Modern means of transport


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Modern means of transport

  1. 1. Modern means of transportAbout hundreds of years ago there was no fastest means of transport and people had towalk on a bullock cart or horseback.Today, we are with number of means of transport and can reach any part of the world withease.First of all, with the invention of the wheels came the cycle which is still very a popular formof transport. In fact, in China it is the only form of conveyance for the common man. It doesnot require any fuel and therefore, does not harm the environment. It is an eco-friendlyvehicle.The first invention that made transport truly fast was the invention of the steam engine.This led to the railways. And further, the petrol engine soon changed the whole scene bymaking the motor car possible. Today, of course we have motor cycles, motor cars anddiesel run trucks. The bulkiest of material can easily be transported from one end of thecountry to other end by means of trucks or by railways. We can travel to our place of workor go on a holiday without having to worry about conveyance. Cars have emerged as themost widely accepted form of transport. Today, they have been made very comfortable torun air-conditioner, radio and tape –recorder and even a miniature television. Five or sixpeople (or more in bigger cars such as the Mercedes and so on) can easily travel withcomfort.The first reliable motor vehicle to be used as a public transport was the electric train. On theroad diesel engine were used to car heavy loads from one place to another and also todifferent countries often travelling hundreds of kilometres on one journey.While travel and transport on land is easy, we have means of travelling through air as well.In 1903, the petrol engine was used to make an aeroplane engine fly. Since then of course,we have to a long way and aeroplanes have been modernized and made very comfortablefor long distances travel. One can reach any foreign country not connected by land easily.Also, it can make us reach to our destination in the shortest possible time. Aeroplanes canfly at a speed of 200 km per hour – faster than the speed of the sound.Travelling a long distance is no longer considered a hectic schedule. It is now taken as ameans of comfort and pleasure. The boats have been replaced by the pleasure trips on thelakes or for short fishing trips. Ship now occupying an important place in the world of meansof transport and are used extensively to transport bulky material from one country toanother. they have proved a boon to industry in helping to transport material for exportsand import purposes .However, while all these modern means of transport have proved to be extremelyadvantageous, yet there are problems associated with them too. Petrol run vehicles emittoxic fumes and pollute the atmosphere. This has led to health problems for the citizen’s.again the large number of vehicles on the road also led to accidents which are sometimesfatal. Careless driving, or the failure of brakes, can prove disastrous. Similarly, air traveltoo, is not without risks. Ships have been known to catch fire owing to leakage of oil orother causes and led to the loss of men and materials on board.
  2. 2. Every good thing in life also has its negative points and one should try to find the solutionfor this. To diminish pollution, vehicles should be properly maintained and the exhaustsystem should be checked regularly to see that if emitting only in the limit. Further, thecareful driving scan help in avoiding the accidents.Modern means of transport have thus certainly made the travelling faster and easier but it isnot without hazards. Perhaps, future research and development will certainly increasesefficiency and shall contribute in making our modern means of transport more safe andcomfortable.AIRA fixed-wing aircraft, typically airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where the movement ofthe lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. A gyroplane is both a fixed-wing androtary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to largeairliners and military cargo aircraft.The shape of the wing causes air to travel faster over its upper surface. This reduces airpressure above the wing. It also helps increase the pressure on the wing’s lower surface,pushing it upward and creating lift.The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after spacecraft. Commercial jets canreach up to 955 kilometres per hour (593 mph), while single-engine piston aircraft mayreach up to 555 kilometres per hour (345 mph). Aviation is able to quickly transport peopleand limited amounts of cargo over longer distances, but incur high costs and energy use;for short distances or in inaccessible places, helicopters can be used. WHO estimates thatup to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.LandRailRail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeledvehicles running on rail tracks, known as a railway or railroad. Propulsion is commonlyprovided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars that can carry passengersor freight. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or by electricity supplied bytrackside systems. Alternatively, some or all the cars can be powered, known as a multipleunit. Also, a train can be powered by horses, cables, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbines.Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trainsmore energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships.Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities; modern high-speed rail is capable ofspeeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph), but this requires specially built track. Regional andcommuter trains feed cities from suburbs and surrounding areas, while intra-urban
  3. 3. transport is performed by high-capacity tramways and rapid transits, often making up thebackbone of a citys public transport. Freight trains traditionally used box cars, requiringmanual loading and unloading of the cargo. Since the 1960s, container trains have becomethe dominant solution for general freight, while large quantities of bulk are transported bydedicated trains.---------------------------OR -----------------------------------Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeledvehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run ona prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on.Track usually consists of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast, on which therolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. However, other variations are alsopossible, such as slab track where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting ona prepared subsurface.Rolling stock in railway transport systems generally has lower frictional resistance whencompared with highway vehicles, and the passenger and freight cars (carriages andwagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railwaycompany, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power isprovided by locomotives which either draw electrical power from a railway electrificationsystem or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines. Most tracks are accompaniedby a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to otherforms of transportRailway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargoutilization and energy efficiency, but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive thanhighway transport is, when lower traffic levels are considered.The oldest, man-hauled railways date to the 6th century B.C, with Periander, one of theSeven Sages of Greece, credited with its invention. With the British development of thesteam engine, it was possible to construct mainline railways, which were a key componentof the industrial revolution. Also, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed forfewer lost goods. The change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" inwhich prices varied very little from city to city. Studies have shown that the invention anddevelopment of the railway in Europe was one of the most important technologicalinventions of the late 19th century for the United States, without which, GDP would havebeen lower by 7.0% in 1890. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and also thefirst tramways and rapid transit systems came into being. Starting during the 1940s, thenon-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s,electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and a few other countries.Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such asmonorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use.ROADA road is an identifiable route,through a city or village and be named as streets, serving adual function as urban space easement and route.
  4. 4. The most common road vehicle is the automobile; a wheeled passenger vehicle that carriesits own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles andpedestrians. As of 2002, there were 590 million automobiles worldwide.[citation needed]Automobiles offer high flexibility and with low capacity, but are deemed with high energyand area use, and the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for moreefficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility. Road transport by truck is often the initialand final stage of freight transport.Today roadways are principally asphalt or concrete. Both are based on McAdams concept of stoneaggregate in a binder, asphalt cement or Portland cement respectively. Asphalt is known as a flexiblepavement, one which slowly will "flow" under the pounding of traffic. Concrete is a rigid pavement,which can take heavier loads but is more expensive and requires more carefully prepared subbase. So,generally, major roads are concrete and local roads are asphalt. Often concrete roads are covered with athin layer of asphalt to create a wearing surface.Modern pavements are designed for heavier vehicle loads and faster speeds, requiring thicker slabs anddeeper subbase. Subbase is the layer or successive layers of stone, gravel and sand supporting thepavement. It is needed to spread out the slab load bearing on the underlying soil and to conduct awayany water getting under the slabs. Water will undermine a pavement over time, so much of pavementand pavement joint design are meant to minimize the amount of water getting and staying under theslabs.Shoulders are also an integral part of highway design. They are multipurpose; they can provide a marginof side clearance, a refuge for incapacitated vehicles, an emergency lane, and parking space. They alsoserve a design purpose, and that is to prevent water from percolating into the soil near the mainpavements edge. Shoulder pavement is designed to a lower standard than the pavement in the traveledway and wont hold up as well to traffic. (Which is why driving on the shoulder is generally prohibited.)Pavement technology is still evolving, albeit in not easily noticed increments. For instance, chemicaladditives in the pavement mix make the pavement more weather resistant, grooving and other surfacetreatments improve resistance to skidding and hydroplaning, and joint seals which were once tar arenow made of low maintenance neoprene.Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop andmaintain them. Australias Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km(9,000 mi) and runs almost the entire way around the continent. The United States has the worldslargest network of highways, including both the Interstate Highway System and the U.S. HighwaySystem. At least one of these networks is present in every state and they interconnect most major cities.Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway or the European routes, span multiple countries. Somemajor highway routes include ferry services, such as U.S. Route 10, which crosses Lake Michigan.Traditionally highways were used by people on foot or on horses. Later they also accommodatedcarriages, bicycles and eventually motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the
  5. 5. 1920s and 1930s many nations began investing heavily in progressively more modern highway systemsto spur commerce and bolster national defense.Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries usuallyincorporate features intended to enhance the roads capacity, efficiency, and safety to various degrees.Such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dualcarriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, and grade-separated junctions with otherroads and modes of transport. These features are typically present on highways built as motorways(freeways).WaterWater transport is the process of transport that a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat,makes over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. If a boat or other vessel cansuccessfully pass through a waterway it is known as a navigable waterway. The need for buoyancy uniteswatercraft, and makes the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance.When a boat is floating on the water the hull of the boat is pushing aside water where the hull now is,this is known as displacement.In the 1800s, the first steamboats were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel orpropeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now, most ships have anengine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, usenuclear power to produce the steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while somesmaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats,an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans.Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities ofnon-perishable goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in2007.[6] Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for transcontinental shipping;short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areasOther modesPipeline transport sends goods through a pipe, most commonly liquid and gases are sent, butpneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemicallystable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewage, slurry, waterand beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.
  6. 6. Cable transport is a broad mode where vehicles are pulled by cables instead of an internal powersource. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Typical solutions include aerial tramway, elevators,escalator and ski lifts; some of these are also categorized as conveyor transport.Space transport is transport out of Earths atmosphere into outer space by means of a spacecraft. Whilelarge amounts of research have gone into technology, it is rarely used except to put satellites into orbit,and conduct scientific experiments. However, man has landed on the moon, and probes have been sentto all the planets of the Solar SystemElements of transportsInfrastructureMain article: InfrastructureBridges, such as Golden Gate Bridge, allow roads and railways to cross bodies of waterInfrastructure is the fixed installations that allow a vehicle to operate. It consists of both a way, terminaland facilities for parking and maintenance. For rail, pipeline, road and cable transport, the entire way thevehicle travels must be built up. Air and water craft are able to avoid this, since the airway and seaway donot need to be built up. However, they require fixed infrastructure at terminals.Terminals such as airports, ports and stations, are locations where passengers and freight can betransferred from one vehicle or mode to another. For passenger transport, terminals are integratingdifferent modes to allow riders to interchange to take advantage of each modes advantages. Forinstance, airport rail links connect airports to the city centers and suburbs. The terminals for automobiles [13]are parking lots, while buses and coaches can operates from simple stops. For freight, terminals actas transshipment points, though some cargo is transported directly from the point of production to thepoint of use.The financing of infrastructure can either be public or private. Transport is often a natural monopoly and anecessity for the public; roads, and in some countries railways and airports are funded through taxation.New infrastructure projects can involve large spendings, and are often financed through debt. Many
  7. 7. infrastructure owners therefore impose usage fees, such as landing fees at airports, or toll plazas onroads. Independent of this, authorities may impose taxes on the purchase or use of vehicles.[edit]VehiclesMain article: VehicleAn Opel AmperaA vehicle is any non-living device that is used to move people and goods. Unlike the infrastructure, thevehicle moves along with the cargo and riders. Vehicles that do not operate on land, are usuallycalled crafts. Unless being pulled by a cable or muscle-power, the vehicle must provide its ownpropulsion; this is most commonly done through a steam engine, combustion engine, electric motor, a jetengine or a rocket, though other means of propulsion also exist. Vehicles also need a system ofconverting the energy into movement; this is most commonly donethrough wheels, propellers and pressure.Vehicles are most commonly staffed by a driver. However, some systems, such as people movers andsome rapid transits, are fullyautomated. For passenger transport, the vehicle must have a compartmentfor the passengers. Simple vehicles, such as automobiles, bicycles or simple aircraft, may have one ofthe passengers as a driver.[edit]OperationIncheon International Airport, South Korea
  8. 8. Private transport is only subject to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. Forpublic transport and freight transport, operations are done through private enterprise or by governments.The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may beoperated by different entities. Traditionally, many countries have had a national airline and nationalrailway. Since the 1980s, many of these have been privatized. International shipping remains a highly [14] [15]competitive industry with little regulation, but ports can be public owned.FunctionRelocation of travelers and cargo are the most common uses of transport. However, other uses exist,such as the strategic and tacticalrelocation of armed forces during warfare, or the civilian mobilityconstruction or emergency equipment.[edit]PassengerMain articles: Travel and Public transitA local transit bus operated by ACTION inCanberra, AustraliaPassenger transport, or travel, is divided into public and private transport. Public is scheduled services onfixed routes, while private is vehicles that provide ad hoc services at the riders desire. The latter offersbetter flexibility, but has lower capacity, and a higher environmental impact. Travel may be as part ofdaily commuting, for business, leisure or migration.Short-haul transport is dominated by the automobile and mass transit. The latter consists of buses in ruraland small cities, supplemented with commuter rail, trams and rapid transit in larger cities. Long-haultransport involves the use of the automobile, trains, coaches and aircraft, the last of which have becomepredominantly used for the longest, including intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport iswhere a journey is performed through the use of several modes of transport; since all human transportnormally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered intermodal. Publictransport may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within or across modes, at a transport hub,such as a bus or railway station.Taxis and Buses can be found on both ends of Public Transport spectrum, whereas Buses remain thecheaper mode of transport but are not necessarily flexible, and Taxis being very flexible but moreexpensive. In the middle is Demand responsive transport offering flexibility whilst remaining affordable.
  9. 9. International travel may be restricted for some individuals due to legislation and visa requirements.[edit]FreightMain article: Shipping [16]Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in manufacturing. With increasedspecialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly [17]increasing the demand for transport. While all modes of transport are used for cargo transport, there is [18]high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is chosen. Logistics refersto the entire process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport,transshipment, warehousing, material-handling and packaging, with associated exchange of [19] [20]information. Incoterm deals with the handling of payment and responsibility of risk during transport.Freight train with shipping containers in the United Kingdom.Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, hasrevolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs.Traditionally, all cargo had to be manually loaded and unloaded into the haul of any ship or car;containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizesallow for gains in economy of scale in vehicle operation. This has been one of the key driving factors [21]in international trade and globalization since the 1950s.Bulk transport is common with cargo that can be handled roughly without deterioration; typical examplesare ore, coal, cereals and petroleum. Because of the uniformity of the product, mechanical handling canallow enormous quantities to be handled quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined withhigh volume also means that economies of scale become essential in transport, and gigantic ships andwhole trains are commonly used to transport bulk. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also betransported by pipeline.Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of worldtransport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especiallyimportant in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-timewithin the value chain, resultingin a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-to-weight [22]ratio. In addition to mail, common items send by air include electronics and fashion clothing.
  10. 10. ImpactMain article: sustainable transport[edit]EconomicTransport is a key component of growth and globalization, such as in Seattle, Washington, United StatesTransport is a key necessity for specialization—allowing production and consumption of products to occurat different locations. Transport has throughout history been a spur to expansion; better transport allowsmore trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth has always been dependent on increasing [26]the capacity and rationality of transport. But the infrastructure and operation of transport has a greatimpact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue.Modern society dictates a physical distinction between home and work, forcing people to transportthemselves to places of work or study, as well as to temporarily relocate for other daily activities.Passenger transport is also the essence of tourism, a major part of recreationaltransport. Commercerequires the transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication forimportant decisions or to move specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed.[edit]PlanningMain article: Transport planningTransport planning allows for high utilization and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using modelsof transport forecasting, planners are able to predict future transport patterns. On the operative level,logistics allows owners of cargo to plan transport as part of the supply chain. Transport as a field isstudied through transport economics, the backbone for the creation of regulation policy byauthorities. Transport engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering, and must take into account tripgeneration, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment, while the operative level is handledthrough traffic engineering.
  11. 11. The engineering of this roundabout inBristol, United Kingdom, attempts to make traffic flow free-movingBecause of the negative impacts made, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related tochoice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Automotive transport can be seen as a tragedy of thecommons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urbanenvironment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport, with public transport allowingfor better spacial utilization. Good land use keeps common activities close to peoples homes and placeshigher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs; minimize the need for transport. Thereare economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient whenclustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking)can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in manycities there is too much traffic and many—if not all—of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only inrecent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result ofnew types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on—spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economistswho increasingly are questioning the viability of the old mobility solutions. European cities are leading thistransition.[edit]EnvironmentTraffic congestion persists in São Paulo, Brazil despite the no-drive days based on license numbers.Main article: Transport and the environmentTransport is a major use of energy and burns most of the worlds petroleum. This creates air pollution,including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through [27] [28]emission of carbon dioxide, for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector. By subsector, [29]road transport is the largest contributor to global warming. Environmental regulations in developedcountries have reduced individual vehicles emissions; however, this has been offset by increases in the [27]numbers of vehicles and in the use of each vehicle. Some pathways to reduce the carbon emissions of [30][31]road vehicles considerably have been studied. Energy use and emissions vary largely betweenmodes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-poweredtransport, as well as increasedtransport electrification and energy efficiency.
  12. 12. Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By reducingtransportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive effects on Earths air [32]quality, acid rain, smog and climate change.