The landscape of content protection technology

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Presentation given at IDPF Digital Book 2012, Book Expo America, New York, NY, June 2012

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The landscape of content protection technology

  1. 1. The L dTh Landscape of Content P t ti f C t t Protection Technology: Implications for Digital Publishing June 5, 2012 Bill Rosenblatt GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.com billr@giantstepsmts.com 212 956 1045 1
  2. 2. Ways to Fight Copyright InfringementLegalEconomicBehavioralTechnical(Courtesy Larry Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace) 2
  3. 3. Ways to Fight Copyright InfringementLegal: Strengthen copyright lawEconomic: Make content cheaper & easier to accessBehavioral: Educate public about copyrightTechnical: Use technology to enforce copyright gy py g(Courtesy Larry Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace) 3
  4. 4. Technical Methods Proactive Reactive Limit what consumer can do  Don’t limit what consumer can with content do with content Encrypt content, require special  Search for infringing copies of s/w or h/w to decrypt content Ti access to user or device Tie t d i  Id tif their source by context Identify th i b t t identity or examination Expiry date & time  Create evidence for legal Limits on print, copy to infringement complaint clipboard, etc. 4
  5. 5. Technical Methods DRM Content Identification Limit what consumer can do  Don’t limit what consumer can with content do with content Encrypt content, require special  Search for infringing copies of s/w or h/w to decrypt content Ti access to user or device Tie t d i  Id tif their source by context Identify th i b t t identity or examination Expiry date & time  Create evidence for legal Limits on print, copy to infringement complaint clipboard, etc. 5
  6. 6. Pros and Cons of DRMConstituency Attribute DRMPublishers Piracy MaybeRetailers Lock-in YesLibraries E-lending SomeDistributors, E- Cost to implement Yesreader vendorsUsers Portability RestrictedUsers Sharing RestrictedUsers Borrowing SomeeReading Market Growth Fragmentation 6
  7. 7. Fragmentation: Current DRM f eBooks C t DRMs for B kDRM PlatformsAZW DRM Amazon Kindle devices/appsAdobe Content Server 4 B&N Nook Sony Reader Nook, Reader,(ACS4) Kobo Reader, various othersApple FairPlay iOS (iPhone, iPad)“Screen shot DRM” Google BooksFictionwise DRM B&N NookMicrosoft PlayReady Blio ReaderKobo Vox DRM Kobo Vox tablet 7
  8. 8. DRM in MusicPaid downloads DRM free DRM-freeiTunes post-DRM functionality restrictionsStreams (Spotify, Pandora) encrypted“Offline listening mode” in mobile subscription g p services (Spotify, Rhapsody, MOG) use DRM 8
  9. 9. DRM in Movies & TVProtection getting stronger not weaker stronger,“Software hardening” to deter hackingImpact of hacks limitedForensic antipiracy services to catch hacks p yUltraViolet standard for downloads: family accounts, rights locker, 5 DRMs, stream encryption locker DRMsWatermarking + encryption for early window high def 9
  10. 10. DRM for Corporate DocumentsProtect confidential informationAdjunct to corporate content management systemsComplements firewalls, DLP, SSO, etc.Strong protection gpIntegrated into Word, Excel, Acrobat, etc.Integrated with identity management 10
  11. 11. Content Identification in Publishing Watermarking Fingerprinting (Safari, (Safari Booxtream) (Attributor, (Attributor Irdeto) Adding user identity into to  Examining files to determine downloaded eBook their identity y User ID, real name, cc# in  Fancy form of pattern matching obfuscated or plaintext form  Requires web crawling to find Once, in every chapter, or on O i h t unauthorized copies online th i d i li every page  Cannot identify user who Legal one-click hacks possible one click copied content Web crawling optional  Hacks not relevant 11
  12. 12. Content Identification in Publishing Watermarking Fingerprinting Safari Books Online  At least 4 of Big 6 trade PDF downloads:  Majority of major K-12 and K 12 user’s name on every page higher ed Harry Potter EPUB downloads:  Many major STM and obfuscated user ID on copyright university presses i it page 12
  13. 13. Publishers Going DRM-Free?Genres: SF/fantasy, IT SF/fantasyDemographics: young/techie…otherwise most publishers do and will use DRM…and publishers either use it for e-lending or don’t p g allow e-lending at allParticularly hard to imagine higher ed & profesional going DRM-free 13
  14. 14. Non-Optimal ChoicesStatus quo Go DRM-freeStandardize strong DRM Standardize w’marking 14
  15. 15. Non-Optimal ChoicesStatus quo Go DRM-free • M k tf Market fragmentation t ti and slower e-readership g growth • Or monopolyStandardize tSt d di strong DRM Standardize ’ ki St d di w’marking 15
  16. 16. Non-Optimal ChoicesStatus quo Go DRM-free • M k tf Market fragmentation t ti • I Irreversible d i i ibl decision and slower e-readership • Not practical for some g growth models • Or monopoly • Might increase piracyStandardize tSt d di strong DRM Standardize ’ ki St d di w’marking 16
  17. 17. Non-Optimal ChoicesStatus quo Go DRM-free • M k tf Market fragmentation t ti • I Irreversible d i i ibl decision and slower e-readership • Not practical for some g growth models • Or monopoly • Might increase piracyStandardize tSt d di strong DRM Standardize ’ ki St d di w’marking • Expensive and complex • Resistance from retailers and device makers • Privacy issues 17
  18. 18. Non-Optimal ChoicesStatus quo Go DRM-free • M k tf Market fragmentation t ti • I Irreversible d i i ibl decision and slower e-readership • Not practical for some g growth models • Or monopoly • Might increase piracyStandardize tSt d di strong DRM Standardize ’ ki St d di w’marking • Expensive and complex • Privacy vs. efficacy • Resistance from retailers tradeoff and device makers • Hacks are legal • Privacy issues 18
  19. 19. IDPF Is Exploring a New Choice: EPUB LCP Lightweight Content Protection for EPUB 3 Open pro-competitive standard Use personal information (e.g. name email cc#) (e g name, email, as password, stored in obfuscated form Complementary to watermarking Library lending (expiry period) support 19
  20. 20. EPUB LCP is “Lightweight”Give away password to others, they can read content others – “Social DRM” concept – Who do you trust with your personal information?No “phoning home” – Heavyweight DRM depends on it – Can be used offline (or if retailer goes out of business)Designed to be extended for certain markets – More security – More business models 20
  21. 21. Heavyweight vs. Lightweight Heavyweight LightweightFile sharing Restricted “Social”Net cnxn required q Yes NoOne-click hacks No YesRecovery from hacks Possible Not possibleLegality of hacks Illegal IllegalCost/complexity Expensive/complex Cheaper/simplerBus model flexibility More Less 21
  22. 22. Security Strength of DRMs and Anticircumvention Law A ti i ti L Illegal under Anticircumvention LawNo DRM Light DRM Heavy DRM One-Click Hacks Available Watermark EPUB LCP ACS4, AZW Pay TV CAS/DRM 22
  23. 23. Models Not Possible with EPUB LCP  Separate license delivery – One file, multiple sets of rights  Domain authentication – “Family accounts”: multiple users and/or devices  License chaining – Subscription services  Master-slave –S Secure t transfer f f from PC t portable d i to t bl device  Forward-and-delete – Support for “Digital First Sale” Digital Sale 23
  24. 24. Window of OpportunityFragmentation increasing – E.g. Kobo replacing ACS4 with proprietary DRMAmazon at ~60% market share 60% – Tipping point between monopoly and fragmentationE-reading iE di going global l b l – Moving into higher-piracy marketsEUPB 2 – EPUB 3 transition t iti – Opportunity to rectify IDPF’s historical inaction on DRM 24
  25. 25. What IDPF Is DoingEngaged GiantSteps to help with EPUB LCP designDraft requirementsSoliciting comments from knowledgeable constituents… like you! 25
  26. 26. More Information www.giantstepsmts.comwww.copyrightandtechnology.com 26
  27. 27. Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategiesbillr@giantstepsmts.com212 956 1045www.giantstepsmts.comcopyrightandtechnology.com py g gy 27

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