S
Seizures and Epilepsy
Understanding the Brain:
The Neurobiology of Everyday Life
Final Presentation
July 2014
Seizures and Epilepsy: A
Primer
S Seizures are caused by an excess of neuronal activity in the
brain, and can occur anywhe...
Seizures and Epilepsy: A
Primer
S Seizures occur when the balance between neuronal excitation
and inhibition in the brain ...
Seizures and Epilepsy: A
Primer
Seizures and Epilepsy: A
Primer
Seizure Classification
S Seizures are first divided into 2 categories:
S Partial seizures
S Generalized seizures
S Partial...
Seizure Classification
S Partial seizures are then divided into 2 categories:
S Simple partial seizures have no loss of co...
Seizure Classification
Seizure Classification
Seizure Classification
S Generalized seizures are divided into several categories:
S Absence (formerly called petit mal): ...
Seizure Classification
S Complex partial seizures are the most common in adults
(estimates point to 40%)
S Simple partial ...
Controlling Seizures
S There is no single method or intervention that will uniformly
control seizures, although medicine i...
Seizures and this course…
S My interest in seizures stemmed from work I completed
at two children’s hospitals
S This cours...
Seizures and this course…
S Lectures on neurocommunication helped me understand
how electrical information travels through...
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Final project presentation

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Completed for Peggy Mason, Ph.D's Neurobiology of Behavior course.

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Final project presentation

  1. 1. S Seizures and Epilepsy Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life Final Presentation July 2014
  2. 2. Seizures and Epilepsy: A Primer S Seizures are caused by an excess of neuronal activity in the brain, and can occur anywhere in the brain S Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by recurrent and spontaneous seizures S Epilepsy encompasses the neurological, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional changes that result from seizures S Seizures are often thought of as an event, while epilepsy is the disorder
  3. 3. Seizures and Epilepsy: A Primer S Seizures occur when the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition in the brain shifts towards excitation S Seizure types are primarily dependent upon the location of the seizure and associated behaviors S E.g., seizures that occur in the motor cortex affect motor movement and control and are broadly referred to as “motor seizures” S Some areas of the brain are more prone to seizure activity than others (e.g., temporal lobe)
  4. 4. Seizures and Epilepsy: A Primer
  5. 5. Seizures and Epilepsy: A Primer
  6. 6. Seizure Classification S Seizures are first divided into 2 categories: S Partial seizures S Generalized seizures S Partial seizures are found on one side of the brain, thus they are focal S Generalized seizures occur bilaterally, or on both sides of the brain
  7. 7. Seizure Classification S Partial seizures are then divided into 2 categories: S Simple partial seizures have no loss of consciousness or memory S Complex partial seizures result in a loss of consciousness or memory, and may include an aura (which is a “warning” before a seizure) S Although rare, some experience secondarily generalized seizures S These are seizures that are focal, but then spread to both sides of the brain
  8. 8. Seizure Classification
  9. 9. Seizure Classification
  10. 10. Seizure Classification S Generalized seizures are divided into several categories: S Absence (formerly called petit mal): characterized by staring spells; may include eyelid fluttering S Tonic-clonic: characterized by a loss of consciousness followed by stiffening and rhythmic limb jerking S Myoclonic: characterized by jerks or series of jerks that are not rhythmic S Atonic: characterized by drop attacks, where the person may feel weak and fall to the ground S Tonic: characterized by muscle stiffening
  11. 11. Seizure Classification S Complex partial seizures are the most common in adults (estimates point to 40%) S Simple partial seizures account for 20% of episodes in adults S Tonic-clonic seizures (which are generalized) account for 20% S Absence seizures account for 20% of seizure episodes
  12. 12. Controlling Seizures S There is no single method or intervention that will uniformly control seizures, although medicine is often used S Seizures that are not controlled are controlled intractable (or refractory) seizures S The amygdala and hippocampus are often targets for retraction (or removal), although their relationship to seizures is not well understood S Increasing somatostatin (a hormone responsible for regulating the endocrine system) has also been used to reduce episodes
  13. 13. Seizures and this course… S My interest in seizures stemmed from work I completed at two children’s hospitals S This course broadened my understanding of neurology, disorders that affect the nervous system, basic neuroanatomy, and the brain-behavior relationship S Dr. Mason’s practical application of dense material made it easier for me to understand how epilepsy mainfests
  14. 14. Seizures and this course… S Lectures on neurocommunication helped me understand how electrical information travels through nerves, and how neural dysfunction impedes this process S Lectures on neural tube formation peaked my interest in the relationship between women with epilpesy bearing children who have neural tube defects S Lectures on motor control helped me understand how seizures present in children and adults

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