport system was undertaken, and plans were made to replace all the existing tramways , including the Glenelg line with buses . </li></ul></ul>Road Railway Horsedraw Motorbus Tramway Road <ul><li>The chart shown above is approximately data only </li></ul>Railway Horsedraw Motorbus Tramway Transportation Development
  4. 4. ADELAIDE TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT IN PAST CENTURY Road Railway Horsedraw Motorbus Tramway Development Strategy : A comprehensive transport plan released in 1968 examining the then-current and future needs of transport for the city of Adelaide – The Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study, or &quot;M.A.T.S. Plan“ ⇒ 98 kilometers of Freeways ⇒ 34 kilometers of Expressway ⇒ the widening of 386 kilometers of existing Arterial road ⇒ new arterial roads, a new bridge over the Port River ⇒ 20 rail grade separations and Heavy Rail improvements including a subway under King William Street. The total cost of the recommended plan was $436 million dollars in 1965, which equates to approximately 4 billion in 2006 with inflation. Unfortunately none of the plans recommendations were brought to fruition due to political and public opposition.
  5. 5. TRANSPORTATION IN ADELAIDE NOW Transport System Now: Adelaide is served by a wide variety of transport, being centrally located on the Australian mainland and forms a hub for east-west and north-south routes. ⇒ the road network includes the Southern Expressway and a reversible one way freeway ⇒ the public transport system managed by Adelaide Metro, consisting of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway (a guided busway) ⇒ the metropolitan railways, and the historic Adelaide to Glenelg Tram. The social, economic and environmental factors that will, fundamentally change the nature of urban transport systems and the way we use them, within a generation. Amongst these factors are demographic change and our aging population , ‘peak oil’ and the diminishing availability of liquid fossil fuels , and the imperative of climate change adaptation and the economic and technological changes that will be imposed as a consequence.
  7. 7. TRANSPORTATION USAGE IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Adelaide Metro </li></ul><ul><li>Public Transport System : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,500 kms+ of bus routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 kms of tram line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Trams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7,436 bus stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>882 buses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 kms of train line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85 stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>94 rail cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Park‘n’Rides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Safer Stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 kms of O-Bahn track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>244 bus routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 train & 1 tram route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43.6 million revenue kms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>214 natural gas buses </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. TRANSPORTATION USAGE IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Adelaide Motor Vehicle Usage : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to an Australian Bureau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Statistics report ( People and the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment – Use of Resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Choices and the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment 1998): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> • 87% of Australian households had at least one registered motor vehicle . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> • 47% of Australian households had two or more registered vehicles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> • Of the total number of people who travelled to work or study, 78% did so as a driver of a motor vehicle. Only 16% used a train or bus, 3% cycled and 6% walked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> • only 5% of people gave environmental reasons for using public transport . (The most common reason was that they did not own a car and the next most common reason was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parking problems.) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Problems that Already Exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport fuels caused by the oil crisis and the effects of subjecting petrol and other fuels to an emissions trading scheme. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Problems that Already Exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⇒ according to the Australian Greenhouse Office, passenger vehicles in Australia produce almost 46 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions and are a major contributor to air pollution in urban areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⇒ the average Australian is responsible for creating about 24.6 tonnes of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> greenhouse gas each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⇒ about 94% of these emissions come from road transport, including cars, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> trucks and buses. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Problems that Already Exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All motor vehicles release pollutants into the air, mostly through the exhaust fumes that come out of the tailpipe when the engine operates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ more than 99.4 per cent of all pollutant gases are invisible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ car releases emissions even when it’s standing sstill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ other fumes from petrol and lubricants evaporate into the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollutants produced by vehicle exhausts include: carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons , nitrogen oxides , particles , volatile organic compounds and sulfur dioxide . Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides react with sunlight and warm temperatures to form ground-level ozone. Ground-level ozone, a main ingredient in smog, can cause upper respiratory problems and lung damage. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Problems that Already Exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⇒ congestion is now starting to have a significant impact on Adelaide’s competitiveness and connectivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⇒ The impacts of high traffic volumes and increased congestion are not just affected to road users. Residences and other sensitive land uses in close proximity to Adelaide’s major north-south arterials are being impacted by high noise levels and increased air pollution. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SOLUTIONS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>SOLUTIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One obvious solution is to shift away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from fossil fuels and towards renewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy sources that do not generate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ as wind power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ bioenergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ solar power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory improvements in vehicle fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve public transport system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ upgraded and extended rail system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ improved interchanges and stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ extend Bus Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ access to public transport stops and service frequency </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. SOLUTIONS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>SOLUTIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve traffic management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of traffic management technology will enable more efficient use of the existing road network, and maximize the benefits of the planned new road infrastructure, will also allow better provision of information to transport users: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ telling road users how long it will take to travel by different routes and where parking is available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ giving advisory speeds and advanced warning of congestion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ managing traffic signals to minimize travel time or provide priority to buses and light rail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ controlling the operation of contra flow traffic lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ providing on-board information to car travellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking and cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ in order to promote increased walking and cycling the plan will expand the provision of pedestrian and cycle infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ establishment of dedicated walking and cycling networks surrounding the major transit interchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ⇒ the design of new or upgraded roads will take into account the needs of walkers and cyclists by providing separation and clear demarcation of cycle lanes from other traffic, by giving greater priority to pedestrians and providing pedestrian refuges to assist people to cross roads, and through wider and better quality footpaths </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. POLICY OF TRANSPORTATION IN ADELAIDE NOW <ul><li>Policy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$2.0 billion investment to upgrade, electrify and extend the metropolitan rail network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 billion to upgrade public transport system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major new investments in infrastructure will improved the efficiency of the road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at present, governments in Australia provide substantial financial support for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production and use of fossil fuels, through direct payments, favourable tax treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and other actions. </li></ul></ul>Proportion of identified subsidies
  16. 16. <ul><li>Text References : </li></ul><ul><li>An advanced transport system and interchange in metropolitan , by E. Corduff, Adelaide University </li></ul><ul><li>of Adelaide. Faculty of Architecture and Planning, </li></ul><ul><li>Adelaide Road Passenger Transport. 1836-1958, by Radciffe,J.C, Adelaide Libraries Board of </li></ul><ul><li>South Australia 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY AND TRANSPORT SUBSIDIES IN AUSTRALIA 2007 Update Final Report, by Chris </li></ul><ul><li>Riedy, Institute for Sustainable Future UTS 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel for thought The future of transport fuels: challenges and opportunities, CSIRO Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Centre, June 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>BUDGET OVERVIEW Action now for the future , by Government of South Australia </li></ul><ul><li>South Australia’s 2030 Transport Plan , by Government of South Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Images References: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.showbus.com/photo-oz/am521.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.swantransit.com.au/tt/_pics/tt-commuters.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://farm1.static.flickr.com/148/413359264_3b8eeaaaab.jpg?v=1173247484 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pictureninja.com/pages/australia/south-australia/adelaide-train.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.railmaps.com.au/adelaide.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a3/MATS_recommendations_small2.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adelaidemetro.com.au/guides/pocketguide.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adelaidemetro.com.au/guides/pocketguide.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/751635 </li></ul>