Dr. Vijay Marakala, MBBS, MD.
Assistant professor
BIOCHEMISTRY
SIMS & RC
Vitamins are micronutrients
VITAL+
AMINE
Nutrients
VITAMINE
µg-mg
/day
Vitamins are organic nutrients that are
required in small quantities for a variety of
biochemical functions and which gene...
Water
soluble
Fat soluble
• B complex
• C or Ascorbic acid
• A or Retinol
• D or Cholecalciferol
• E or Tocopherol
• K
Cla...
• B1 - Thiamine
• B2 - Riboflavin
• B3 - Niacin
• B5 - Pantothenic acid
• B6 - Pyridoxine
• Biotin
• Folic acid
• B12- Cob...
Folic acid
Vitamin B12
•Vitamins B-complexVITAMINS
Water soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins
Solubility Water soluble Fat soluble
Absorption Simple Along with lipids
Stora...
Vitamin A Vitamin D
Vitamin E Vitamin K
Chemistry
Sources
Daily
Requirements
Absorption,
Transport and
storage
Functions
Deficincy
Vitamin A
excess
• Vitamin A occurs in two forms in food
Retinoids
Retinol
Retinal
Retinoic acid
Carotenes
α- carotene
β- carotene
γ- carot...
RETINOL
RETINAL
RETINOIC ACID
β-ionone ring
One ounce
of polar
bear liver
contains
enough
vitamin A
(retinol) to
kill a
person!
• The daily requirement of
vitamin A is expressed as
retinol equivalents [RE]
1000 RE
MEN
800 RE
WOMEN
1RE = 1µg of retino...
ABSORPTION
TRANSPORT AND
STORAGE
RETINA
TARGET TISSUES
ABSORPTION
TRANSPORT AND
STORAGE
ABSORPTION
TRANSPORT
AND
STORAGE
Vision : 11-cis retinal [Wald’s visual cycle]
Reproduction: Retinol
Growth and differentiation : Retinoic acid
Epithelial ...
RODS
RHODOPSIN
11-Cis
retinal
Opsin
Photoreceptor cells in the retina
Photosensitive pigment
Rhodopsin cycle comprises two distinct events
Bleaching of rhodopsin & generation
of nerve impulse
Regeneration of rhodops...
CONES
Porphyropsin
Iodopsin
Cynopsin
Photoreceptor cells in the retina
Required for vision in daylight
and colour identifi...
Causes Inadequate intake
Impaired absorption
Impaired storage & transport
Increased excretion [RBP]
Alcoholism
Features Nightblindness
Xerophthalmia
Bitot spots
Keratomalacia
Infections
Hyperkeratinization of skin
Growth retardation
Bitot’s spot Bitot’s spot
KeratomalaciaXerophthalmia
Impaired dark
adaptation time
Decreased vitamin
A in plasma
Decreased
RBP in plasma
Normal plasma vitamin
20 to 80 µg/100ml
Over ingestionCauses
Bone and joint
pain
Anorexia
Hair loss
Headache
Hepatomegaly
Weight loss
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
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  • Vitamins differ from macronutrients- in structure, function and amounts.Vitamins are similar to macronutrients- all are vital to life, organic and available from all food groupBoth defecienies and excesses of a vitamin can affect health
  • Vitamin is derived from the fact that substances are needed for life(vita) and because thiamine happened to be an amine.Not all vitamins are amines or nitrogen containing compounds
  • A. History.It was first recognized as an essential nutritional factor by Elmer McCollum in1915 and then isolated from fish-liver oil by Holmes in 1917. On account of its established rolein the visual process, it is often called as antixerophthalmic factor or the “bright eyes” vitamin.It was first synthesized in 1946 by Milas.
  • Vitamin A originates in marine algae, and then passes up the food chain to reach the largecarnivorous animals. Toxic levels of vitamin A may accumulate in the livers of a wide range ofcreatures such as Polar bears, seals, porpoises, dolphins, sharks, whales, Arctic foxes and huskies.Even a small meal of southern Australian seal liver, say 80g, may produce illness in man. Mostof the foods recommended as source of vitamin A contain well below the toxic levels of vitaminA, but one– Halibut liver oil– contains dangerously high amounts of vitamin A.As regards the vitamin A contents of polar animals, one can see that, in reality, very littlequantities of livers of these animals are required to kill a human being : 30–90 g of polar bear liveror halibut liver, 80–240 g of bearded seal liver and 100-300 g of Antarctic husky liver is enoughto kill a human being.
  • Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com

    1. 1. Dr. Vijay Marakala, MBBS, MD. Assistant professor BIOCHEMISTRY SIMS & RC
    2. 2. Vitamins are micronutrients
    3. 3. VITAL+ AMINE Nutrients VITAMINE µg-mg /day
    4. 4. Vitamins are organic nutrients that are required in small quantities for a variety of biochemical functions and which generally cannot be synthesized in the body and must be supplied by the diet
    5. 5. Water soluble Fat soluble • B complex • C or Ascorbic acid • A or Retinol • D or Cholecalciferol • E or Tocopherol • K Classification
    6. 6. • B1 - Thiamine • B2 - Riboflavin • B3 - Niacin • B5 - Pantothenic acid • B6 - Pyridoxine • Biotin • Folic acid • B12- Cobalamine Vitamin B complex Vitamine C or Ascorbic acid •Water soluble vitaminsVITAMINS
    7. 7. Folic acid Vitamin B12 •Vitamins B-complexVITAMINS
    8. 8. Water soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins Solubility Water soluble Fat soluble Absorption Simple Along with lipids Storage *No storage Stored in liver Excretion Excreted Not excreted Excess intake Nontoxic Toxic Deficiency Manifests rapidly Manifests slowly Treatment Regular dietary supply Single large dose Difference b/w water soluble & fat soluble vitaminsVITAMINS
    9. 9. Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
    10. 10. Chemistry Sources Daily Requirements Absorption, Transport and storage Functions Deficincy Vitamin A excess
    11. 11. • Vitamin A occurs in two forms in food Retinoids Retinol Retinal Retinoic acid Carotenes α- carotene β- carotene γ- carotene
    12. 12. RETINOL RETINAL RETINOIC ACID β-ionone ring
    13. 13. One ounce of polar bear liver contains enough vitamin A (retinol) to kill a person!
    14. 14. • The daily requirement of vitamin A is expressed as retinol equivalents [RE] 1000 RE MEN 800 RE WOMEN 1RE = 1µg of retinol = 3.3 IU of retinol
    15. 15. ABSORPTION TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
    16. 16. RETINA TARGET TISSUES ABSORPTION TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
    17. 17. ABSORPTION TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
    18. 18. Vision : 11-cis retinal [Wald’s visual cycle] Reproduction: Retinol Growth and differentiation : Retinoic acid Epithelial Integrity : Retinol Immunity Antioxidants :β -carotenes Glycoprotein synthesis
    19. 19. RODS RHODOPSIN 11-Cis retinal Opsin Photoreceptor cells in the retina Photosensitive pigment
    20. 20. Rhodopsin cycle comprises two distinct events Bleaching of rhodopsin & generation of nerve impulse Regeneration of rhodopsin
    21. 21. CONES Porphyropsin Iodopsin Cynopsin Photoreceptor cells in the retina Required for vision in daylight and colour identification
    22. 22. Causes Inadequate intake Impaired absorption Impaired storage & transport Increased excretion [RBP] Alcoholism
    23. 23. Features Nightblindness Xerophthalmia Bitot spots Keratomalacia Infections Hyperkeratinization of skin Growth retardation
    24. 24. Bitot’s spot Bitot’s spot
    25. 25. KeratomalaciaXerophthalmia
    26. 26. Impaired dark adaptation time Decreased vitamin A in plasma Decreased RBP in plasma Normal plasma vitamin 20 to 80 µg/100ml
    27. 27. Over ingestionCauses Bone and joint pain Anorexia Hair loss Headache Hepatomegaly Weight loss

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