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Time and Stress Management
What Is Stress?
 Stress
– Psychological, Emotional, Physiological
Response
 Stressors
– Threatening Environmental Condit...
Why Is Stress
Management Important?
 Organizational Costs
 Individual Costs
– Health Impairment
– Job Burnout
– Performa...
Exhibit 6.1: Relationship Between
Stress and Job Performance
Experiencing stress
STRESSORS
Anticipatory,
Encounter,Time,
Situational
REACTIONS
Physiological,
Psychological
RESILIENCY
...
Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process
Potential Stressors
Personal Factors
Family problems
Financial problem...
Managing Stress: Objectives
 Becoming Aware of Negative Stress
Symptoms
 Determining the Sources
 Determining the Cause...
How Can Awareness of Stress
Symptoms Be Enhanced?
 Physical Symptoms
 Psychological Substitutes
Never Rarely Sometimes O...
Sources of Stress
 Major Organizational Stressors
– High-stress Occupations
– Job Role
– Interpersonal Relationships
 Ma...
Types of Stressors: Causes
 Time
 Encounter
 Situational
 Anticipatory
Managing Stress
Eliminate
Stressors
Develop
Resiliency
Temporary
coping
mechanisms
Permanent
effects
Long term Short term
...
Resiliency:
 Physiological
– Cardiovascular
conditioning
– Proper diet
 Social
– Supportive relations
– Mentors
– teamwo...
Short term strategies
 Reframing
 Imagery
Types of stressors and what we can
do about them
 Time Stressors
– Work overload
– Lack of control
 Elimination Strategi...
Eliminating time stressors:
Time management
 “Effective time management can enable
managers to gain control over their ti...
Effective time management
means…
 Spending time on important, not just urgent
matters
 Distinguishing clearly between im...
Effective time management
URGENCY
High Low
IMPORTANCE
Low
High
80/20 Rule
Activities Time Spent Results
Trivial 80% 20%
Vital 20% 80%
Efficient time management
 Too little time; too much to do
 How do I get more done?
Schedule
Schedule Activities
• Horizontal Scheduling
• Vertical Scheduling
• Directing and Controlling
Rules
 Read selectively
 Make lists
 Everything in its place
 Prioritize
 Multitask the routine
 Discretionary task ...
Tips for managers
 Hold routine meetings at end of day
 Set time limit
 Hold meetings only if needed
 Agendas, minutes...
 Delegate
 Empowerment: allow for initiative
 Give credit to those who deserve it
Types of stressors and what we can
do about them
 Encounter Stressors:
– Role Conflicts
– Issue
– Interaction
 Eliminati...
Types of stressors and what we can
do about them
 Situational Stressors:
– Unfavourable working conditions
– Rapid change...
Work redesign
 Level of task demand
 Level of autonomy (individual control &
discretion)
 Level of interest
 Feedback
Types of stressors and what we can
do about them
 Anticipatory Stressors:
– Unpleasant expectations
– Fear
 Elimination ...
Stress and Self awareness
 Values
 Attitude towards change
 Cognitive style
 Interpersonal orientation
“There is more to life than
increasing its speed.”
Mahatma Gandhi
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Time and stress management skills

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Time and stress management skills

  1. 1. Time and Stress Management
  2. 2. What Is Stress?  Stress – Psychological, Emotional, Physiological Response  Stressors – Threatening Environmental Conditions
  3. 3. Why Is Stress Management Important?  Organizational Costs  Individual Costs – Health Impairment – Job Burnout – Performance Decline
  4. 4. Exhibit 6.1: Relationship Between Stress and Job Performance
  5. 5. Experiencing stress STRESSORS Anticipatory, Encounter,Time, Situational REACTIONS Physiological, Psychological RESILIENCY Physical Psychological Social
  6. 6. Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process Potential Stressors Personal Factors Family problems Financial problems Health problems Organizational Factors High stress occupation Job role Overload Under-utilization Role ambiguity Role conflict Responsibility for others Job Environment Poor working conditions Organizational politics Poor work relationships Environmental Factors Economic Uncertainty Technological Change Politics Consequences Psychological Heart Disease Ulcers Headaches Emotional Anxiety Depression Burnout Behavioral Aggression Productivity Avoidance Successful Coping High self esteem Goal accomplishment Feeling of well being Stress Management Individual Seek help Time management Change jobs Build resiliency Personality Companionship Experience Health (Exercise, diet) Relaxation Recreation Organizational Job Design Selection & Placement Training & Mentoring Team Building Employee Assistance Communicating Wellness Promotion Experienced Stress (SYMPTOM AWARENESS)
  7. 7. Managing Stress: Objectives  Becoming Aware of Negative Stress Symptoms  Determining the Sources  Determining the Cause  And then… – Cope temporarily with the stress – Eliminate stressors – Develop resiliency
  8. 8. How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced?  Physical Symptoms  Psychological Substitutes Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Constant fatigue [] [] [] [] [] Low energy level [] [] [] [] [] Recurring headaches [] [] [] [] [] Gastrointestinal disorders [] [] [] [] [] Bad breath [] [] [] [] [] Sweaty hands or feet [] [] [] [] [] Dizziness [] [] [] [] [] High blood pressure [] [] [] [] [] Pounding heart [] [] [] [] []
  9. 9. Sources of Stress  Major Organizational Stressors – High-stress Occupations – Job Role – Interpersonal Relationships  Major Personal Stressors – Family Problems – Financial Problems – Health Problems – Personality  Major Environmental Stressors – Economic Uncertainty – Political Uncertainties – Technological Change
  10. 10. Types of Stressors: Causes  Time  Encounter  Situational  Anticipatory
  11. 11. Managing Stress Eliminate Stressors Develop Resiliency Temporary coping mechanisms Permanent effects Long term Short term Enactive approach Proactive approach Reactive approach Long time required Moderate time required Immediate
  12. 12. Resiliency:  Physiological – Cardiovascular conditioning – Proper diet  Social – Supportive relations – Mentors – teamwork Psychological –Balanced lifestyle –Hardy personality –Small wins strategy –Relaxation techniques
  13. 13. Short term strategies  Reframing  Imagery
  14. 14. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Time Stressors – Work overload – Lack of control  Elimination Strategies – Principles of time management – Delegation
  15. 15. Eliminating time stressors: Time management  “Effective time management can enable managers to gain control over their time and organize their fragmented, chaotic environment.”
  16. 16. Effective time management means…  Spending time on important, not just urgent matters  Distinguishing clearly between importance and urgency  Focusing on results not methods  Not feeling guilty when saying no
  17. 17. Effective time management URGENCY High Low IMPORTANCE Low High
  18. 18. 80/20 Rule Activities Time Spent Results Trivial 80% 20% Vital 20% 80%
  19. 19. Efficient time management  Too little time; too much to do  How do I get more done?
  20. 20. Schedule Schedule Activities • Horizontal Scheduling • Vertical Scheduling • Directing and Controlling
  21. 21. Rules  Read selectively  Make lists  Everything in its place  Prioritize  Multitask the routine  Discretionary task jar  Divide up the big jobs  Critical 20%  Best time for important jobs  Arrange non-interrupted time  Don’t procrastinate  Keep track of time  Set deadlines  Use waiting time  Designate time for busy work  Closure on one thing a day  Schedule personal time  Limit worry time  Long term objectives  Continuous improvement
  22. 22. Tips for managers  Hold routine meetings at end of day  Set time limit  Hold meetings only if needed  Agendas, minutes  Start on time  Paper work decisions  Organize  Limit interruptions
  23. 23.  Delegate  Empowerment: allow for initiative  Give credit to those who deserve it
  24. 24. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Encounter Stressors: – Role Conflicts – Issue – Interaction  Elimination Strategies: – Delegation – Interpersonal skills  Conflict resolution  Resilience – Social support; Collaboration  Self awareness  EQ
  25. 25. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Situational Stressors: – Unfavourable working conditions – Rapid change  Elimination Strategies: – Work redesign – Changing jobs  Short term Strategies  resiliency
  26. 26. Work redesign  Level of task demand  Level of autonomy (individual control & discretion)  Level of interest  Feedback
  27. 27. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Anticipatory Stressors: – Unpleasant expectations – Fear  Elimination Strategies: – Time management  Priorities; planning  Short term strategies  Resiliency
  28. 28. Stress and Self awareness  Values  Attitude towards change  Cognitive style  Interpersonal orientation
  29. 29. “There is more to life than increasing its speed.” Mahatma Gandhi

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