Special Sensory System

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Special Sensory System

  1. 1. Special Sensory System TJ del Mundo, MD, DBPO
  2. 2. Special Sensation Gustatory Sensation (Taste, SVA) ----- Taste Pathway Auditory Sensation (Hearing, SSA) ----- Auditory Pathway Vestibular Sensation (Equilibrium, SSA) ----- Vestibular Pathway Vision (SSA) ----- Visual Pathway Olfaction (Smell, SVA) ----- Olfactory Pathway Sensory System Special Sensation
  3. 3. Taste (Gustatory) Pathway
  4. 4. Modality: Taste Sensation Receptor: Taste Bud Cranial Nerve: VII, IX, X Ist Neuron: Geniculate Ganglion (VII) Inferior Ganglion (IX, X) 2nd Neuron: Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Gustatory Nucleus) solitariothalamic fiber (central tegmental tract) 3rd Neuron: Thalamus (VPMpc) Internal Capsule ----- Corona Radiata Termination: Gustatory Area Brodmann area 43 & parainsular cortex Taste (Gustatory) Pathway
  5. 5. Taste Bud
  6. 6. SVA (Special Visceral Afferent): Cranial Nerve VII, IX, X
  7. 7. Taste Pathways A. nucleus tractus solitarius (gustatory nucleus) B. thalamus (VPMpc) C. Brodmann area 43 D. parainsular cortex E. parabrachial nucleus 1. solitariothalamic fiber (central tegmental tract) 2. corona radiata VII. facial nerve IX. glossopharyngeal nerve X. vagus nerve
  8. 8. Vestibular Pathway Sense of Equilibrium
  9. 9. Modality: Equilibrium Sensation Receptor: Macula & Crista Ampullaris Cranial Nerve: VIIIv Ist Neuron: Vestibular Ganglion 2nd Neuron: Vestibular Nucleus vestibulothalamic fiber (medial lemniscus) 3rd Neuron: Thalamus (VPLo, VPI?) Internal Capsule ----- Corona Radiata Termination: Primary Vestibular Area ----- Primary Somesthetic Area (Brodmann area 3a, 2v ) Vestibular Pathway
  10. 10. Vestibular Mechanism - Otolithic Membrane
  11. 11. Vestibular Hair Cell Vestibular Receptor
  12. 12. Vestibular Pathway A. Vestibular ganglion B. Vestibular nucleus C. Thalamus (VPLo, VPI?) D. Primary Vestibular Area (S I, Brodman area 3a, 2v) 1. Vestibulothalamic fiber (medial lemniscus) 2. Thalamocortical fiber (corona radiata) VIIIc: Vestibular division of VIIIth nerve
  13. 13. Vestibular Termination <ul><li>Thalmocortical </li></ul><ul><li>connection </li></ul><ul><li>(VPLo  S I) </li></ul><ul><li>Deep, Peripheral </li></ul><ul><li>Somesthetic Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>--- 3a, 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(termination of </li></ul><ul><li>deep PWC-ML </li></ul><ul><li>pathway) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Auditory Pathway
  15. 15. Modality: Auditory Sensation (Hearing) Receptor: Organ of Corti of Cochlear Duct Cranial Nerve: VIIIc 1st Neuron: Spiral Ganglion 2nd Neuron: Cochlear Nucleus, Ventral & Dorsal dorsal, intermediate and ventral acoustic striae trapezoid body lateral lemniscus 3rd Neuron: Inferior Colliculus brachium of inferior colliculus 4th Neuron: Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MG) auditory radiation Termination: Primary Auditory Area (A I) Brodmann area 31, 32 Auditory Pathway
  16. 16. Middle Ear - Sound Amplification
  17. 17. Inner Ear - Cochlear Duct
  18. 18. Organ of Corti
  19. 19. Organ of Corti - Inner and Outer Hair Cell
  20. 20. Outer Hair Cell and Spiral Ganglion
  21. 21. Auditory Pathways A. spiral ganglion B. dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus C. inferior colliculus D. medial geniculate nucleus E. Primary auditory area F. superior olivary nucleus G. nucleus of lateral lemniscus 1. acoustic striae & trapezoid body 2. lateral lemniscus 3. brachium of inferior colliculus 4. auditory radiation 5. commissure of inferior colliculus VIIIc. cochlear division
  22. 22. Auditory Pathways A. spiral ganglion B. dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus C. inferior colliculus D. medial geniculate nucleus E. Primary auditory area F. superior olivary nucleus G. nucleus of lateral lemniscus 1. acoustic striae & trapezoid body 2. lateral lemniscus 3. brachium of inferior colliculus 4. auditory radiation 5. commissure of inferior colliculus VIIIc. cochlear division
  23. 23. Visual Pathway
  24. 24. 3 Tunics Tunica Fibrosa: cornea, sclera Tunica Vasculosa: choroid, ciliary body, iris Tunica Nervosa: retina 3 Chambers Anterior Chamber Posterior Chamber Vitreous Body EYEBALL
  25. 25. Modality: Vision Receptor: Photoreceptor Cell of Retina Cranial Nerve: II (Optic nerve) 1st Neuron: Bipolar Cell 2nd Neuron: Ganglion Cell optic nerve optic chiasm optic tract 3rd Neuron: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus optic radiation Termination: Primary Visual Area (V I) Brodmann area 17 Visual Pathway
  26. 26. 1. Pigment Epithelium - retinal detachment 2. Neuronal Layer (1) Photosensitive Cell Layer Rod Cell, Cone Cell (2) Bipolar Cell Layer Bipolar Cell Horizontal Cell Amacrine Cell (3) Ganglion Cell Layer Ganglion Cell Optic Nerve (II) RETINA - Pars Nervosa
  27. 27. 1. Optic nerve 2. optic chiasm 3. optic tract 4. lateral geniculate body 5. optic radiation 6. visual cortex (striate cortex) 7. Meyer’s loop 8. lateral ventricle Visual Pathway
  28. 28. 1. Optic nerve 2. Optic chiasm 3. Optic tract 4. Lateral geniculate body 5. Optic radiation 6. Visual cortex (Striate cortex) Visual Pathway
  29. 29. Clinical Features of Visual Pathway Lesion 1. optic nerve 2. optic chiasm 3. optic tract 4. 5. optic radiation A. unilateral blindness B. bitemporal hemianopsia C. left homonymous hemianopsia D. left inferior homony- mous quadranopsia E. left superior homony- mous quadranopsia
  30. 30. Evolution of Visual Pathway and Origin of Decussation
  31. 31. Evolution of Visual Pathway and Origin of Stereopsis
  32. 32. Olfactory Pathway Sense of Smell
  33. 33. Modality: Olfaction Receptor: Olfactory Cell of Olfactory Epithelium Cranial Nerve: I (Olfactory Nerve) 1st Neuron: Olfactory Bulb --- Mitral & Tufted Cell olfactory tract olfactory striae lateral & intermediate olfactory striae Termination: Primary Olfactory Area (Rhinencephalon) piriform lobe (prepiriform cortex, entorhinal cortex) corticomedial amygdala anterior perforated substance (olfactory tubercle) Olfactory Pathway
  34. 34. Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Receptor
  35. 35. Olfactory epithelium Olfactory nerve (CN I)
  36. 36. Olfactory Epithelium and Olfactory Bulb Olfactory epithelium Olfactory Bulb Glomerulus Mitral cell Tufted cell periglomerular cell Olfactory tract
  37. 37. A. olfactory epithelium B. olfactory bulb C. nucleus of diagonal band of Broca D. periamygdaloid cortex E. cirticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area G. septal nuclei I. olfactory nerve 1. olfactory tract 2. lateral olfactory stria 3. intermediate olfactory stria 4. medial olfactory stria Olfactory System - Olfactory Pathways
  38. 38. Olfactory Pathways I A. olfactory epithelium B. olfdactory bulb C. anterior olfactory nucleus & olfactory tubercle D. periamygdaloid area E. corticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area I . olfactory nerve 2. lateral olfactory striae 1. olfactory tract 3. intermediate olfactory striae
  39. 39. A. olfactory epithelium B. olfactory bulb C. nucleus of diagonal band of Broca D. periamygdaloid cortex E. cirticomedial amygdala F. entorhinal area G. mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) I. olfactory nerve 1. olfactory tract 2. lateral olfactory stria 3. intermediate olfactory stria 4. thalamocortical radiation Olfactory System - Connections of Primary Olfactory Cortex

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