Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies

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Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies

  1. 1. Copyright and Technology London 2012 19 June 2012 1
  2. 2. Opening Remarks Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.com www giantstepsmts com billr@giantstepsmts.com Twitter: @copyrightandtec +1 212 956 1045 2
  3. 3. www.giantstepsmts.com 3
  4. 4. www.copyrightandtechnology.com 4
  5. 5. www.musically.com 5
  6. 6. Twitter:#ctlondon2012 6
  7. 7. American Conference Jargon American BritishAttendee DelegateSeat PlaceBooth StandCocktail party Drinks receptionButts in seats Bums in seatsRipoff VAT 7
  8. 8. What Are We Discussing Today? 8
  9. 9. Interface between Copyright and Technology T h lDigital technology used to make and distribute copies at virtually no costCopyright i d t responses, all i t l t dC i ht industry ll interrelated: – Legal – Technological – Economic – Education 9
  10. 10. Technologies to Affect Copyright Content access control – DRM – Conditional Access Content identification – Filtering – License/royalty management Rights registries 10
  11. 11. Legal Concepts that Affect These Technologies T h l i Fair Dealing Exhaustion Secondary infringement liability Network service provider liability p y Anticircumvention legislation Blanket licensing of content 11
  12. 12. Technologies 12
  13. 13. Digital Rights Management 13
  14. 14. DRM is a “troubled”* technology… Why? *Jaron Lanier, You Are Not a Gadget, 2010 14
  15. 15. Factors Inhibiting DRM Success* Market:  Architecture: – Economic incentives – Technological innovation misaligned hampered – Commercial content must compete with free/illegal Norms:  Laws: – Users don’t see value in – Laws not amenable to choices of offers technological implementation – Norms distorted by architecture (technology) *Based on L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, 1999, pp. 88-90 15
  16. 16. Market: Economic Incentives Misaligned E i I ti Mi li dContent owners demand DRM but rarely pay for itDevice makers and network operators use it to suit their th i own purposesConsumers have only indirect market influence 16
  17. 17. Norms:Consumers Don’t Yet See Value in N ModelsC D ’t Y t S V l i New M d l Radio ulations Record Store LegacyEmu VCR BookstoreDig Native Free/Limited VOD New, gital Paid Subscription VOD On Demand Music 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Million U.S. Users (estimated) 17
  18. 18. Norms: Users Influenced towards Infringing B h i U I fl dt d I f i i BehaviorDefinition of DRM commandeered by the press – Narrower than original definitions – Yet broadened to apply to any technology that restricts user behavior in any way1Notion that DRM  Big Media  Evil/ObsoleteRomanticism & rationalization of hacker/pirate ethic“Lords f the Cloud” t the “free d“L d of th Cl d”2 get th “f and open” PR3 ”1C. Doctorow, M. Masnick, etc.2J Jaron Lanier, Y A Not a Gadget L i You Are N t G d t3Robert Levine, Free Ride 18
  19. 19. Architecture:Technological IT h l i l Innovation Hampered ti H d Lack of revenue for DRM vendors Venture capital scared off – B d press Bad – Non-sexy topic Researchers scared off R h d ff – RIAA actions against Prof. Ed Felten in 1999 – DRM research “politically incorrect” in U S politically incorrect U.S. 19
  20. 20. The Rights Technologies R&D Imbalance450 70400 60350 50300250 40 2009 Gross Expen‐ ditures on R&D 200 30 ($Billion)150 Rights Technologies  20 p R&D Output 100 (Research Papers) 10 Rights Technology  50 R&D Index 0 0 Device Producers Content Producers Sources: O C IMF S OECD, 20
  21. 21. Laws Not Amenable to Technological Implementation T h l i lI l t ti Fair Dealing/Fair Use laws not amenable to automation Privacy and due process are important but become obstacles Anticircumvention laws reduce incentive to develop effective technologies; liability solely on the hacker 21
  22. 22. Yet DRM Is Alive Today… Downloads Real Time DeliveryE-books Yes “Screenshot DRM” (page images)Music Mobile device Usually “offline listening (stream encryption) mode” d ”Video Yes In most release windows (stream encryption) (t ti ) 22
  23. 23. Will DRM Die?Not WhN t When It Enables N Models E bl New M d lService investment protection – Music: iTunes (originally) – E-books: Amazon E books: – Digital pay TVBusiness models – Subscription music services: Spotify, Deezer, etc – Library e-book lending: OverDrive y gSubsidized content – Amazon Prime: one e-book at a time “lending” g – MuveMusic: unlimited music downloads with phone 23
  24. 24. Content Identification 24
  25. 25. Techniques for Identifying Content Watermarking Fingerprinting 25
  26. 26. WatermarkingInserting/embedding data into “noise” portions of noise image, audio, or video signalInserting invisible data into e-book filesInserting visible personal info into e-book filesData capacity: typically a few dozen bytesTechnology appeared in mid-to-late 1990s – First for digital images – Audio and video later – PDFs & EPUBs most recent 26
  27. 27. FingerprintingExamining content to determine its identity – Compute a set of numbers (“fingerprints”) – Look up in database, see if there’s a matchBased on mathematical concept of hashing – But allows for different files that look/sound the same – Can compensate for certain transformations: excerpting, cropping, audio distortion, etc.History: y – 2002: Introduced for music during Napster litigation – 2006: Video fingerprinting introduced – 2007 “T t fi 2007: “Text fingerprinting” (Att ib t ) adopted b AP i ti ” (Attributor) d t d by 27
  28. 28. Content Identification Business B fit B i BenefitsDetecting and deterring unauthorized useTracking content usageDiscovery & recommendationsIncreasing Internet ad revenue gManaging assets and integrating systemsMonetizing transformational content uses 28
  29. 29. Legal Developments…and their Technical Solutions 29
  30. 30. Legal DevelopmentsNetwork operator liability“Free riding”Digital Exhaustion 30
  31. 31. Network Operator LiabilitySecondary liability (US def’ns) def ns) – Contributory: aiding and abetting infringement – Vicarious: “looking the other way” and benefiting from it looking way – Inducement: inducing others to infringe as business modelISP responsibility – Notice and takedown (US) – Notice and notice (Canada) ( ) – Graduated Response (France, South Korea, Taiwan, New Zealand, UK) 31
  32. 32. Technical Solutions Fingerprinting Watermarking Traffic analysis 32
  33. 33. “Free Riding”Monetizing links to copyrighted contentPosting links to illegal content (e.g. in cyberlockers)Monetizing content appearing in search results“Cloud sync” services(?) y () 33
  34. 34. Technical SolutionsFingerprinting & searchTagging content with “beacon” metatags – AP hNewsTagging content with rules for indexing and search results – ACAP 34
  35. 35. ExhaustionIf you obtain a copyrighted work legally legally, you can do what you want with itApplicability to digital d l d isA li bilit t di it l downloads i unclear lU.S. Copyright Office punted on it in 2001 reportDownloads covered under licenses, not copyright 35
  36. 36. Technical Solutions Forward“Forward and delete” DRM like functionality delete DRM-likeDescribed in 2001 U.S. Copyright Office paperImplemented by U.S. startup ReDigiDescribed in IEEE P1817 standard for “Consumer Ownable Digital Personal Property” 36
  37. 37. Conference Agenda 37
  38. 38. MorningKeynote: Eric Walter, General Secretary, HADOPIPlenary Session: Policing PiPl S i P li i PiracyPlenary Session: The Yin and Yang of Piracy Data Collection (sponsored by MarkMonitor) 38
  39. 39. Afternoon Technology Track Law & Policy Track Content Security  Rights Registries: Bringing Challenges in Multi Multi- Precision and Efficiency to Platform Distribution Rights Licensing Content Identification:  International Perspectives Progressive Response, on Digital Copyright Media Measurement and More 39
  40. 40. Thanks to our Sponsors 40
  41. 41. Thanks to our Media Sponsors 41
  42. 42. And finally… 42
  43. 43. Recommended Reading Robert Levine, Free Ride 43

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