Problem Based Learning


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My group project for Education Psychology where we had to come out with a problem statement and three hypothesis relating to an authentic case scenario we've chosen.

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Problem Based Learning

  1. 1. DED 100 Educational Psychology I: Problem Based Learning<br />Case Scenario 1 <br />(11 yr old Andy)<br />
  2. 2. Azizah (2)<br />Jasmin (5)<br />Krish (9)<br />Chor Bin (11)<br />Peining (13)<br />Xue Bing (25)<br />
  3. 3. Characters<br />Andy<br />(11 yrs old)<br />Dad<br />(blue-collar worker)<br />Mum<br />(Home-maker)<br />Sister<br />(7 yrs old)<br />
  4. 4. Characters<br />Ms Wong<br />(Science Teacher)<br />Bee Chu<br />(Classmate)<br />Ahmad<br />(Classmate)<br />
  5. 5. overview<br />&quot;Factors leading to meaningful and successful learning involves <br />motivation, self-efficacy and support&quot;<br />Failure drains confidence <br />out of students and <br />hampers their <br />Learning progress<br />Without motivation as the <br />fuel for learning, <br />students learning capacity/performance will <br />be negatively affected<br />Social support, just like ammunition for battles, <br />is essential for <br />successful <br />learning<br />
  6. 6. &quot;Factors leading to meaningful and successful learning involves <br />motivation, self-efficacy and support&quot;<br />Problem statement<br />
  7. 7. Failure drains confidence <br />out of students and <br />hampers their <br />Learning progress<br />
  8. 8. heavily influenced by<br />Sigmund Freud<br />Erik Erikson<br />(Jun 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994)<br />Stages of Psychosocial <br />Development theory<br />Two major themes<br /><ul><li>The world gets bigger </li></ul> as we go along<br /><ul><li>Failure is cumulative</li></li></ul><li>Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development<br />
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning – a type <br />of associative learning<br />Ivan Pavlov<br />(Sep 14, 1849 – Feb 27, 1936)<br />Conduct famous psychological<br />experiment on stimulus response (1927) <br />DOG – BELL – MEAT ,<br />student – subject – results<br />
  10. 10. Originated from Chinese <br />dictionary of idioms <br />(《汉语成语大词典》)<br />Failure – committing of <br />mistake, rather than <br />Poor achievement<br />Success – chance for <br />future excellence<br />
  11. 11. Famous failures<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Believer of <br />shaping<br />Failure, rather <br />Than allowing <br />failure to shape<br />himself<br />Sees failure as separate entity,<br />An event – not a person or an <br />Associative trait<br />One can’t have success <br />without failure - Never give <br />up and never stop trying<br />
  14. 14. suggestion<br />Probe<br />Analysis what went wrong<br />(Ask yourself questions)<br />Approach<br />Opinions<br />Seek advise/help <br />(ranging g from words <br />of advise to actions)<br />Believe<br />Be optimistic, look on <br />bright side<br />(whether glass is half <br />full or empty is up to <br />each individual’s take)<br />Strive<br />Persevere instead of giving up<br />(Combat challenge with renewed <br />enthusiasm)<br />
  15. 15. Application<br />P, O, S, B<br />Higher level challenges<br />(approach put into test – students better equipped , compared to being thrown into deep end of pool immediately)<br />P, O<br />Guided analysis<br />(prompt/encourage raising of questions and clarification s, help them identify potential pitfalls)<br />S, B<br />Laying bricks for foundation<br />(quizzes, open book tests, etc. – level of difficult structured to student’s self efficacy needs)<br />
  16. 16. Social support, just like ammunition for battles, <br />is essential for <br />successful <br />learning<br />
  17. 17. Social learning theory<br />People learn through observing <br />others’ behavior, attitudes, and <br />outcomes of those behaviors<br />Albert Bandura<br />Necessary conditions for effective <br />Modeling:<br /><ul><li> Attention, Retention, </li></ul> Reproduction, Motivation <br />believed in “reciprocal <br />Determinism”<br />
  18. 18. Self-efficacy vs. self esteem<br />4 sources:<br /><ul><li> experience, modeling, </li></ul> social persuasions, psychological <br /> factors<br />Albert Bandura<br />Social persuasions relate to <br />encouragements/discouragements.<br /><ul><li> positive persuasions increase </li></ul> self-efficacy, negative persuasions <br /> decrease it <br />
  19. 19. Social development theory<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />(Nov 17, 1896 – Jun 11, 1934)<br />Main theme:<br /><ul><li> social interaction plays </li></ul> fundamental role in the development <br /> of cognition<br />Second aspect: <br /><ul><li> potential for cognitive development </li></ul> depends upon the &quot;zone of proximal <br /> development&quot; (ZPD)<br />Full development <br />of the ZPD <br />depends upon <br />full <br />social <br />interaction<br />range of skill that <br />can be developed <br />with adult guidance <br />or peer collaboration <br />exceeds what can be <br />attained alone<br />
  20. 20. Schunk and Hanson’s experiment<br />second group observed <br />other grade 2 students <br />performing the same <br />subtraction procedures <br />One group of students<br />observed a subtraction <br />demonstration by a teacher <br />participated in an instructional <br />program on subtraction<br />students who observed peer models scored higher on a subtraction post-test and also reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability.<br />
  21. 21. suggestion<br />Parent<br />Educators<br />Peers<br />Society<br />Individual<br />
  22. 22. Application<br />
  23. 23. Without motivation as the fuel for learning, <br />students learning capacity/performance will be negatively affected<br />
  24. 24. Many learners are motivated only to <br />&quot;pass the test.&quot;<br />Without a desire to learn on the part <br />Of the student, retention is unlikely<br />John Keller<br />ARCS Model for Motivation<br />
  25. 25. needs-based motivational model<br />David McClelland<br />(Sep 14, 1849 – Feb 27, 1936)<br />Identified three types of motivational <br />need<br /><ul><li> achievement motivation (n-ach)
  26. 26. authority/power motivation (n-pow)
  27. 27. affiliation motivation (n-affil)</li></ul>Believe that achievement-motivated people are generally the ones who make things <br />happen and get results<br />They constantly seek <br />improvements and ways of <br />doing things better<br />
  28. 28. Hierarchy of Needs<br />Abraham Maslow<br />(Apr 1, 1908 – Jun 8, 1970)<br />emphasized the importance of <br />self-actualization (process of <br />growing and developing as a person <br />to achieve individual potential.<br />
  29. 29. adapted hierarchy of needs in 1990 included<br />Transcendence needs<br />Abraham Maslow<br />(Apr 1, 1908 – Jun 8, 1970)<br />Self-Actualization needs - realizing <br />personal potential, self-fulfillment, <br />seeking personal growth and peak <br />experiences..<br />Transcendence needs - helping <br />others to achieve self <br />actualization<br />Maslow recognizes the human <br />need for ethics, creativity, <br />compassion and spirituality. <br />Without this spiritual sense, we <br />are simply animals or machines. <br />
  30. 30. The old man and the children <br />A group of children were playing, loud and noisy, in front of <br />an old man’s house. The old man after a while couldn’t stand <br />any more. He walked out and handed 25 cents to each child <br />and said, “you guys made my place not so lonely any more. I feel<br />much younger. Take these as my gratitude.” <br />The children were very happy and came back the next day. <br />Playing loud as usual. The old man came out and handed each <br />of them 15 cents. He explained, “I don’t <br />Have much income.15 cents are not bad<br />at all.” The children were <br />satisfied and left.<br />The next day, he only gave them 5 cents each.<br />The children were upset, “Only 5 cents?! Have <br />You no idea how hard we were playing for <br />you!” Then they swore they were never <br />going to play for the old man again.<br />
  31. 31. suggestion<br />Aiding The Motivated <br />but less able<br />Teacher should be flexible and try to <br />cater to student’s needs/level <br />Negative E.g.: student x, who is behind classmate’s<br />Understanding of mathematics by a level<br /><ul><li> work given was level 8 instead of 7, which </li></ul>He is at<br /><ul><li> he will think math is hard
  32. 32. he may never be able to like math Intrinsically if the perception that it is a Tough chore remains
  33. 33. over time, he perceives whatever that is </li></ul>Being taught, as ‘dead’ facts rather than<br />Form any relevant inference/understanding<br /><ul><li> instead of thinking, unhealthy habit of waiting for answers will develop</li></li></ul><li>suggestion<br />model<br />rewards<br />Intrinsic or<br />extrinsic<br />Punishment<br />Severity base <br />on case by case<br />Intent<br />Knowing the purpose, reason<br />
  34. 34. Suggestion<br />rewards<br /><ul><li> sense of security
  35. 35. safety</li></ul>Intent<br /><ul><li> for livelihood
  36. 36. shield against danger
  37. 37. (natural/human)</li></ul>Punishment<br /><ul><li> lost of home/shelter
  38. 38. endangerment of life</li></ul>conceptualization<br />
  39. 39. suggestion<br />Sponge mentality<br />Absorbs<br />Individual learning <br />and understanding.<br />Squeezes out<br />Sharing of knowledge, <br />experiences etc.<br /><ul><li> selflessly helping </li></ul> others<br /><ul><li> satisfy own needs for </li></ul> belongingness and <br /> self-esteem<br />(interlinks with level 3 <br />Belongingness – maslow’s<br />Hierarchy of needs)<br />
  40. 40. suggestion<br />Sponge mentality<br />(1) Learn from others, teach yourself <br />(teacher teach, student decide what they retain in mind)<br /><ul><li>Teachers leave room for Meaningful learning </li></ul>Where students filter/Decide what information To take in<br />(just like the way some water will be absorbed while the rest will still drip out<br />(2) help/teach others, reinforce yourself <br />(assists peers, reinforce personal knowledge simultaneously)<br /><ul><li> a mini form of transcendence, i.e. getting</li></ul>Students to help other (perceived) weaker<br />Students attain self-actualization<br />
  41. 41. reflection<br />Xue Bing<br />The students like a garden, the teacher like a gardener.<br />To make garden more and more beautiful. The gardener must put in a lot of effort, such as giving water, fertilizer and sunshine. The theories I have learned in the class can mould me into a more knowledgeable teacher<br />
  42. 42. reflection<br />“The day you stop learning is the day you stop breathing”<br /><ul><li> Learning is not simply 1+1 = 2
  43. 43. IT does not involve just student + educator
  44. 44. Other learners and family members play important roles as well in each individual’s learning</li></ul>Chor Bin<br />