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Microwave link communication system

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Microwave link communication system

  1. 1. MICROWAVE LINK COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Communications is the process of sending and/or receiving data, signal or information through the help of the different media.
  3. 3. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION  Wired Communication  Wireless Communication
  4. 4. MICROWAVE LINK DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS  In putting up microwave links, the different considerations are made:  Site Selection  Equipment selection  Tower Selection  Power Equipment  Lightning Protection
  5. 5. SITE SELECTION  In locating the sites, the following factors should be considered:  Terrain mapping for possible obstructions;  Geographical location, for possible line-of-sight path obstruction;  Adequate source of power and water;  Population on each site and;  Be in the vicinity of any popular landmark or a City in the region.  The proponents also considered the topographic map of every province covered by Region 3 for establishment of each site.
  6. 6. EQUIPMENT SELECTION  Microwave Antenna The microwave antenna that is to be chosen:  Must have high antenna gain;  And must not be too heavy and large for easy mounting in the tower.
  7. 7. EQUIPMENT SELECTION  microwave radio that is to be chosen must have:  A frequency at which the links is to be operated;  low receiver sensitivity value;  High transmitted output power;  An indoor and outdoor unit installation for eliminating the use of waveguides for transmission;  And must be a user-friendly interface for simple maintenance management.
  8. 8. EQUIPMENT SELECTION  Automatic Transfer Switch  The ATS must have the ability to be switched on and off to different sources that is the main power source and the backup source.  Air Conditioning Unit  The site must contain an air conditioning unit for proper cooling and must accommodate the whole room to maintain the proper temperature in which all the equipments are stored so that overheating and malfunctioning of the equipments is prevented.
  9. 9. TOWER SELECTION  The tower used must possess the following:  The capability of the tower to hold loads such as antennas and cables prior to construction;  The type of soil wherein the tower is raised must also be considered for any ground movement to prevent the tower from swaying;  The height of the tower must be enough in order to avoid obstructions;  The anticipated wind loading was identified under harsh condition and additional loading.
  10. 10.  A stand – by power equipment should be provided for possible power interruptions at the microwave site to maintain operation.  Generator  Uninterruptible Power Supply POWER EQUIPMENT
  11. 11. LIGHTNING PROTECTION  The lightning protection that will be used must contain the appropriate conductive paths for lightning currents and be able to disperse atmospheric discharge in order to prevent surge current to enter the equipments and sustain safety in the facility.
  12. 12. GROUNDING PROTECTION  The grounding equipment must be installed at every equipment inside the facility and must be coordinated with the lightning protection in order to prevent abrupt surge entering to the equipments thus making the equipments safe.
  13. 13. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTING  21 feet – 120 feet:  Use 2 obstruction lights;  151feet – 300 feet:  Use 2 obstruction lights at one-half way level of the tower & a beacon light at the top of the tower;  301 feet – 405 feet  Use 2 obstruction lights at 2/3 way level and a beacon at the top;  405 feet and above  Use various light combinations stated.
  14. 14. SAMPLE DESIGN  The following are the objectives of the design:  To construct a feasible microwave link between: Bamban, Hermosa, Bataan (Site 1) and Pulung Bulu, Angeles City, Pampanga(Site 2) with the frequency of 5Ghz;  To achieve an overall system reliability of 99.999999%;
  15. 15. PATH PROFILE 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Elevation Distance Site 1 Site 2
  16. 16. FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT
  17. 17. GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE CALCULATION The formula in getting the Great Circle Distance is as follows: A = |LONGITUDE 2 - LONGITUDE 1| b = 90° - LATITUDE 1 c = 90° - LATITUDE 2 cos a = (cos b) (cos c) + (sin b) (sin c) (cos A) Conversion factor: 1° = 60 nautical mile 1 nautical mile = 1.151 statute mile 1 statute mile = 1.609 kilometre
  18. 18. COMPUTATIONS:  Known Data Site Longitude Latitude A. Bamban, Hermosa, Bat aan 120°25’28.33” 14°48’31.96” B. Pulung Bulu, Angeles City, Pampanga 120°36’12.07” 15°8’1.95”
  19. 19. COMPUTATIONS:
  20. 20. ANTENNA ORIENTATION CALCULATION Where: C = difference of the longitudinal coordinates of the sites in a hop X = the computed coordinate of the first site Y = the computed coordinate of the second site
  21. 21. ANTENNA ORIENTATION CALCULATION
  22. 22. ANTENNA ORIENTATION CALCULATION
  23. 23. ANTENNA HEIGHT CALCULATION
  24. 24. ANTENNA HEIGHT CALCULATION
  25. 25. FRESNEL ZONE SHOWING ANTENNA HEIGHTS OF THE LINK
  26. 26. TRANSMISSION CALCULATION  The calculation of the power dissipation at certain points in the system wherein we can determine at what level of the signal will be received by the receiver part of the microwave link. The points are as follows: PT = P1 P2 = PT – TLLTX P3 = P2 + AGTX P4 = P3 – FSL P5 = P4 + AGRX P6 = P5 – TLLRX = RSL
  27. 27. TRANSMISSION CALCULATION
  28. 28. TRANSMISSION CALCULATION
  29. 29. LINK BUDGET OF HOP -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
  30. 30. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS Where: = expected outage time = the percent of time that the system is expected to operate without an outage.
  31. 31. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS
  32. 32. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS
  33. 33. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS  Reliability using Vigants and Barnette Method
  34. 34. RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS
  35. 35. REFLECTION POINT CALCULATION  The formulas for getting the reflection point are:
  36. 36. REFLECTION POINT CALCULATION
  37. 37. REFLECTION POINT CALCULATION
  38. 38. REFLECTION POINT OF HOP 1

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