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Europe (team full)


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Europe (team full)

  1. 1. EUROPE by THE TROJANS Group Members : Nupur Mallik Deepthi Chenjeri Pinky Laishram Bhavana Sripathy Hema Anand Geetu C M
  2. 3. General Information <ul><li>It is the world’s second smallest continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is bordered by Arctic Ocean to the north, Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the southeast. </li></ul><ul><li>Of its approx. 50 states, Russia is the largest and Vatican City is the smallest. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the 3 rd most populous continent after Asia and Africa. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Climate: Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Major religion is Christianity followed by Islam, Judaism and Hinduism are minority religions. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture: Mixed culture </li></ul>
  4. 5. European Politics <ul><li>The British Government: A Brief Overview Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as head of the State. </li></ul><ul><li>The British constitution, unlike those of most countries, is not set out in a single document. Instead it is made up of a combination of laws and practices which are not legally enforceable, but which are regarded as vital to the working of government. </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT BRITISH PRIME MINISTER - Mr David Cameron </li></ul><ul><li>The German Government: A Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Germany is a federal parliamentary republic, based on representative democracy. The Chancellor is the head of government, and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the regional states). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a multi-party system that, since 1949, has been dominated by the Christian Democrat Union(CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). </li></ul><ul><li>The judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after 1990's German reunification. </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT GERMAN CHANCELLOR - Mrs Angela Merkel </li></ul>
  5. 6. European Politics <ul><li>The France Government: A Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>France is a semi-presidential  representative democratic republic, in which the President of France is head of state and the Prime Minister of France is the head of government, and there is a pluriform, multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.  </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative power is vested in the government, Senate and National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PRESIDENT OF FRANCE - MR Nicolas Sarkozy </li></ul><ul><li>The Spain Government: A Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>The Politics of Spain take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government in a multi-party system. </li></ul><ul><li>  Executive power is vested in the government. Central legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PRESIDENT/PRIME MINISTER OF SPAIN - MR José Luis R Zapatero </li></ul>
  6. 7. European Politics <ul><li>The Italy Government: A Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>The politics of Italy's parliamentary, democratic republic, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, which is led by the President of the Council </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative power is vested in the two houses of parliament primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. Italy  has been a democratic republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum .The constitution was promulgated on 1 January 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PRESIDENT OF ITALY - MR Giorgio Napolitano </li></ul>
  7. 8. European Politics <ul><li>Its continuously evolving </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECONOMY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CULTURE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The evolution has rapidly happened after the end of cold war </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FALL OF IRON CURTAIN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COLLAPSE OF EASTRAN BLOC OF COMMUNIST STATES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. COUNCIL OF EUROPE <ul><li>The Council of Europe is one of the oldest international organisation working towards  European integration ,having been founded in 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a particular emphasis on legal standards ,  human rights ,  democratic , development , the rule of law and cultural co-operation . </li></ul><ul><li>It has 47 member states with some 800 million citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Its statutory institutions are the Committee of Ministers  comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly composed of MPs from the Parliament of each member state </li></ul><ul><li>The  Secretary General heads the secretariat of the Council of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT S GENERAL OF CoE - Mr. Herman Van Rompuy </li></ul><ul><li>The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote the awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states </li></ul>
  9. 11. EUROPEAN UNION <ul><li>The  European Union  ( EU ) is an economic and political union of 27 member states located primarily in Europe . Committed to regional integration </li></ul><ul><li>The EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the European Communities.  </li></ul><ul><li>The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws, which apply in all member states, and ensures the free movement of people, goods , services, and capital including the abolition of passport controls by the Schengen. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement between 22 EU and 3 non-EU states.  </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development . </li></ul><ul><li>Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency , the euro, constituting the eurozone. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Economy of Europe <ul><li>Economic Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-1945 : High level of industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1990 : Control of Eastern European states by USSR; Western European states linking their economies which led to the foundation of European Union (EU). </li></ul><ul><li>1991-2003 : Collapse of communism; Europe’s economy dominated by EU. </li></ul><ul><li>2004-Present : Expansion of EU </li></ul>
  11. 14. Economy of Europe <ul><li>Economic Sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Finance and banking </li></ul>
  12. 15. Economy of Europe <ul><li>Population: 832,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>GDP(PPP): US$18.022 trillion(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP(Currency): US$19.282 trillion(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP/capita (PPP): US$27,383(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP/capita(Currency): US$25,285(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual growth per capita GDP: 2.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Millionaires: 2.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment: 10.0% </li></ul>
  13. 16. CULTURE <ul><li>The culture of Europe can be described as a series of overlapping cultures; cultural mixes exist across the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity has been the dominant feature in shaping up European culture for at least the last 1700 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation of European culture was laid by the Greeks, strengthened by the Romans, stabilized by Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation and globalized by successive European empires between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, including predominantly Muslim, Ottoman, Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the European Culture developed into a very complex phenomenon of wider range of philosophy, Islamic mysticism, Christian. </li></ul>
  14. 17. RACE <ul><li>The term Caucasian race denotes the race or phenotypes of some or all of the indigenous human populations of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In north-western Europe we find Nordid race or the North-race . </li></ul><ul><li>In south-western Europe is predominantly Mediterranean-Alpine in race. </li></ul><ul><li>In Southeast Europe are Dinarid in race. </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast Europe is predominantly East-Baltid and Volgid in race. </li></ul>
  15. 18. RACE Figure 1 Nordid Racial Type. Figure 2 Mediterranean Racial Type.
  16. 19. RACE Figure 3 Dinarid Racial Type. Figure 4 East-Baltid Racial Type.
  17. 20. RELIGION <ul><li>Christianity is by far the major religion in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe also has several million Jews and Muslims. Jews live in most parts of the continent. The Muslims live in South-eastern European countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Other minor religions exist in Europe, some brought by migrants, including : </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism, mainly in France, UK and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism, mainly among Indian immigrants in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism, thinly spread throughout Europe, yet it is in Kalmykia, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhism and Jainism, both mainly among Indian immigrants in the UK. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Bank Notes Coins
  19. 23. EURO <ul><li>The name Euro was officially adopted on 16 December 1995. The Euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit (ECU) at a ratio of 1:1. Euro coins and banknotes entered circulation on 1 January 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt -based European Central Bank (ECB) and the Eurosystem (composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries). As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy . </li></ul><ul><li>The Euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the Euro zone: 16 of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU) </li></ul><ul><li>The Euro zone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. Estonia is due to join the Euro zone on 1 January 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the EU, the euro is also the sole currency of Montenegro and Kosovo and several European micro states ( Andorra , Monaco , San Marino and Vatican City ) as well as in three overseas territories of EU states that are not themselves part of the EU ( Mayotte , Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Akrotiri and Dhekelia ). </li></ul><ul><li>It is also gaining increasing international usage as a trading currency, in Cuba , North Korea and Syria </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>The euro is the second largest reserve currency and most traded currency in the world after the U.S. dollar. </li></ul><ul><li>with more than €800 billion in circulation, the euro is the currency with the highest combined value of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.S. dollar </li></ul><ul><li>eurozone is the second largest economy in the world. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Benefits of Introducing Euro <ul><li>1- All intra-EU transfers in euro are considered as domestic payments and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Credit/debit card charging and ATM withdrawals within the eurozone are also charged as domestic. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Introduction of the euro has had a positive impact on the movement of goods, financial assets, and people within the eurozone. </li></ul><ul><li>4- A recent study estimates increase in trade between 9 and 14 %. </li></ul><ul><li>5- Investment - Studies have found a positive effect of the introduction of the euro on investment. Physical investment seems to have increased by 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>6- A study found that the intra-eurozone FDI stocks have increased by about 20% during the first four years. </li></ul><ul><li>7- The euro has most specifically stimulated investment in companies that come from countries that previously had weak currencies. A study found that the introduction of the euro accounts for 22% increase in investment countries that previously had weak currencies. </li></ul><ul><li>8- Inflation - In the short term, people felt that euro had led to an increase in prices. Actually it had no effect on most goods, it had an effect on cheap goods which have seen their price round up after the introduction of the euro. Consumers based their beliefs on inflation of those cheap goods which are frequently purchased. </li></ul><ul><li>9- Exchange rate risk with EU is completely solved. </li></ul><ul><li>10- Financial integration- it has &quot;significantly reshaped the European financial system, especially with respect to the securities markets. Banking has been largely integrated. euro has significantly decreased the cost of trade in bonds, equity, and banking assets . Eurozone countries lending and borrowing more between each other than with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>11- Tourism - the introduction of the euro has had a positive effect on tourism, increase by 6.5 %. </li></ul><ul><li>12- Effect on interest rates – Interest rate decreased for countries with weak currency, specially in Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>13- Price -convergence of prices in the eurozone with the introduction of the euro is mixed. In some sectors price convergance was observed as in particular for cars. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Natural Resources <ul><li>United Kingdom — Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum  </li></ul><ul><li>France-- coal, iron ores, bauxite, and uranium; petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Holland--- natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable  </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium — Natural Resources: Construction Materials, Silica Sand, Carbonates </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany — Natural Resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia--iron ore, manganese, chromium, nickel, platinum, titanium, copper, tin, lead, tungsten, diamonds, phosphates, and gold, and the forests of Siberia contain an estimated one-fifth of the world's timber </li></ul>
  24. 28. European Companies <ul><li>Audi </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters: Ingolstadt, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Nestle </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters: Vevey, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Saint – Gobain </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters: Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Daimler Chrystler </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Dior </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters: Paris </li></ul><ul><li>L’oreal </li></ul><ul><li>Head Quarters : Clichy, France </li></ul>