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Models for hierarchical data

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Trees and Hierarchies in SQL
Trees and Hierarchies in SQL
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Models for hierarchical data

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Tree-like data relationships are common, but working with trees in SQL usually requires awkward recursive queries. This talk describes alternative solutions in SQL, including:

- Adjacency List
- Path Enumeration
- Nested Sets
- Closure Table

Code examples will show using these designs in PHP, and offer guidelines for choosing one design over another.

Tree-like data relationships are common, but working with trees in SQL usually requires awkward recursive queries. This talk describes alternative solutions in SQL, including:

- Adjacency List
- Path Enumeration
- Nested Sets
- Closure Table

Code examples will show using these designs in PHP, and offer guidelines for choosing one design over another.

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Models for hierarchical data

  1. 1. Models for Hierarchical Data with SQL and PHP Bill Karwin, Percona Inc.
  2. 2. Me • Software developer • C, Java, Perl, PHP, Ruby • SQL maven • MySQL Consultant at Percona • Author of SQL Antipatterns: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Database Programming www.percona.com
  3. 3. Problem • Store & query hierarchical data - Categories/subcategories - Bill of materials - Threaded discussions www.percona.com
  4. 4. Example: Bug Report Comments (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (6) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, please add a Yes, that’s a bug. that. check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  5. 5. Solutions •Adjacency list •Path enumeration •Nested sets •Closure table www.percona.com
  6. 6. Adjacency List www.percona.com
  7. 7. Adjacency List • Naive solution nearly everyone uses • Each entry knows its immediate parent comment_id parent_id author comment 1 NULL Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 2 1 Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 3 2 Fran No, I checked for that. 4 1 Kukla We need to check valid input. 5 4 Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 6 4 Fran Yes, please add a check 7 6 Kukla That fixed it. www.percona.com
  8. 8. Insert a New Node INSERT INTO Comments (parent_id, author, comment) VALUES (5, ‘Fran’, ‘I agree!’); (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (6) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, please add a Yes, that’s a bug. that. check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  9. 9. Insert a New Node INSERT INTO Comments (parent_id, author, comment) VALUES (5, ‘Fran’, ‘I agree!’); (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (6) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, please add a Yes, that’s a bug. that. check. (8) Fran: (7) Kukla: I agree! That fixed it. www.percona.com
  10. 10. Move a Node or Subtree UPDATE Comments SET parent_id = 3 WHERE comment_id = 6; (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (6) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, please add a Yes, that’s a bug. that. check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  11. 11. Move a Node or Subtree UPDATE Comments SET parent_id = 3 WHERE comment_id = 6; (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, that’s a bug. that. www.percona.com
  12. 12. Move a Node or Subtree UPDATE Comments SET parent_id = 3 WHERE comment_id = 6; (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, that’s a bug. that. www.percona.com
  13. 13. Move a Node or Subtree UPDATE Comments SET parent_id = 3 WHERE comment_id = 6; (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: I think it’s a null We need to check pointer. valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: No, I checked for Yes, that’s a bug. that. (6) Fran: Yes, please add a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  14. 14. Query Immediate Child/Parent • Query a node’s children: SELECT * FROM Comments c1 LEFT JOIN Comments c2 ON (c2.parent_id = c1.comment_id); • Query a node’s parent: SELECT * FROM Comments c1 JOIN Comments c2 ON (c1.parent_id = c2.comment_id); www.percona.com
  15. 15. Can’t Handle Deep Trees SELECT * FROM Comments c1 LEFT JOIN Comments c2 ON (c2.parent_id = c1.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c3 ON (c3.parent_id = c2.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c4 ON (c4.parent_id = c3.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c5 ON (c5.parent_id = c4.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c6 ON (c6.parent_id = c5.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c7 ON (c7.parent_id = c6.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c8 ON (c8.parent_id = c7.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c9 ON (c9.parent_id = c8.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c10 ON (c10.parent_id = c9.comment_id) ... www.percona.com
  16. 16. Can’t Handle Deep Trees SELECT * FROM Comments c1 LEFT JOIN Comments c2 ON (c2.parent_id = c1.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c3 ON (c3.parent_id = c2.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c4 ON (c4.parent_id = c3.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c5 ON (c5.parent_id = c4.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c6 ON (c6.parent_id = c5.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c7 ON (c7.parent_id = c6.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c8 ON (c8.parent_id = c7.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c9 ON (c9.parent_id = c8.comment_id) LEFT JOIN Comments c10 ON (c10.parent_id = c9.comment_id) ... it still doesn’t support unlimited depth! www.percona.com
  17. 17. SQL-99 recursive syntax WITH [RECURSIVE] CommentTree (comment_id, bug_id, parent_id, author, comment, depth) AS ( SELECT *, 0 AS depth FROM Comments WHERE parent_id IS NULL UNION ALL SELECT c.*, ct.depth+1 AS depth FROM CommentTree ct JOIN Comments c ON (ct.comment_id = c.parent_id) ) SELECT * FROM CommentTree WHERE bug_id = 1234; ✓ PostgreSQL, Oracle 11g, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, Apache Derby ✗ MySQL, SQLite, Informix, Firebird,etc. www.percona.com
  18. 18. Path Enumeration www.percona.com
  19. 19. Path Enumeration • Store chain of ancestors in each node comment_id path author comment 1 1/ Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 2 1/2/ Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 3 1/2/3/ Fran No, I checked for that. 4 1/4/ Kukla We need to check valid input. 5 1/4/5/ Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 6 1/4/6/ Fran Yes, please add a check 7 1/4/6/7/ Kukla That fixed it. www.percona.com
  20. 20. Path Enumeration • Store chain of ancestors in each node good for breadcrumbs comment_id path author comment 1 1/ Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 2 1/2/ Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 3 1/2/3/ Fran No, I checked for that. 4 1/4/ Kukla We need to check valid input. 5 1/4/5/ Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 6 1/4/6/ Fran Yes, please add a check 7 1/4/6/7/ Kukla That fixed it. www.percona.com
  21. 21. Query Ancestors and Subtrees • Query ancestors of comment #7: SELECT * FROM Comments WHERE ‘1/4/6/7/’ LIKE path || ‘%’; • Query descendants of comment #4: SELECT * FROM Comments WHERE path LIKE ‘1/4/%’; www.percona.com
  22. 22. Add a New Child of #7 INSERT INTO Comments (author, comment) VALUES (‘Ollie’, ‘Good job!’); SELECT path FROM Comments WHERE comment_id = 7; UPDATE Comments SET path = $parent_path || LAST_INSERT_ID() || ‘/’ WHERE comment_id = LAST_INSERT_ID(); www.percona.com
  23. 23. Nested Sets www.percona.com
  24. 24. Nested Sets • Each comment encodes its descendants using two numbers: - A comment’s left number is less than all numbers used by the comment’s descendants. - A comment’s right number is greater than all numbers used by the comment’s descendants. - A comment’s numbers are between all numbers used by the comment’s ancestors. www.percona.com
  25. 25. What Does This Look Like? (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  26. 26. What Does This Look Like? (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? 1 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 8 9 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 10 11 www.percona.com
  27. 27. What Does This Look Like? comment_id nsleft nsright author comment 1 1 14 Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 2 2 5 Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 3 3 4 Fran No, I checked for that. 4 6 13 Kukla We need to check valid input. 5 7 8 Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 6 9 12 Fran Yes, please add a check 7 10 11 Kukla That fixed it. www.percona.com
  28. 28. What Does This Look Like? comment_id nsleft nsright author comment 1 1 14 Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 2 2 5 Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 3 3 4 Fran No, I checked for that. 4 6 13 Kukla We need to check valid input. 5 7 8 Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 6 9 12 Fran Yes, please add a check 7 10 11 Kukla That fixed it. these are not foreign keys www.percona.com
  29. 29. Query Ancestors of #7 (1) Fran: ancestors What’s the cause of this bug? 1 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 13 child (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 8 9 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 10 11 www.percona.com
  30. 30. Query Ancestors of #7 SELECT * FROM Comments child JOIN Comments ancestor ON child.nsleft BETWEEN ancestor.nsleft AND ancestor.nsright WHERE child.comment_id = 7; www.percona.com
  31. 31. Query Subtree Under #4 (1) Fran: What’s the parent cause of this bug? 1 14 (2) Ollie: (4) Kukla: descendants We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 8 9 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 10 11 www.percona.com
  32. 32. Query Subtree Under #4 SELECT * FROM Comments parent JOIN Comments descendant ON descendant.nsleft BETWEEN parent.nsleft AND parent.nsright WHERE parent.comment_id = 4; www.percona.com
  33. 33. Insert New Child of #5 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? 1 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 8 9 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 10 11 www.percona.com
  34. 34. Insert New Child of #5 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? 1 16 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 15 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 10 11 8 9 14 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 12 10 13 11 www.percona.com
  35. 35. Insert New Child of #5 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? 1 16 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 15 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 10 11 8 9 14 12 (8) Fran: (7) Kukla: I agree! That fixed it. 8 9 10 12 13 11 www.percona.com
  36. 36. Insert New Child of #5 UPDATE Comments SET nsleft = CASE WHEN nsleft >= 8 THEN nsleft+2 ELSE nsleft END, nsright = nsright+2 WHERE nsright >= 7; INSERT INTO Comments (nsleft, nsright, author, comment) VALUES (8, 9, 'Fran', 'I agree!'); • Recalculate left values for all nodes to the right of the new child. Recalculate right values for all nodes above and to the right. www.percona.com
  37. 37. Query Immediate Parent of #6 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? 1 14 (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. 2 5 6 13 (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. 3 4 7 8 9 12 (7) Kukla: That fixed it. 10 11 www.percona.com
  38. 38. Query Immediate Parent of #6 • Parent of #6 is an ancestor who has no descendant who is also an ancestor of #6. SELECT parent.* FROM Comments AS c JOIN Comments AS parent ON (c.nsleft BETWEEN parent.nsleft AND parent.nsright) LEFT OUTER JOIN Comments AS in_between ON (c.nsleft BETWEEN in_between.nsleft AND in_between.nsright AND in_between.nsleft BETWEEN parent.nsleft AND parent.nsright) WHERE c.comment_id = 6 AND in_between.comment_id IS NULL; www.percona.com
  39. 39. Query Immediate Parent of #6 • Parent of #6 is an ancestor who has no descendant who is also an ancestor of #6. SELECT parent.* FROM Comments AS c JOIN Comments AS parent ON (c.nsleft BETWEEN parent.nsleft AND parent.nsright) LEFT OUTER JOIN Comments AS in_between ON (c.nsleft BETWEEN in_between.nsleft AND in_between.nsright AND in_between.nsleft BETWEEN parent.nsleft AND parent.nsright) WHERE c.comment_id = 6 AND in_between.comment_id IS NULL; querying immediate child is a similar problem www.percona.com
  40. 40. Closure Table www.percona.com
  41. 41. Closure Table CREATE TABLE TreePaths ( ancestor INT NOT NULL, descendant INT NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (ancestor, descendant), FOREIGN KEY(ancestor) REFERENCES Comments(comment_id), FOREIGN KEY(descendant) REFERENCES Comments(comment_id) ); www.percona.com
  42. 42. Closure Table • Many-to-many table • Stores every path from each node to each of its descendants • A node even connects to itself www.percona.com
  43. 43. Closure Table illustration (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  44. 44. Closure Table illustration (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  45. 45. Closure Table illustration (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  46. 46. Closure Table illustration (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  47. 47. What Does This Look Like? ancestor descendant comment_id author comment 1 1 1 2 1 Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 1 3 1 4 2 Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 1 5 3 Fran No, I checked for that. 1 6 1 7 4 Kukla We need to check valid 2 2 input. 2 3 5 Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 3 3 4 4 6 Fran Yes, please add a check 4 5 7 Kukla That fixed it. 4 6 4 7 5 5 requires O(n²) rows 6 6 6 7 7 7 www.percona.com
  48. 48. What Does This Look Like? ancestor descendant comment_id author comment 1 1 1 2 1 Fran What’s the cause of this bug? 1 3 1 4 2 Ollie I think it’s a null pointer. 1 5 3 Fran No, I checked for that. 1 6 1 7 4 Kukla We need to check valid 2 2 input. 2 3 5 Ollie Yes, that’s a bug. 3 3 4 4 6 Fran Yes, please add a check 4 5 7 Kukla That fixed it. 4 6 4 7 5 5 requires O(n²) rows 6 6 6 7 7 7 (but far fewer in practice) www.percona.com
  49. 49. Query Descendants of #4 SELECT c.* FROM Comments c JOIN TreePaths t ON (c.comment_id = t.descendant) WHERE t.ancestor = 4; www.percona.com
  50. 50. Paths Starting from #4 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  51. 51. Query Ancestors of #6 SELECT c.* FROM Comments c JOIN TreePaths t ON (c.comment_id = t.ancestor) WHERE t.descendant = 6; www.percona.com
  52. 52. Paths Terminating at #6 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  53. 53. Insert New Child of #5 INSERT INTO Comments VALUES (8, ‘Fran’, ‘I agree!’); INSERT INTO TreePaths (ancestor, descendant) SELECT ancestor, 8 FROM TreePaths WHERE descendant = 5 UNION ALL SELECT 8, 8; www.percona.com
  54. 54. Copy Paths from Parent (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (8) Fran: (7) Kukla: I agree! That fixed it. www.percona.com
  55. 55. Copy Paths from Parent (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (8) Fran: (7) Kukla: I agree! That fixed it. www.percona.com
  56. 56. Copy Paths from Parent (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (8) Fran: (7) Kukla: I agree! That fixed it. www.percona.com
  57. 57. Delete Child #7 DELETE FROM TreePaths WHERE descendant = 7; www.percona.com
  58. 58. Delete Paths Terminating at #7 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  59. 59. Delete Paths Terminating at #7 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  60. 60. Delete Paths Terminating at #7 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. www.percona.com
  61. 61. Delete Paths Terminating at #7 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  62. 62. Delete Subtree Under #4 DELETE FROM TreePaths WHERE descendant IN (SELECT descendant FROM TreePaths WHERE ancestor = 4); www.percona.com
  63. 63. Delete Any Paths Under #4 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  64. 64. Delete Any Paths Under #4 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null pointer. check valid input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  65. 65. Delete Any Paths Under #4 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (2) Ollie: I think it’s a null pointer. (3) Fran: No, I checked for that. www.percona.com
  66. 66. Delete Any Paths Under #4 (1) Fran: What’s the cause of this bug? (4) Kukla: (2) Ollie: We need to I think it’s a null check valid pointer. input. (3) Fran: (5) Ollie: (6) Fran: No, I checked Yes, that’s a Yes, please add for that. bug. a check. (7) Kukla: That fixed it. www.percona.com
  67. 67. Path Length • Add a length column ancestor descendant length • MAX(length) is depth of tree 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 3 2 • Makes it easier to query 1 1 4 5 1 2 immediate parent or child: 1 6 2 1 7 3 SELECT c.* 2 2 0 FROM Comments c 2 3 1 JOIN TreePaths t 3 3 0 4 4 0 ON (c.comment_id = t.descendant) 4 5 1 WHERE t.ancestor = 4 4 6 1 AND t.length = 1; 4 7 2 5 5 0 6 6 0 6 7 1 7 7 0 www.percona.com
  68. 68. Path Length • Add a length column ancestor descendant length • MAX(length) is depth of tree 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 3 2 • Makes it easier to query 1 1 4 5 1 2 immediate parent or child: 1 6 2 1 7 3 SELECT c.* 2 2 0 FROM Comments c 2 3 1 JOIN TreePaths t 3 3 0 4 4 0 ON (c.comment_id = t.descendant) 4 5 1 WHERE t.ancestor = 4 4 6 1 AND t.length = 1; 4 7 2 5 5 0 6 6 0 6 7 1 7 7 0 www.percona.com
  69. 69. Choosing the Right Design Design Tables Query Query Delete Insert Move Referential Child Subtree Node Node Subtree Integrity Adjacency 1 Easy Hard Easy Easy Easy Yes List Path 1 Hard Easy Easy Easy Easy No Enumeration Nested Sets 1 Hard Easy Hard Hard Hard No Closure 2 Easy Easy Easy Easy Easy Yes Table www.percona.com
  70. 70. PHP Demo of Closure Table www.percona.com
  71. 71. Hierarchical Test Data • Integrated Taxonomic Information System - http://itis.gov/ - Free authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, microbes - 518,756 scientific names (as of Feb 2011) www.percona.com
  72. 72. California Poppy Kingdom: Plantae Division: Tracheobionta Class: Magnoliophyta Order: Magnoliopsida unranked: Magnoliidae unranked: Papaverales Family: Papaveraceae Genus: Eschscholzia Species: Eschscholzia californica www.percona.com
  73. 73. California Poppy Kingdom: Plantae Division: Tracheobionta Class: Magnoliophyta Order: Magnoliopsida unranked: Magnoliidae unranked: Papaverales Family: Papaveraceae Genus: Eschscholzia Species: Eschscholzia californica id=18956 www.percona.com
  74. 74. California Poppy: ITIS Entry SELECT * FROM Hierarchy WHERE hierarchy_string LIKE ‘%-18956’; hierarchy_string 202422-564824-18061-18063-18064-18879-18880-18954-18956 www.percona.com
  75. 75. California Poppy: ITIS Entry SELECT * FROM Hierarchy WHERE hierarchy_string LIKE ‘%-18956’; hierarchy_string 202422-564824-18061-18063-18064-18879-18880-18954-18956 ITIS data uses ...but I converted path enumeration it to closure table www.percona.com
  76. 76. Hierarchical Data Classes abstract class ZendX_Db_Table_TreeTable extends Zend_Db_Table_Abstract { public function fetchTreeByRoot($rootId, $expand) public function fetchBreadcrumbs($leafId) } www.percona.com
  77. 77. Hierarchical Data Classes class ZendX_Db_Table_Row_TreeRow extends Zend_Db_Table_Row_Abstract { public function addChildRow($childRow) public function getChildren() } class ZendX_Db_Table_Rowset_TreeRowset extends Zend_Db_Table_Rowset_Abstract { public function append($row) } www.percona.com
  78. 78. Using TreeTable class ItisTable extends ZendX_Db_Table_TreeTable { protected $_name = “longnames”; protected $_closureName = “treepaths”; } $itis = new ItisTable(); www.percona.com
  79. 79. Breadcrumbs $breadcrumbs = $itis->fetchBreadcrumbs(18956); foreach ($breadcrumbs as $crumb) { print $crumb->completename . “ > ”; } Plantae > Tracheobionta > Magnoliophyta > Magnoliopsida > Magnoliidae > Papaverales > Papaveraceae > Eschscholzia > Eschscholzia californica > www.percona.com
  80. 80. Breadcrumbs SQL SELECT a.* FROM longnames AS a INNER JOIN treepaths AS c ON a.tsn = c.a WHERE (c.d = 18956) ORDER BY c.l DESC www.percona.com
  81. 81. How Does it Perform? • Query profile = 0.0006 sec • MySQL EXPLAIN: table type key ref rows extra c ref tree_dl const 9 Using where; Using index a eq_ref primary c.a 1 www.percona.com
  82. 82. Dump Tree $tree = $itis->fetchTreeByRoot(18880); // Papaveraceae print_tree($tree); function print_tree($tree, $prefix = ‘’) { print “{$prefix} {$tree->completename}n”; foreach ($tree->getChildren() as $child) { print_tree($child, “{$prefix} ”); } } www.percona.com
  83. 83. Dump Tree Result Papaveraceae Romneya Platystigma Romneya coulteri Platystigma linearis Romneya trichocalyx Glaucium Dendromecon Glaucium corniculatum Dendromecon harfordii Glaucium flavum Dendromecon rigida Chelidonium Eschscholzia Chelidonium majus Eschscholzia californica Bocconia Eschscholzia glyptosperma Bocconia frutescens Eschscholzia hypecoides Stylophorum Eschscholzia lemmonii Stylophorum diphyllum Eschscholzia lobbii Stylomecon Eschscholzia minutiflora Stylomecon heterophylla Eschscholzia parishii Canbya Eschscholzia ramosa Canbya aurea Eschscholzia rhombipetala Canbya candida Eschscholzia caespitosa Chlidonium etc... Chlidonium majus www.percona.com
  84. 84. Dump Tree SQL SELECT d.*, p.a AS _parent FROM treepaths AS c INNER JOIN longnames AS d ON c.d = d.tsn LEFT JOIN treepaths AS p ON p.d = d.tsn AND p.a IN (202422, 564824, 18053, 18020) AND p.l = 1 WHERE (c.a = 202422) AND (p.a IS NOT NULL OR d.tsn = 202422) ORDER BY c.l, d.completename; www.percona.com
  85. 85. Dump Tree SQL show children SELECT d.*, p.a AS _parent of these nodes FROM treepaths AS c INNER JOIN longnames AS d ON c.d = d.tsn LEFT JOIN treepaths AS p ON p.d = d.tsn AND p.a IN (202422, 564824, 18053, 18020) AND p.l = 1 WHERE (c.a = 202422) AND (p.a IS NOT NULL OR d.tsn = 202422) ORDER BY c.l, d.completename; www.percona.com
  86. 86. How Does it Perform? • Query profile = 0.20 sec on Macbook Pro • MySQL EXPLAIN: table type key ref rows extra c ref tree_adl const 114240 Using index; Using temporary; Using filesort d eq_ref primary c.d 1 p ref tree_dl c.d, 1 Using where; Using index const www.percona.com
  87. 87. SHOW CREATE TABLE CREATE TABLE `treepaths` ( `a` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0', `d` int(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0', `l` tinyint(3) unsigned NOT NULL DEFAULT '0', PRIMARY KEY (`a`,`d`), KEY `tree_adl` (`a`,`d`,`l`), KEY `tree_dl` (`d`,`l`), CONSTRAINT FOREIGN KEY (`a`) REFERENCES `longnames` (`tsn`), CONSTRAINT FOREIGN KEY (`d`) REFERENCES `longnames` (`tsn`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB www.percona.com
  88. 88. SHOW TABLE STATUS Name: treepaths Engine: InnoDB Version: 10 Row_format: Compact Rows: 4600439 Avg_row_length: 62 Data_length: 288276480 Max_data_length: 0 Index_length: 273137664 Data_free: 7340032 www.percona.com
  89. 89. Demo Time! www.percona.com
  90. 90. SQL Antipatterns http://www.pragprog.com/titles/bksqla/ www.percona.com

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