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The Lean Tech Stack

More and more organizations are following a Lean model for creating products. This model has been popularized by LeanUX and the Lean Startup movements which emphasize build-test-learn in rapid iterations. This talk (given at Open Web Camp 2012) looks at what has changed in the landscape and the lessons learned in creating user experiences in a lean manner.

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The Lean Tech Stack
Engineering Nimble Experiences
Bill Scott
Sr. Director UI Engineering
PayPal

July 14
Open Web Camp 2012
The Way it Was
Building a game
in 1985
Original Mac Quickdraw Toolkit
provided some GUI framework
pieces (like the Open File Box)

This bit of “path of least
resistance” was a powerful boost
to consistency and creating nice
looking Macintosh UIs

But there was still a lot le* to
create on your own
Developing a UI was still hard work




No internet. Open source was practically non-existent.

Hard to build (all native & assembly)

Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment

Reuse was something we longed for
Developing a UI was still hard work




No internet. Open source was practically non-existent.

Hard to build (all native & assembly)

Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment

Reuse was something we longed for
Developing a UI was still hard work




No internet. Open source was practically non-existent.

Hard to build (all native & assembly)

Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment

Reuse was something we longed for

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The Lean Tech Stack

  • 1. The Lean Tech Stack Engineering Nimble Experiences Bill Scott Sr. Director UI Engineering PayPal July 14 Open Web Camp 2012
  • 3. Building a game in 1985 Original Mac Quickdraw Toolkit provided some GUI framework pieces (like the Open File Box) This bit of “path of least resistance” was a powerful boost to consistency and creating nice looking Macintosh UIs But there was still a lot le* to create on your own
  • 4. Developing a UI was still hard work No internet. Open source was practically non-existent. Hard to build (all native & assembly) Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment Reuse was something we longed for
  • 5. Developing a UI was still hard work No internet. Open source was practically non-existent. Hard to build (all native & assembly) Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment Reuse was something we longed for
  • 6. Developing a UI was still hard work No internet. Open source was practically non-existent. Hard to build (all native & assembly) Long shelf life (long release cycles with 3.5” disk deployment Reuse was something we longed for
  • 7. ’85-’05. Lots of proprietary frameworks. Orbiter. 3D Graphics Library ESYView. Wargame simulator & briefing tool. Almost everything had to be written from the ground up (mapping projection library, double buffering, display lists, canvas) C++ Frameworks for Motif Tcl/TK Frameworks 3 JSP Frameworks (i2 Technologies, Sabre, Netflix) Rico. One of first Ajax/JS frameworks 2005.
  • 8. Sharing with the world Rico. One of the early Ajax/JS frameworks (2005) Launched Yahoo! Design Pattern Library (2006) Worked closely with YUI team (and built first carousel version)
  • 9. Sharing with the world Rico. One of the early Ajax/JS frameworks (2005) Launched Yahoo! Design Pattern Library (2006) Worked closely with YUI team (and built first carousel version) Lesson: The power of sharing and multiplying!
  • 11. Netflix way of working Different way of working, different culture
  • 12. Netflix way of working Different way of working, different culture 1. Working Model - Experience-Driven Start with experience Only customer is the member (no internal customers) We rarely talked about the “machine”. We talked about members.
  • 13. Netflix way of working Different way of working, different culture 1. Working Model - Experience-Driven Start with experience Only customer is the member (no internal customers) We rarely talked about the “machine”. We talked about members. 2. Culture - Rapid Experimentation Get it out live as fast as possible Fail fast Learn fast Don’t over think it
  • 15. Epiphany A A' B B' C C' D C D' A' E E' F F' G G'
  • 16. Epiphany A A' B B' C C' D C D' A' E E' F F' G G' 93% thrown away
  • 17. Epiphany Follow Build-Test-Learn A A' Design for volatility, throwaway- B B' ability C C' D C D' A' E E' At Netflix 90% or more of the UI F G F' G' code was thrown away every year 93% thrown away Doesn’t take too many tests to result in lots of throw away code
  • 18. Epiphany Follow Build-Test-Learn A A' Design for volatility, throwaway- B B' ability C C' D C D' A' E E' At Netflix 90% or more of the UI F G F' G' code was thrown away every year 93% thrown away Doesn’t take too many tests to result in lots of throw away code U I Layer = mentatio n Layer Experi
  • 20. # 1 Design for Volatility
  • 21. Stewart Brand - How Buildings Learn
  • 22. User Interface Shears Fastest Our so*ware is always tearing itself apart (or should be) Recognize that different layers change at different velocities Stewart Brand - How Buildings Learn
  • 23. User Interface Shears Fastest Our so*ware is always tearing itself apart (or should be) Recognize that different layers change at different velocities Stewart Brand - How Buildings Learn All buildings are predictions. All predictions are wrong. There's no escape from this grim syllogism, but it can be softened. - Brand
  • 24. Design at different velocities by layer
  • 25. Design at different velocities by layer Recognize that different parts of Stack change at different velocities “ a n y b u ild in g is a c t u a lly a h ie ra r c h y o f p ie c e s , e a c h o f w h ic h in h e r e n t ly c h a n g e s a t d iff e r e n t ra t e s ” - S t e w a r t B ra n d . H o w B u ild in g s L e a r n . Design for throwaway-ability (Volatility)! Use before you Reuse (optimize for change) Utilize packaging or Paths to capture experiments
  • 26. # 2 Start with the Expe rience
  • 32. Why start with experience? Stay honest & pure by having experience be the driver (not what your boss thinks or what looks good on your resume or what the loudest one in the room thinks) Remember... Use before you reuse Let the experience drive the engineering Reuse is an engineering optimization. Use is what users do.
  • 33. #3 Build in Rapid Expe rimen tation
  • 34. Build in Rapid Experimentation Think of the UI Layer as “The Experimentation Layer” Early rapid prototyping leads to learnings to get into the right ballpark Follow with live A/B Testing. Lots of it. Creates a healthy environment with constant customer feedback loops Contrast this with “Long Shelf Life” culture
  • 35. Lean UX: Key to Rapid Iteration Before Most sales of TurboTax at tax season led to conservative culture One major initiative a year. Now Test over 500 different changes in a 2 1/2 month tax season. Running up to seventy different tests per week. Make a change live on its website on Thursday, run it over the weekend, read the results on Monday, and come to conclusions starting Tuesday; then they rebuild new tests Ries, Eric (2011-09-13). The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses (p. 33). Random House, Inc.. Kindle Edition.
  • 36. Lean UX: Key to Rapid Iteration
  • 37. Lean UX: Key to Rapid Iteration Lean UX - co-located
  • 38. Lean UX: Key to Rapid Iteration Lean UX - co-located Product/Design team UIEs Usability/Customers And back again... Whiteboard Code to to code Usability
  • 39. Lean UX: Key to Rapid Iteration Lean UX - co-located Product/Design team UIEs Usability/Customers And back again... Whiteboard Code to to code Usability Remove the walls between teams Use shared understanding instead of documentation Make living code the design Everyone has skin in the game
  • 40. #4 Reuse W here Possible
  • 41. Requirements for Lean UI Stack Independent of the backend language Flexible enough to run in either the server or in the client Equally good at building web sites as it is building web applications Pushable outside of the application stack (publish model) Cleanly separated from the backend/app code (ideally by JSON) Utilize what is common to developers in the valley (what they use at night) Quick & easy to build & tear down components
  • 44. Startups move at Lean Speed Meebo - Power of Python/Django Spawned Instagram, GameClosure, Clover Acquired by Google 2012 Rypple - Rapid prototyping/Starbucks Usability Acquired by Salesforce 2011 Togetherville - Many Pivots Acquired by Disney 2010 BagCheck - Mobile first, get it live early, build on open source stack Acquired by Twitter 2011
  • 45. Engineering Lean It’s not all reuse. It is the experience. Stop re-inventing what has already been invented Github is your best friend. Make reuse your bootstrap. Remember Zuck’s Law “If I had to build this in a garage, how would I build it?” The bottom line: get the user feedback loop flowing and keep it flowing.
  • 46. The Mission Bringing Design to Life Quickly
  • 48. Presentation billwscott.com/share/presentations/2012/ow/ Blogs http://looksgoodworkswell.com http://designingwebinterfaces.com Follow me on twitter! @billwscott Book http://designingwebinterfaces.com Picture Credits (Creative Commons) http://www.flickr.com/photos/neilsingapore/4047105116/sizes/l/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/smb_flickr/439040132/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/therevsteve/3104267109/sizes/o/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/st3f4n/4193370268/sizes/l/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/eole/380316678/sizes/z/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/cobalt/3035453914/sizes/z/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/mbiskoping/6075387388/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/fragglerawker/2370316759/sizes/z/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/4685688778/sizes/z/