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  1. 1. Introduction, Review of Biomolecules Lecture 1, Medical Biochemistry
  2. 2. Lecture 1 Outline <ul><li>Review some basic chemical nomenclature and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Review the structural and functional features of different biomolecules </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the human genome project and the future of molecular medicine </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Functional Groups
  4. 4. Common Condensation Reactions
  5. 5. Common Enzymatic Conversions Oxidation-Reduction Phosphorylation Phosphatase
  6. 6. Terms/Concepts to Review <ul><li>Hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic and aliphatic </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic, or electrostatic, interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><li>van der Waals interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds </li></ul>
  7. 7. Major Causes of Disease (from Table 1.1 in text) <ul><li>Physical Agents : mechanical trauma, temperature extremes, radiation, electric shock </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Agents: toxic compounds, drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Biologic Agents : viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, biochemistry professors </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen Lack : loss of blood, decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, mitochondrial poisoning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disease Causes (cont.) <ul><li>Immunologic Reactions : anaphylaxis, autoimmune disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Imbalances : deficiencies, excesses </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine Imbalances : hormonal deficiencies/excesses </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two-Way Street: Medicine and Biochemistry
  10. 10. Sugars/Carbohydrates
  11. 11. Membrane Lipids
  12. 12. Sterols
  13. 13. Fatty Acids Saturated and Unsaturated
  14. 14. Which Compound Would be Found in a Membrane?
  15. 15. Nucleic Acids: Components of RNA and DNA
  16. 16. DNA: double helix
  17. 17. Adenosine Triphosphate - ATP
  18. 18. Amino Acids: Protein Building Blocks
  19. 19. Levels of Protein Structure
  20. 20. Human Genome Project <ul><li>A rough draft is complete, >90% sequenced </li></ul><ul><li>Represents approximately 75,000 human genes (estimated range: 30,000 to 120,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the DNA from six individuals; thus provides little information regarding genetic diversity within the population </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated that 95% of our DNA content is not important; represents evolutionary “baggage” </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights the need for continued sequencing of genomes from other organisms to identify essential genes and their functions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Proteomics <ul><li>Proteomics – the study of how all proteins interact with each other in a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate 50,000 to 2,000,000 human proteins </li></ul><ul><li>The amino acid sequence of a protein can be determined from the gene sequence, but in most cases, this cannot be used to predict overall 3D-structure or function; usually this is done by X-ray crystallography </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 1% of proteins have had their 3D structures determined </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Next 40 years in Medicine <ul><li>Predictions made by Francis Collins M.D./Ph.D., director of the National Human Genome Research Institute </li></ul>
  23. 23. Predictions - 2010 <ul><li>Primary care providers will practice genetic medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Preimplantation diagnoses of fertilized embryos will be widely available </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy will be routinely used for a few conditions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Predictions - 2020 <ul><li>Gene-based designer drugs will be marketed for some diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer therapies will target the molecular fingerprint of each tumor type </li></ul><ul><li>Drug susceptibility will be determined before a prescription is written </li></ul><ul><li>Genomic intervention via homologous recombination will be used to insert genes without interfering with neighboring genes </li></ul>
  25. 25. Predictions - 2030 <ul><li>Human aging genes will be fully catalogued; clinical trials designed to increase life span will be initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Computer models of human cells will be available for research </li></ul><ul><li>Complete genome sequencing will cost less than $1,000 per person </li></ul>
  26. 26. Predictions - 2040 <ul><li>Comprehensive genomics-based healthcare will be standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized preventive treatments will be available and effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapies and gene-based drug therapies will be available for most diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn testing for disease pre-disposition in adulthood will be feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>The average lifespan will reach 90 yrs. </li></ul>