b. Kingdoms of Eukarya Eukaryotic cell PROTISTA – single or colony FUNGI – multicellular, consume others, cell wall PLANTAE – multicellular, make food, cell wall ANIMALIA – multicellular, consume others
II. SCIENCEA. DefinitionA systematized, mechanistic,causalistic discipline wheregeneralizations to unknowns aredetermined through observationand experimentation
B. Characteristics of scienceB1. CONTROL OF THE UNIVERSEVitalism MechanismA vital force (outside the The universe follows thephysical realm controls laws of chemistry andthe universe). physics (uniform in space and time). Ex. Religion Ex. Science
B2. PURPOSE OF THE UNIVERSETeleology CausalismThe universe and There is no purpose toevents are pre-planned. the universe everything is understood by causeEx. Religion and effect. (Cause) (Effect) X happens Y happens
III. TWO SCIENTIFIC APPROACHESA. Discovery Science1. Make verifiable observations and measurements to describe life2. Completely based on inductive reasoning.
B. Hypothesis-Driven Science1. Use scientific method to ask questions2. Do experiments3. Use deductive logic to test hypothesis.
C. SCIENTIFIC METHODObservationQuestionHypothesisPredictionExperiment and ConrolEvluate resultsPublishTheory
METHOD OBSERVATIONDefinition Use sensesExample: Bacteria does not grow1920’s Fleming around fungus.
METHOD QUESTIONDefinition What is the cause?Example: How is the fungus killing the bacteria?
METHOD HYPOTHESISDefinition Testable statement with one variable that proposes an explanation for observationsExample: The fungus produces a chemical that kills the bacteria.
METHOD PREDICTIONDefinition What you think will happen.Example: If I isolate material produced I will find a chemical.
METHODEXPERIMENT CONTROLTest the hypothesis Same as experiment butwith only one variable without the variableHeat broth/fungus Heat broth/ no fungusFilter FilterPour on bacteria Pour on bacteriaBACTERIA DIE BACTERIA LIVE
METHOD EVALUATEDefinition What you think results mean.Example: A chemical produced by the fungus kills the bacteria.
METHOD PUBLISHDefinition Communicate with scientific community.Example: Peer review.
METHOD THEORYDefinition A general explanation of natural phenomena. A theory has been tested and upheld many times.THIS IS NOT A SIMPLE IDEA BUT AFUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.
IV. LEVELS OF COMPLEXITYChemicalatoms, compoundsCellularorganelles, cellsTissuecells & cell products that work together
OrganTissues that work together and have agenetic shape.SystemGroup of organs that work together for afunction.OrganismIndividual
PopulationLocal group of individuals that arereproductively isolatedCommunityGroup of populations that live close enoughto interactEcosystemGroup of communities and related abiotic
V. MODERN SCIENTISTSA. Linnaeus – classification & taxonomyB. Schleiden & Schwann – Cell TheoryC. Charles Darwin – Theory of EvolutionD. Gregor Mendel - Genetics