Jaipur National University(Established By Government Of Rajasthan ,Approved By The UGC Act 1956) A venture of SEEDLING GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS Presentation Seminar on 4g technology Presented by……… bindia kumari B.tech (6CS-22)
Generation of wireless communication 1Go Refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications.o analog signals are used and introduced in the early 1980s.o Average rate between 4800 to 9600 bpso Based on FDMA. DRAWBACKSo 1G Poor voice qualityo Poor battery lifeo Large phone sizeo No securityo Frequent call dropso Limited capacityo Poor handoff reliability.
2G Technologyo Was launched in Finland in the year 1991.o 2g networks use digital signals.o Enabled services such as text messages, picture messages and MMSo Is based on GSM or in other words global system for mobile communication . DRAWBACKS:o Requires strong digital signals to help mobile phones work. If there is no network coverage in any specific area, digital signals would be weak.o 2G The GSM is a circuit switched, connection oriented technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and resources.o The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates.o They are unable to handle complex data such as video.
3G Technologyo The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing video, audio, and graphics applications. Over 3G phones, you can watch streaming video or have video telephony.o The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard .o 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 kbps when the device holder is walking, 128 kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. DRAWBACKS:o High bandwidth requiremento High spectrum licensing feeso Huge capital
Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not BeenDeployed? Needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. Need global mobility and service portability. Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multimedia services requirements. Need wider bandwidth. Need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and data capability.
4G Technologyo Characterised by high-speed data rates.o In 4G the download speed is up to 100 Mbps for moving users and 1 Gbps for stationary userso Will allow users to download a full-length feature film within five minuteso Will also be able to stream high-definition television and radio to hand-held deviceso 4G is adoption of packet switching instead of circuit switching in voice and video calls
Technologies Used in 4G Smart Antenas for Multiple-input and multiple- output (MIMO) IPv6 VoIP OFDM Software Defined Radio (SDR) System
Smart Antennas Transmitting & receiving antennas Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability Doesn’t require increase power or additional frequency Fix no. of beams that can be selected to follow devices as it moves about Advantages: Increased capacity Increased range Less power use for transmission Reductions in handoff rate New services Increase security
IPv6 Technology In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT). IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities.
VoIP Technology“Voice Over Internet Protocol”• Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred eliminating complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit• All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet - Lower latency data transmission (faster transmission)• Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet.• Increases battery life due to greater data compression
OFDM TechnologyOrthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing• Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc)• Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver• Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band -No gaps to prevent interference needed• Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and WiFi(802.11a/g)• The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk)• Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device
Software-Defined Radio(SDR) Technology o SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). o Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. o This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence.
Features of 4GSupport for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services• Fully IP based mobile system• High speed, high capacity, and low cost‐per‐bit• Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services• Seamless switching, and a variety of Quality of Service• Better scheduling and call‐admission‐control techniques• Ad‐hoc and multi‐hop networks• Better spectral efficiency• Interoperability with existing wireless standards• An all IP, packet switched network
Applications of 4Go Better Usage of Multimedia Applicationso Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" (for example, always-on connections to keep people on event).Video Conferencingo Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicleo Tele- geoprocessing: Queries dependent on location information of several users, in addition to temporal aspects have many applications.e.g:GIS,GPSo 4G in normal life . i)Traffic control. ii)Mobile phones. iii)Sensor on public vehicle.
Advantages of 4G-o Affordable communication services.o High speed,high capacity and low cost per bit.o Support for interactive multimedia, voice , streaming video, Internet and other broadband services.o Global access, Service portability and scalable mobile services and variety of quality of services provided.o Better spectral efficiency.o seamless network of multiple protocol and air interfaces. Disadvantages of 4G-o Battery usage is moreo Hard to implemento Need complicated hardwareo The equipment required to implement a next generation network is still very expensive.o Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that expenses are kept realistic
Future Prospects of 4Go 4G is coming quicker.o Fast internet access to both stationery and mobile users.o 4G can be efficiently combined with cellular technologies to make consistent use of smart phones and also create video blogs.o This gives the manufactures the opportunity to produce more affordable user friendly 4G compatible devices.o 4G is capable of providing new horizon of opportunity for both existing and startup telephone companies.
Challengeso Integrating all the promised services is a challenge. Challenges in migration to 4G. High data-rate services and low per bit transmission cost. Meet the demand of the diverse users.o Competition with the next forth coming 5G. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supports almost 65,000 connections. 5G technology would provide better use of available bandwidth.
Conclusiono 4G can be best described in one word “ MAGIC”, which stands for: Mobile multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support, Integrated wireless and personalized services.o Though 4G is facing challenges and problems we believe that future research will overcome these challenges and integrate newly developed services to 4G networks making them available to everyone, anytime and everywhere.