HYPOTHESIS BY BINCY M KURIEN MAR ATHANASIOS COLLEGE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES THIRUVALLA
Meaning and DefinitionA hypothesis, generally means a mere assumption orsupposition to be proved or disproved.Hypothesis provides the basis for investigation and ensuresproper direction in which the study should proceed.It facilitates the collection of adequate facts and helps oneto arrive at appropriate conclusions, suggestions andobservations.E.g.: ”Sales growth is directly correlated to the expenditureon advertisement ”
Sources of hypothesisFollowing are the sources of hypothesis:1. Similarity between phenomena.2. Observations in the day to day practices.3. Observations in past studies.4. Findings of research and development department.5. Experience or observations of the competitors.6. Suggestions from functional executives.7. Suggestions from shop floor.8. Scientific theory.
Formulation of hypothesis Formulation of hypothesis gives a definite point to the enquiry, helps in establishing direction in which to proceed and helps to delimit the field of enquiry by choosing the permanent point on which to concentrate. Problems in the formulation of hypothesis are1. Absence of theoretical base.2. Lack of ability to use the frame work logically.3. Failure to acquaint with techniques.
Steps in hypothesisFollowing are the steps in formulating a hypothesis1. Observation2. Reflection3. Deduction4. Verification
Characteristics of good hypothesis (Condition for a valid hypothesis)The basic characteristics of a good hypothesis are:1. Conceptual clarity and definiteness.2. Verifiable and capable of being tested.3. Specific in nature.4. Non contradictoriness.5. Simplicity.6. Related to available techniques.7. Related to body of theory.
Types of hypothesisThere are mainly two types of hypothesis:1) Crude hypothesis: A crude hypothesis is at the low level of abstraction. Itindicates the kind of data to be collected and it does not leadto higher theoretical research in the nature of a law or a theory.2) Refined hypothesis.Refined hypothesis are a) hypothesis that state the existenceof empirical uniformities b)Hypothesis that are concerned withrelation of analytical variables.
Forms of hypothesisThe various forms of hypothesis are:1) Descriptive hypothesis: When a hypothesis relates to the cause and effect relationship ofa phenomenon it is called descriptive hypothesis.E.g:“ Public enterprises are more amenable for centralizedplanning”.2) Explanatory hypothesis: This type of hypothesis explains the happenings of aphenomenon.E.g:“ Families with higher incomes spend more for recreation”
Cont…..3) Null Hypothesis: When a hypothesis is stated negatively, it is called nullhypothesis. It is usually represented as HO .E.g: H0: There is no relationship between a family’s income andexpenditure on recreation.4) Alternate Hypothesis:It is the hypothesis that describes the researcher’s prediction that,there exist a relationship between two variables or it is the oppositeof null hypothesis. It is represented as HA or H1.E.g: HA: There is a definite relationship between family’s incomeand expenditure on recreation.
Functions of hypothesis(Uses of hypothesis)Hypothesis are inevitable in scientific research. They have thefollowing functions to perform.1. A hypothesis adequately explain all the facts connected with the hypothesis.2. It enables to direct enquiry along right lines.3. It determines the method of verification as well as the procedure for enquiry.4. It makes deductions possible.5. It forms the starting point of investigation.6. It makes observation and experiment possible.