4. Engineering the body - History
484 BC: The Histories by Herodotusy
Hegesistratus, a Persian soldier, was imprisoned by the enemy. In order to escape
from the stocks, he cut off part of his own foot and later wore a wooden replacement.
300 BC: Oldest known prostheses
Roman artificial leg
5. Biomaterials: used from beginning of civilizationiomaterials: used from beginning of civili ation
Certain materials non related with
the human body, under certain
circumstances can be tolerated, or at
least do not produce acute adverse
(Washington), 9000 years
old and a spear pointp
reactions that produce irreparable
damage to their host tissues
old and a spear point
embedded in his hip
Body’s capacity to deal with
implanted foreign materials
7. EVOLUTION OF MATERIALS
1950’s two phenomena will decide
the technological evolution of t e tec o og ca e o ut o o
humanity (specially in the field of
Research and development
fCold War of new weapons
Neither available technology nor available materials
were adequate and advances had to take place in all
fields: mechanics, welding, new materials resistant
to heat and materials resistant to low temperatures, p ,
abrasion, new plastics, light alloys, new electronic
elements, chips, new computing systems, etc.
33. HISTORY OF BIOMATERIALS
• First Generation Biomaterials: materials used industrially in• First Generation Biomaterials: materials used industrially in
other applications that are requested to be inert in the human
body environment. “Biocompatibility” tests.
• Second Generation Biomaterials: designed to be bioactive
d b bland resorbable.
Third Generation Biomaterials b combining these t o• Third Generation Biomaterials: by combining these two
properties, they are being designed to stimulate specific
cellular responses at the molecular level in order to help thep p
body to heal itself.
34. Lessons from Natural Tissue
H. Fernandes, L. Moroni, C. van Blitterswijk, J. de Boer, J. Mat. Chem. 2009, 19, 5475-5484.
35. What is Regenerative Medicine?
Regenerative medicine is a
broad concept to define
those innovative medical
therapies that will enable the
bod to repair replacebody to repair, replace,
restore and regenerate
damaged or diseased cellsdamaged or diseased cells,
tissues and organs.
42. TISSUE ENGINEERING PROCEDURE
Cell isolationCell isolation Cell ProliferationCell ProliferationCell harvestCell harvest
Cell seeding onCell seeding on
Proliferation or/andProliferation or/and
differentiation in optimaldifferentiation in optimalFilling of the bone defectFilling of the bone defect
differentiation in optimaldifferentiation in optimal
Filling of the bone defectFilling of the bone defect
43. Tissue Engineering (TE) Principle
Stem- or progenitor cells
SCAFFOLD S G SSCAFFOLD
Autocrine or added
Bone graft BMPs, other GFs
• Can we generate these signals?Can we generate these signals?
• Surface energy, topography, wetability, surface charges, …
• Soluble factorsSoluble factors.
• Functionalize surfaces with specific signals.
The Biomaterials have now to be designed to generate
specific signals to cells in order to guide their behaviour.
They cannot be selected from a list of available
materials meant for other industrial applications.