The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio


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Sydney’s energy usage is 15% per capita higher than other developed cities in the world. The government is introducing a Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This presentation discusses the outcomes and benefits of the decentralised trigeneration, New York Cities renovation of existing power plants and solar /wind power.

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The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio

  1. 1. The Energy Crisis<br />Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang<br />
  2. 2. The Energy Crisis<br /><ul><li>226 600 gWh of electricity generated within Australia annually</li></ul>=<br />18 333 000 000 two storey houses<br /><ul><li> Of the 226 600 gWh generated, only 209.5 000 gWh is consumed (7.5% discrepancy)
  3. 3. 884 400 circuit km of circuit transmission infrastructure
  4. 4. Per capita, Sydney uses 10% more electricity than the rest of NSW
  5. 5. Sydney has an extremely low population density, due to urban sprawl
  6. 6. Sydney’s energy consumption per capita is 15% above average in comparison to other cities of the developed world</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br /><ul><li>27.8% of NSW Electricity used residentially, 22.4% commercially
  7. 7. 90.5% of NSW electricity from coal, 6.8% hydro, 1.4% gas, 1.3% renewables
  8. 8. 2007 US Study of 50 000 power stations found Eraring & Bayswater in 100 worst. Annually, these 2 power station emit the same carbon dioxide as 4.6 million cars
  9. 9. 8-10% of electricity lost in transit</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br /><ul><li>Government introduces Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions & realisation of finite nature of coal
  10. 10. Electricity prices increase significantly
  11. 11. Power shortages occur as companies attempt to minimise expenditure and output
  12. 12. Economic downturn in commodities
  13. 13. Public outcry for short & long term solution</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Trigeneration<br /><ul><li>The production of electricity, heating and cooling from a single source
  14. 14. Waste heat by-product which results from the generation of electricity is harnessed, and harvested for use in cooling and heating
  15. 15. Same concept as cogeneration, however the third element is the cooling of excess steam in electricity generation by an absorption chiller
  16. 16. Cogeneration is prevalent throughout Frankfurt, where in 1963, new developments were supplied with heat, courtesy of cogeneration from local coal CHP plant
  17. 17. 1972 Frankfurt new developments supplied with heat via gas powered CHP plant</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Trigeneration Mechanism<br />
  18. 18. The Energy Crisis<br />Trigeneration Efficiency<br />
  19. 19. The Energy Crisis<br />Decentralisation<br /><ul><li> Generating electricity at point of use, or an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter
  20. 20. Rather than being passive energy consumers, buildings are transformed into power generators for themselves and local energy network
  21. 21. Decentralisation has the ability to synthesis various energy inputs; fossil and renewable sources
  22. 22. Fossil fuel can be used during peak demand periods to cater for demand</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Decentralised Trigeneration & Its Benefits<br /><ul><li>Non centralised electricity loses 8-10% in transmission. This is avoided
  23. 23. Provides power, hot water, space heating & air conditioning from a single source
  24. 24. Trigeneration has a 90% energy efficiency, compared to coal electricity at 35%
  25. 25. Absorption chillers are more energy efficient than existing cooling infrastructure & emit significantly less CFCs
  26. 26. Excess energy created can be redirected onto the power grid and sold back to the power company</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />New York City<br /><ul><li>$65 million renovation of existing power plant
  27. 27. 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, $20 million savings for residents
  28. 28. Removed ‘Co-op’ area in the Bronx off city grid. Completely self sufficient for 55 000
  29. 29. Extra energy generated can be diverted in case of black out during peak periods</li></ul>If this was to be implemented across Sydney, we can expect....<br />
  30. 30. The Energy Crisis<br /><ul><li>Improved energy efficiency from 33.6 billion kWh per annum, to 15.12 billion kWh per annum</li></ul>↑ 55%<br /><ul><li> Improved greenhouse gas emissions from coal electricity generation from 271 million tonnes per annum, to 162.6 million tonnes per annum</li></ul>↓40%<br /><ul><li>Decrease electricity bills significantly, as over 50% electricity bill is accounted for by transmission expenses</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Project Electricity Sources<br />
  31. 31. The Energy Crisis<br /><ul><li> Over the 11 year projected period, an average of 23.65% of electricity in NSW will be generated from gas
  32. 32. A consumption rate of 1% of Australia’s gas reserves would be sustainable for 875 years
  33. 33. Current reserves can sustain electricity generation consumption at 23.65% for 37 years and 3 months, or by the solution’s introduction in 2014; 32 years and 3 months
  34. 34. Although there are gas fuelled power stations in; Tallawarra, Liddell, Smithfield, Uranquinty, further station will have to be converted or built
  35. 35. Current contributing co-gen plants: Kurnell (Caltex), Port Kembla (BHP), Clyde (Shell)</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Proposed Decentralisation Scheme<br />
  36. 36. The Energy Crisis<br />Projected Outcomes/Benefits<br /><ul><li>A more reliable power system, significantly less dependant upon fossil fuels
  37. 37. large step towards rendering coal obsolete
  38. 38. Most affordable stepping stone in the transition to 100% renewable energy
  39. 39. Significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions
  40. 40. Through government incentive, the creation of an updated and sustainable energy system with increased reliability and long term financial benefit
  41. 41. Maximisation of building space and creation of a self sufficient sustainable network</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Existing Renewable Energy Power Plants 2008<br />
  42. 42. The Energy Crisis<br />2025 Proposed Renewable Energy Plants<br />
  43. 43. The Energy Crisis<br />Solar Energy – Photovoltaics <br />
  44. 44. The Energy Crisis<br />Solar Power<br /><ul><li> Three levels: low level (solar panels for pool), middle level (flat plates used for heating water residentially and commercially), high level (use of mirrors and lenses to generate electricity)
  45. 45. Approximately $50 000 to install a solar system capable of powering a house and rendering it self sufficient
  46. 46. Through financial incentives and substantial subsidies, the transition to completely renewable power will be undertaken. Feed in tariffs to be introduced
  47. 47. Push for BIPV- Building Integrated Photovoltaics</li></li></ul><li>The Energy Crisis<br />Solar Generation vs. Consumption<br />
  48. 48. Wind Generated Energy<br /><ul><li>Approximated 1% of Australia’s electricity is from wind power, with annual production figures of 1125 MW as of 2008
  49. 49. 2007, Australia’s wind generation capacity is 0.8 GW in comparison to Germany’s 22 GW, US’ 16 GW
  50. 50. Wind power development costs around $1 million per MW of generating capacity installed. To take advantage of economies of scale, wind power facilities should be in excess of 20 MW.
  51. 51. 1 Wind turbine = 750 kW in capacity
  52. 52. Wind farms can by placed on land, or offshore as seen in the UK
  53. 53. Therefore 26 turbines arerequired to produce20 mW, and an investment of $20 million</li></ul>The Energy Crisis<br />
  54. 54. The Energy Crisis<br />In the Long Term…<br /><ul><li>A developer will secure tentative commitments from one or more buyers for the wind plants output over 10 – 30 years of its operational lifetime
  55. 55. In combination with other renewable sources, will eventually take up 100% of Australia’s dependence on renewable energy. </li></ul>Bayswater Coal Plant (NSW) = 2640 MW at capacity with 4 turbines<br />Blayney Wind Farm (NSW) = 9.9 MW at capacity with 15 turbines<br />264 x 15 = <br />
  56. 56. 3960 Wind Turbines!<br />
  57. 57. The Energy Crisis....Solved<br />Thank you for listening!<br />Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang<br />