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Tom Goreau, "The Tijuca Story: Reforestation and the Biotic Pump"

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Tom Goreau, "The Tijuca Story: Reforestation and the Biotic Pump"

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Presented at the Restoring Water Cycles to Reverse Global Warming conference October 16th-18th, 2015 at Tufts University.

www.bio4climate.org

Presented at the Restoring Water Cycles to Reverse Global Warming conference October 16th-18th, 2015 at Tufts University.

www.bio4climate.org

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Tom Goreau, "The Tijuca Story: Reforestation and the Biotic Pump"

  1. 1. RESTORING CARBON, WATER, AND TEMPERATURE CYCLES Tom Goreau Biodiversity for a Livable Climate Conference on Restoring Water Cycles To Reverse Global Warming October 17 2015
  2. 2. FLORESTA DA TIJUCA RIO DE JANEIRO
  3. 3. ONE MAN PLANTS A FOREST
  4. 4. BEFORE AND AFTER GREENING THE DESERT JORDAN, GEOFF LAWTON
  5. 5. CARBON, WATER, TEMPERATURE • HIGH SOIL CARBON CAUSES HIGH WATER RETENTION, MORE FERTILE SOILS • THERE ARE MANY WAYS TO MANAGE SOILS TO INCREASE SOIL CARBON • SOIL CARBON COMES IN MANY FORMS, RANGES THA LAST FROM VERY SHORT TO VERY LONG TIMES • BLACK SOIL CARBON LASTS LONGEST
  6. 6. WHOLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT • PREVENT SOIL EROSION • RECYCLE NUTRIENTS ON LAND • KEEP THEM OUT OF RIVERS, LAKES, AND THE OCEAN WHERE THEY CAUSE HARMFULLY ALGAE BLOOM AND KILL CORAL REEFS AND FISHERIES
  7. 7. BALI SUBAK
  8. 8. VETIVER GRASS, THE WORLD’S BEST EROSION CONTROL PLANT
  9. 9. ROOTS GROW STRAIGHT DOWN NEVER BECOMES A WEED
  10. 10. COMPLETELY STOPS EROSION. BEST ROOFING THATCH BECAUSE OF NATURAL INSECTICIDE, SEWAGE TREATMENT, NUTRIENT TRAPPING, CARBON SINK, RENEWABLE BIOMASS PRODUCTION
  11. 11. WATER & TEMPERATURE • MORE THAN HALF OF SOLAR RADIATION ON LAND EVAPORATES WATER, ABSORBING HUGE AMOUNTS OF HEAT AND LOWERING LAND TEMPERATURE • ABOUT 60% OF RAIN WATER ON LAND IS RETURNED TO THE ATMOSPHERE, RATHER THAN RUNNING OFF • 80-90% OF THIS IS PLANT TRANSPIRATION RATHER THAN PHYSICAL EVAPORATION
  12. 12. RESTORE WETLANDS • SWAMPS, BOGS, MARSHES, SALT MARSHES, SEAGRASSES, & MANGROVES ARE MAJOR CARBON SINKS, BUILDING SOILS THAT CAN BE NEARLY PURE ORGANIC CARBON. • WE ARE NOW RAPIDLY DESTROYING THEM BY DRAINING, ADDING THE CARBON TO THE ATMOSPHERE • WE MUST REVERSE THIS COURSE
  13. 13. BEAVERS CONTROLLED NORTH AMERICAN HYDROLOGY UNTIL HUNTERS DROVE THEM TO EXTINCTION, GREATLY INCREASING SOIL EROSION & NUTRIENT LOSS
  14. 14. WATER & TEMPERATURE • MORE THAN HALF OF SOLAR RADIATION ON LAND EVAPORATES WATER, ABSORBING HUGE AMOUNTS OF HEAT AND LOWERING LAND TEMPERATURE • ABOUT 60% OF WATER ON LAND IS RETURNED TO THE ATMOSPHERE, RATHER THAN RUNNING OFF • 80-90% OF THIS IS PLANT TRANSPIRATION RATHER THAN PHYSICAL EVAPORATION
  15. 15. GOREAU & DE MELLO, 1985 AMAZON RAINFOREST BRAZIL
  16. 16. GOREAU, 2014
  17. 17. RESTORING VEGETATION RESTORES WATER CYCLES • INCREASES TRANSPIRATION, CAUSING MORE RAIN • REDUCES SURFACE WATER RUNOFF, SOIL EROSION, AND RUNOFF • INCREASES RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER AND AQUIFERS BECAUSE WATER FLOWS DOWN ROOTS INTO THE GROUND • RESTORES SPRINGS AND STREAMS

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