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Hsa Review_Unit Four


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Hsa Review_Unit Four

  1. 1. HSA Review: Unit Four
  2. 2. Making Congressional Districts Timeline <ul><li>1. National Government takes census (population count) every 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using the census data, the national govt . reapportions (divides up) the how many seats/districts each state receives in the House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Using the reapportionment info, states must create US Congressional districts of equal population . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Many States redistrict using controversial methods to help the majority political party in state legislature  process called Gerrymandering </li></ul>
  3. 4. Congressional Redistricting <ul><li>* Role of States : </li></ul><ul><li>- States redistrict  draw new Congressional boundaries based upon new census data every 10 years </li></ul>
  4. 5. USA Congress = Bi cameral Legislature (1) Bicameral Meaning  2 CHAMBERS (2) Main Function of Legislative Branch = Make Laws 1. Bill = suggested new Law 2. Lawmaking Process = many steps in lawmaking (like assembly line) 3. The Law = If both chambers & President signs, the bill becomes law
  5. 6. Influencing the Lawmaking Process <ul><li>1. Constituents (the people): </li></ul><ul><li>- write letters, sign petitions, meet with representatives, vote in referendums </li></ul><ul><li>2. Media: </li></ul><ul><li>- give an issue little or lots of attention </li></ul><ul><li>3. Interest Groups: </li></ul><ul><li>- persuade lawmakers to make bills to help their own interests </li></ul><ul><li>- Donate to campaigns via PAC’s! </li></ul>
  6. 7. Enumerated Congressional Powers Pages 157-161, Chart on 159 will be best help  Explain in your own words the meaning of these powers <ul><li>* Short Definition of Enumerated powers: specific Congressional powers in the Constitution </li></ul>Money Powers Military and Foreign Policy Powers Commerce (trade) Powers * collect taxes  “power of the purse” * regulates & prints money * Declare war * raise/support army & navy * regulate foreign and interstate (between states) commerce
  7. 8. Necessary and Proper Congressional Powers Pages 157-161, Chart on 159 will be best help  Explain in your own words the meaning of these powers <ul><li>1. Short Definition of Necessary and Proper powers : Powers Congress can do beyond their specific powers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nickname of Necessary and Proper Clause: Elastic Clause </li></ul>Necessary and Proper Money Powers Necessary and Proper Commerce (Business) Powers Necessary and Proper Military & Foreign Policy Powers Necessary and Proper Other Legislative Powers * Entitlements, public schools, Medicare, Medicaid, public housing * Create a military draft * regulate immigration laws * Prevent discrimination in businesses, restaurants
  8. 9. The Basics <ul><li>1. Civil Rights: political rights & freedoms guaranteed by Constitution for ALL Americans </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discrimination: Prejudice, usually based on race, religion, class, gender, disability, age. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Ending Racial & Gender Discrimination <ul><li>* Civil Rights Act (1964): </li></ul><ul><li>Employers, Schools, Businesses cannot discriminate based on race/gender/religion </li></ul><ul><li>* Voting Rights Act (1965): forbids states from discriminately preventing citizens from voting </li></ul><ul><li>- Bans poll taxes & literacy </li></ul><ul><li>tests </li></ul>
  10. 11. Civil Rights Act of 1964 excerpt <ul><li>“ All persons shall be entitled to full and equal employment of the…services…of any place of public accommodation…without discrimination or segregation on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin.” </li></ul><ul><li>* What does this mean?  Underline the key words </li></ul>
  11. 12. Political Cartoon <ul><li>* Women make up 51% of population  Only 36.4 percent of managers = Women (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>* For every $1 men make, women make about $.80 </li></ul><ul><li>* Why do you think women historically make less money than men? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Ending Gender Discrimination <ul><li>* Higher Education Act Title IX (1972): Forbids gender discrimination in any educational program </li></ul><ul><li>- includes school sports </li></ul><ul><li>- spur growth of women sports </li></ul><ul><li>*What is the opportunity cost of spending more money on women’s sports? </li></ul>
  13. 14. Ending Disability Discrimination <ul><li>* Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): Forbids discrimination against disabled people </li></ul><ul><li>* Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997) : guarantees all disabled children access to a free and appropriate public education </li></ul>
  14. 15. Civil Rights Practice <ul><li>1. Ellis feels that he shouldn’t have to take a literacy test in order to vote, however, the poll judge won’t let him vote until he proves he can read. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Juanita is frustrated that the boy’s soccer team gets new uniforms and cleats this season, while the girl’s team must wear smelly old uniforms and cleats. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Civil Rights Practice <ul><li>3. Norman Najaf walks into KFC after school. Norman overhears two workers making jokes about his skin color. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Crystal Cumplea ñ os recently broke her leg and uses a wheel chair. Crystal is annoyed that the mall does not have an elevator to make her shopping experience more pleasant. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Reggie Randall has legal documents that require him to have extra time taking tests, but his teacher refuses to let Reggie have extra time. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Nonlegislative Powers = Non-Lawmaking Powers <ul><li>1. Choose a President: </li></ul><ul><li>- If no presidential candidate receives a majority of electoral votes—the House chooses the President, Senate chooses the Vice President </li></ul><ul><li>2. Removal Power: </li></ul><ul><li>- House can impeach (accuse) the President of wrongdoing </li></ul><ul><li>- If impeached, the Senate conducts the trial </li></ul>
  17. 18. Nonlegislative Powers = Non-Lawmaking Powers <ul><li>3. Ratification Power: </li></ul><ul><li>- Senate must confirm all treaties </li></ul><ul><li>made with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>- Senate must confirm ( approve )= </li></ul><ul><li>all presidential appointments </li></ul><ul><li>4. Amendment Power: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) 2/3 of Congress can propose Constitutional amendments (changes) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) 3/4 of States must approve amendments </li></ul>