Ruby training day1


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Ruby training day1

  1. 1. Introduction To Ruby Programming Bindesh Vijayan
  2. 2. Ruby as OOPs● Ruby is a genuine Object oriented programming● Everything you manipulate is an object● And the results of the manipulation is an object● e.g. The number 4,if used, is an object Irb> 4.class Python : len() Fixnum Ruby: obj.length
  3. 3. Setting up and installing ruby● There are various ways of installing ruby ● RailsInstaller for windows and osx ( ● Compiling from source ● Using a package manager like rvm..most popular
  4. 4. Ruby version manager(rvm)● In the ruby world, rvm is the most popular method to install ruby and rails● Rvm is only available for mac os x,linux and unix● Rvm allows you to work with multiple versions of ruby● To install rvm you need to have the curl program installed
  5. 5. Installing rvm(linux)$ sudo apt-get install curl$ curl -L | bash -s stable –ruby$ rvm requirements$ rvm install 1.9.3
  6. 6. Standard types - numbers● Numbers ● Ruby supports integers and floating point numbers ● Integers within a certain range (normally -230 to 230-1 or -262 to 262-1) are held internally in binary form, and are objects of class Fixnum ● Integers outside the above range are stored in objects of class Bignum ● Ruby automatically manages the conversion of Fixnum to Bignum and vice versa ● Integers in ruby support several types of iterators
  7. 7. Standard types- numbers● e.g. Of iterators ● 3.times { print "X " } ● 1.upto(5) { |i| print i, " " } ● 99.downto(95) { |i| print i, " " } ● 50.step(80, 5) { |i| print i, " " }
  8. 8. Standard types - strings● Strings in ruby are simply a sequence of 8-bit bytes● In ruby strings can be assigned using either a double quotes or a single quote ● a_string1 = hello world ● a_string2 = “hello world”● The difference comes● when you want to use a special character e.g. An apostrophe ● a_string1 = “Binns world” ● a_string2 = Binns world # you need to use an escape sequence here
  9. 9. Standard types - string● Single quoted strings only supports 2 escape sequences, viz. ● - single quote ● - single backslash● Double quotes allows for many more escape sequences● They also allow you to embed variables or ruby code commonly called as interpolation puts "Enter name" name = gets.chomp puts "Your name is #{name}"
  10. 10. Standard types - stringCommon escape sequences available are : ● " – double quote ● – single backslash ● a – bell/alert ● b – backspace ● r – carriage return ● n – newline ● s – space ● t – tab ●
  11. 11. Working with stringsgsub Returns a copy of str with str.gsub( pattern, all occurrences of pattern replacement ) replaced with either replacement or the value of the block.chomp Returns a new String with str.chomp the given record separator removed from the end of str (if present).count Return the count of str.count characters inside stringstrip Removes leading and str.strip trailing spaces from a stringto_i Converts the string to a str.to_i number(Fixnum)upcase Upcases the content of the str.upcase strings
  12. 12. Standard types - ranges● A Range represents an interval—a set of values with a start and an end● In ruby, Ranges may be constructed using the s..e and s...e literals, or with Range::new● (a..e).to_a #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]● (a...e).to_a #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
  13. 13. Using ranges● Comparison ● (0..2) == (0..2) #=> true ● (0..2) ==,2) #=> true ● (0..2) == (0...2) #=> false
  14. 14. Using ranges● Using in iteration (10..15).each do |n| print n, end
  15. 15. Using ranges● Checking for members ● ("a".."z").include?("g") # -> true ● ("a".."z").include?("A") # -> false
  16. 16. Methods● Methods are defined using the def keyword● By convention methods that act as a query are often named in ruby with a trailing ? ● e.g. str.instance_of?● Methods that might be dangerous(causing an exception e.g.) or modify the reciever are named with a trailing ! ● e.g.!● ? and ! are the only 2 special characters allowed in method name
  17. 17. Defining methods● Simple method: def mymethod end● Methods with arguments: def mymethod2(arg1, arg2) end● Methods with variable length arguments def varargs(arg1, *rest) "Got #{arg1} and #{rest.join(, )}" end
  18. 18. Methods● In ruby, the last line of the method statement is returned back and there is no need to explicitly use a return statement def get_message(name) “hello, #{name}” end.Calling a method : get_message(“bin”)● Calling a method without arguments : mymethod #calls the method
  19. 19. Methods with blocks● When a method is called, it can be given a random set of code to be executed called as blocks def takeBlock(p1) if block_given? yield(p1) else p1 end end
  20. 20. Calling methods with blockstakeBlock("no block") #no blockprovidedtakeBlock("no block") { |s|s.sub(/no /, ) }
  21. 21. Classes● Classes in ruby are defined by using the keyword class● By convention, ruby demands that the class name should be capital● An initialize method inside a class acts as a constructor● An instance variable can be created using @
  22. 22. classSimpleClassend//instantiate anobjects1 =SimpleClass.newclass Book def intitialize(title,author) @title = title @author = author endend//creating an object of the classb1 ="programming ruby","David")
  23. 23. Making an attribute accessible● Like in any other object oriented programming language, you will need to manipulate the attributes● Ruby makes this easy with the keyword attr_reader and attr_writer● This defines the getter and the setter methods for the attributes
  24. 24. class Book attr_reader :title, :author def initialize(title,author) @title = title @author = author endend#using gettersCompBook =“A book”, “me”)Puts CompBook.title
  25. 25. Symbols● In ruby symbols can be declared using :● e.g :name● Symbols are a kind of strings● The important difference is that they are immutable unlike strings● Mutable objects can be changed after assignment while immutable objects can only be overwritten. ● puts "hello" << " world" ● puts :hello << :" world"
  26. 26. Making an attribute writeableclass Book attr_writer :title, :author def initialize(title,author) @title = title @author = author endendmyBook ="A book","author")myBook.title = "Some book"
  27. 27. Class variables● Sometimes you might need to declare a class variable in your class definition● Class variables have a single copy for all the class objects● In ruby, you can define a class variable using @@ symbol● Class variables are private to the class so in order to access them outside the class you need to defined a getter or a class method
  28. 28. Class Methods● Class methods are defined using the keyword self● e.g. – def self. myclass_method end
  29. 29. Exampleclass SomeClass @@instance = 0 #private attr_reader :instance def initialize @@instance += 1 end def self.instances @@instance endends1 = SomeClass.news2 = SomeClass.newputs "total instances #{SomeClass.instances}"
  30. 30. Access Control● You can specify 3 types of access control in ruby ● Private ● Protected ● Public● By default, unless specified, all methods are public
  31. 31. Access Control-Example class Program def get_sum calculate_internal end private def calculate_internal end end