SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 51
Download to read offline
The Biology of Disadvantage: Childhood Poverty,
Health, and Achievement
Nicole Hair
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department of Economics and Institute for Research on Poverty
March 2, 2014
Talk Outline
Stylized facts about “disadvantage” and inequality
Consequences of childhood poverty for physical health,
behavior, early achievement and educational attainment
Theoretical framework for understanding how poverty might
affect children and families
Exploration of potential link between childhood poverty and
brain structure and development
Programs and policy responses aimed at mitigating influence
of poverty on children
What is Poverty?
Having little or no money or means of financial support
Federal government created a set of poverty thresholds in the
1960s
In 2012, the poverty threshold (FPL) for family of three was
$19,090 and for a family of four it was $23,050
US poverty rate 15% and WI poverty rate 11.4% in 2012
Alternative poverty measures are increasingly recognized as
important
US Census Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) takes into
account government benefits and necessary expenses like
taxes that are not in the official measure
2012 SPM poverty rate 16% slightly higher than official rate
Consequences of Childhood Poverty
Income gradient in health
Children (and Adults) in poorer households tend to have
poorer health
Relationship holds across numerous dimensions or indicators
of children’s health status
Case, Lubotsky & Paxson, Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient, American Economic Review, vol. 92, iss. 5, pp. 1308-1334 (2002)
Case, Lubotsky & Paxson, Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the
Gradient, American Economic Review, vol. 92, iss. 5, pp. 1308-1334 (2002)
Marginal Effects of Parental Income Level on Children
(6 to 17 years) Reported Being in Fair or Poor Health
Marginal Effects of Household Income Level on Adults’ Health
(Reported Being in Fair or Poor Health)
Currie and Lin, Chipping Away At Health: More On The Relationship Between Income And Child Health, Health Affairs
(2007) vol. 26 no. 2: 331-344
Adapted from: Currie and Lin, Chipping Away At Health: More On The Relationship Between Income And Child Health, Health Affairs (2007) vol. 26 no. 2: 331-344
Low-income children are in worse health than other children
Low-income children are more likely than other children to have chronic or
acute condition and are more likely to be limited by these conditions
Income Achievement Gap
Socioeconomic disparities in cognitive outcomes and academic
achievement have been well-documented
Childhood poverty associated with lower scores on
standardized tests, poorer grades in school, & less educational
attainment
(Brooks-Gunn, 1997; Haveman & Wolfe, 1995; Dahl & Lochner, 2012)
Observed ability gaps across SES groups open up at early ages
(Duncan et al., 1998; Cuhna et al., 2006)
Low income children enter school with higher levels of problem
behavior and these differences persist
Low income children enter school with lower levels of academic
skills and these differences persist
Bottom Line
Observed income gradient in health: children in poorer
households tend to have poorer health
Disparities in cognitive outcomes and academic achievement
also well-documented
Childhood poverty associated with lower scores on
standardized tests, poorer grades in school, & less educational
attainment
How does poverty lead to these
disparities??
Relatively little known about how early exposure to poverty
translated into deficits in cognition and achievement
Recent research efforts involving biomarkers and brain scans
attempt to gain insight into “black box” linking poverty to
poor health and deficits in achievement
Research on tie between poverty and anatomy of the
brain with Jamie Hanson, Seth Pollak, Barbara Wolfe and others
Goal of project: bring insight into what “causes” income achievement
gap
Potential neurobiological channel - explore whether brain structure/
development may serve as one bridge linking socioeconomic status to
achievement
SES, Environment & Brain Plasticity
Brain structure and development offer window into processes
linking poverty to deficits in cognition and academic achievement
Childhood poverty associated with inequities in both physical and
psychological environments (Evans, 2004)
↑ levels of life stress (family instability, violence) and exposure to
environmental toxins
↓ parental nurturance and cognitive stimulation in the home
Research with animals shows strong link between environment and brain
Environmental stimulation or enrichment, parental nurturance,
early life stress all affect brain growth and functioning
(Rosenzweig et al., 1978; Greenough et al., 1975, 1978; Zhang et al., 2004)
Small studies with humans suggest alterations in structure or functioning
(for review, Hackman & Hanson 2012)
Developed to aid in understanding brain maturation in
“healthy, typically-developing” infants, children, & adults
Size and scope unprecedented
Objective 1: children and adolescents 4 to 18 years
823 observations from 389 unique children
Objective 2: infants to age 4 years
200 observations from 81 unique children
Anatomic MRI scans, cognitive & behavioral assessments,
demographic characteristics
Scans “interpreted” using structural imaging techniques
(voxel based morphometry)
FIGURE 1: This figure shows example axial slices from a typical subject scanned at birth (left column), 2 (middle
column), and 4 years old (right column). T1 MRI, T2 MRI, and segmented gray matter (green) and white matter
(red) are provided.
Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant
Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
A Bit of Background
Anatomy of the Brain
Brain can be divided into 2 hemispheres - right and left
3 types of materials or tissue
Gray matter - what fires in brain
White matter - wires of brain
Cerebrospinal fluid - jello like substance absorbs impact
Four lobes
Occipital - visual regions
Parietal - sensation and perception
Temporal - memory, emotion, auditory
Frontal - executive functions
Selecting Brain Regions of Interest
Cognitive neuroscience guides selection of brain regions of interest
Selection Criteria:
1. Critical for sustained attention, planning, & cognitive flexibility
Implications for learning and academic functioning
2. Protracted period of post-natal development
More likely to be vulnerable to environmental experience
3. Focus on gray matter tissue
Less heritable than other brain tissues (Gilmore et al., 2010)
Brain Regions of Interest
Total gray matter
processing information, execution of actions
Frontal lobe
problem solving, attentional control, complex learning
Temporal lobe
memory, language comprehension
(word identification, relation of heard sounds to letters of alphabet, attachment
of meaning to words)
Hippocampus
learning, long-term memory (portion of temporal lobe)
RESULTS: Infants
1. Infants from low-income families show delayed
trajectories of brain development
Used our estimated parameters to project total gray matter
volume trajectories for infants of varying economic
backgrounds based on the federal poverty level: 100
2. Results specific to gray matter critical for processing of
information and execution of actions
Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray
matter AND slower trajectories of growth during infancy and
early childhood
3. Delays tied to emergence of disruptive behavioral
problems among impoverished children
Use Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); focus on childrens
internalizing and externalizing behaviors
Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects
the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects
the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects
the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
RESULTS: Children and Adolescents
1. Examine potential neurobiological link between between
poverty and deficits in cognitive and achievement
outcomes
Establish a reference for normative brain development
Examine influence of poverty on regions of the brain critical for
scholastic achievement, adjusting for developmental norms
2. Childhood poverty associated with atypical development
in total gray matter, the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe,
and the hippocampus
Children from poor households display a maturational lag:
Regional volumes 5 to 8 percentage points below
developmental norms
3. Tie regions of the brain to performance on standardized
tests
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)
Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III)
Normative Developmental Curve: Temporal Lobe Gray Matter
Normative Developmental Curve: Hippocampus Gray Matter
80
85
90
95
100
105
RegionalVolumeasPercentageofAge-andSex-
SpecificNorm
Socioeconomic Status and Anatomic Brain Development
Low Income (<$25,000)
60
65
70
75
Total Gray Matter Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Hippocampus
RegionalVolumeasPercentageofAge
SpecificNorm
Express regional volumes as percentage of sex- and age-specific norm
Examine deviations from norm among low income children
Define household as low income or “poor” if reported household income
below $25,000 (approximately 133% of FPL for family of four over our
sample period)
80
85
90
95
100
105
RegionalVolumeasPercentageofSex-andAge-
SpecificNorm
Socioeconomic Status and Anatomic Brain Development
Poor <$25,000 Near Poor $25,000-$35,000 High Income >$35,000
60
65
70
75
Total Gray Matter Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Hippocampus
RegionalVolumeasPercentageofSex
SpecificNorm
Takeaways: Childhood Poverty and the Brain
Poverty associated with atypical development
Concentrated among poorest children (below 133% FPL)
Regional volumes 5 to 8 percentage points below norms
Maturational lag begins to emerge in infancy
Each region tied to performance on indices of academic ability
and/or childhood disruptive behaviors
Consequences of atypical development for scholastic success
Skills important determinants for range of adult outcomes
Without interventions to mitigate influence of poverty,
children’s potential limited at young ages by this tie
Programs and Policy Responses
What works to lessen poverty’s influence on children?
Extended development of critical brain regions establishes
both greater vulnerability and opportunity
Development highly sensitive to changes in the environment
and nurturance - both negative and positive
Suggests interventions to remediate early environments may
have some success in altering link between poverty and
deficits in achievement
Income Support Programs
Earned Income Tax Credit
Significant increases in math and reading test scores among
children whose families qualified for the credit (Dahl and Lochner, 2012)
Casino revenues to American Indian families
Positive effects of income disbursements on high school
graduation and educational attainment (Akee et al, 2012)
Can we generalize to other types of programs?
Child tax credit, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(SNAP) increase families economic resources in similar ways.
Early Childhood Education (3 to 5 year olds)
Consistent evidence of short-run effects non-experimental
evidence of long-run benefits from several program models
i.e., Perry Preschool and Abecedarian
Shown to increase long-term school attainment and earnings
as well as reduce crime and the risk of adult poverty
(Duncan, Ludwig, and Magnuson, 2010)
Innovations and Uncertainty
Home visiting programs
Much to learn about how to promote positive parent-child
interactions
Approaches in very early childhood (birth-3)
How to balance income support and employment
Combining approaches
Where should building parents human capital fit in?

More Related Content

What's hot

Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster
Joanpan
 
Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster
Joanpan
 
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
Anura Jayasinghe
 

What's hot (18)

lacking education due to poverty
lacking education due to povertylacking education due to poverty
lacking education due to poverty
 
Citizenship 2 project
Citizenship 2 projectCitizenship 2 project
Citizenship 2 project
 
Poverty in india
Poverty in indiaPoverty in india
Poverty in india
 
Effects of poverty
Effects of povertyEffects of poverty
Effects of poverty
 
Future Without Poverty
Future Without PovertyFuture Without Poverty
Future Without Poverty
 
Poverty
PovertyPoverty
Poverty
 
CFD 163-Chapter 1-Perspectives on Intimate Relationships
CFD 163-Chapter 1-Perspectives on Intimate RelationshipsCFD 163-Chapter 1-Perspectives on Intimate Relationships
CFD 163-Chapter 1-Perspectives on Intimate Relationships
 
Factors affecting growth, maturation,physical activity
Factors affecting growth, maturation,physical activityFactors affecting growth, maturation,physical activity
Factors affecting growth, maturation,physical activity
 
Health equity coalition vision
Health equity coalition visionHealth equity coalition vision
Health equity coalition vision
 
Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster
 
Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster
 
Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster Joan pan poster
Joan pan poster
 
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
Weekly Epidemiological Report Losing or Gaining VOL 33 NO 02
 
Teenage pregnancy
Teenage pregnancyTeenage pregnancy
Teenage pregnancy
 
TEENAGE PREGNANCY
TEENAGE PREGNANCYTEENAGE PREGNANCY
TEENAGE PREGNANCY
 
Disasters and the cycle of poverty
Disasters and the cycle of povertyDisasters and the cycle of poverty
Disasters and the cycle of poverty
 
Week 13
Week  13Week  13
Week 13
 
Child poverty
Child povertyChild poverty
Child poverty
 

Viewers also liked

Causes and Effects of Poverty
Causes and Effects of PovertyCauses and Effects of Poverty
Causes and Effects of Poverty
Lyndon Leow
 
Poverty slideshow
Poverty slideshowPoverty slideshow
Poverty slideshow
kraekerc
 
Poverty Powerpoint
Poverty PowerpointPoverty Powerpoint
Poverty Powerpoint
smuench
 
Sgp child poverty
Sgp child povertySgp child poverty
Sgp child poverty
jgrover1024
 
Causes of poverty
Causes of povertyCauses of poverty
Causes of poverty
Sajid Ali
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Child Poverty
Child PovertyChild Poverty
Child Poverty
 
Causes and Effects of Poverty
Causes and Effects of PovertyCauses and Effects of Poverty
Causes and Effects of Poverty
 
Poverty
PovertyPoverty
Poverty
 
Poverty slideshow
Poverty slideshowPoverty slideshow
Poverty slideshow
 
Poverty
PovertyPoverty
Poverty
 
Poverty ppt
Poverty pptPoverty ppt
Poverty ppt
 
Ppt on poverty, poverty, poverty in india, poverty in world, world poverty, p...
Ppt on poverty, poverty, poverty in india, poverty in world, world poverty, p...Ppt on poverty, poverty, poverty in india, poverty in world, world poverty, p...
Ppt on poverty, poverty, poverty in india, poverty in world, world poverty, p...
 
Poverty Powerpoint
Poverty PowerpointPoverty Powerpoint
Poverty Powerpoint
 
Steps to End Child Poverty?
Steps to End Child Poverty?Steps to End Child Poverty?
Steps to End Child Poverty?
 
Child Poverty Research Day: Setting the Scene - David Steward, 'Child Poverty'
Child Poverty Research Day: Setting the Scene - David Steward, 'Child Poverty'Child Poverty Research Day: Setting the Scene - David Steward, 'Child Poverty'
Child Poverty Research Day: Setting the Scene - David Steward, 'Child Poverty'
 
Socio Economic Status Presentation
Socio Economic Status PresentationSocio Economic Status Presentation
Socio Economic Status Presentation
 
Teaching with poverty in mind
Teaching with poverty in mindTeaching with poverty in mind
Teaching with poverty in mind
 
Are we there yet?: Five years on the road to addressing child poverty – a pre...
Are we there yet?: Five years on the road to addressing child poverty – a pre...Are we there yet?: Five years on the road to addressing child poverty – a pre...
Are we there yet?: Five years on the road to addressing child poverty – a pre...
 
Sgp child poverty
Sgp child povertySgp child poverty
Sgp child poverty
 
Poverty
PovertyPoverty
Poverty
 
Types of Learners
Types of LearnersTypes of Learners
Types of Learners
 
Causes of poverty
Causes of povertyCauses of poverty
Causes of poverty
 

Similar to Poverty slides

Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to tMiddle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
DioneWang844
 
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docxWhat did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
berthacarradice
 
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
ConstanzaMeneses7
 
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell  Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell  Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
Felicia Nicole Ghrist
 
Refugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network PresentationRefugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network Presentation
sttars
 
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docxDissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
blossomblackbourne
 
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docxIntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
BHANU281672
 
ADHD and Chiropractic
ADHD and  ChiropracticADHD and  Chiropractic
ADHD and Chiropractic
csmart4
 
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© TJournal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
TatianaMajor22
 
December 2011 Volume 14 Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
December 2011  Volume 14  Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docxDecember 2011  Volume 14  Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
December 2011 Volume 14 Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
theodorelove43763
 
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research ConferenceLindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes
 
Lifespan psychology lecture 3.1
Lifespan psychology   lecture 3.1Lifespan psychology   lecture 3.1
Lifespan psychology lecture 3.1
kclancy
 
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
LynellBull52
 

Similar to Poverty slides (20)

Chapter 3 embracing the mind set of chainge
Chapter 3 embracing the mind set of chaingeChapter 3 embracing the mind set of chainge
Chapter 3 embracing the mind set of chainge
 
Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to tMiddle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
Middle ChildhoodBody and Mindchapter sevenInvitation to t
 
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docxWhat did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
What did you find most interesting regarding the health issue ea.docx
 
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
Child Development - 2022 - Savopoulos - Intimate partner violence during infa...
 
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell  Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell  Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
Evaluating PICCOLO Scores Against the Crowell Is the PICCOLO Valid with Pare...
 
Refugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network PresentationRefugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network Presentation
 
Refugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network PresentationRefugee Network Presentation
Refugee Network Presentation
 
4080 Current Events and Child Development Paper.docx
4080 Current Events and Child Development Paper.docx4080 Current Events and Child Development Paper.docx
4080 Current Events and Child Development Paper.docx
 
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docxDissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
Dissertation ProspectusHow Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disord.docx
 
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docxIntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
IntroductionAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a.docx
 
Nature vs nurture essay sample
Nature vs nurture essay sampleNature vs nurture essay sample
Nature vs nurture essay sample
 
Annotated bibliography
Annotated bibliographyAnnotated bibliography
Annotated bibliography
 
ADHD and Chiropractic
ADHD and  ChiropracticADHD and  Chiropractic
ADHD and Chiropractic
 
Educating the other half... for research gate 3 9-2017
Educating the other half... for research gate 3 9-2017Educating the other half... for research gate 3 9-2017
Educating the other half... for research gate 3 9-2017
 
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© TJournal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
Journal of Attention Disorders2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322© T
 
Essay On Adhd In Children
Essay On Adhd In ChildrenEssay On Adhd In Children
Essay On Adhd In Children
 
December 2011 Volume 14 Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
December 2011  Volume 14  Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docxDecember 2011  Volume 14  Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
December 2011 Volume 14 Number 10 LEARNING DISABILITY PRAC.docx
 
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research ConferenceLindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
Lindamood-Bell's 17th Annual International Research Conference
 
Lifespan psychology lecture 3.1
Lifespan psychology   lecture 3.1Lifespan psychology   lecture 3.1
Lifespan psychology lecture 3.1
 
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
· In the methodology you should not say that you are going to look.docx
 

More from Wisconsin Education Association Council

More from Wisconsin Education Association Council (13)

WEAC: Social Media Advocacy
WEAC: Social Media AdvocacyWEAC: Social Media Advocacy
WEAC: Social Media Advocacy
 
UHS Snapchat presentation at Social Media Breakfast Madison
UHS Snapchat presentation at Social Media Breakfast MadisonUHS Snapchat presentation at Social Media Breakfast Madison
UHS Snapchat presentation at Social Media Breakfast Madison
 
Grow Your Business
Grow Your BusinessGrow Your Business
Grow Your Business
 
The Power of Pinterest
The Power of PinterestThe Power of Pinterest
The Power of Pinterest
 
How to Establish Yourself as an Expert (Without Calling Yourself One)
How to Establish Yourself as an Expert (Without Calling Yourself One)How to Establish Yourself as an Expert (Without Calling Yourself One)
How to Establish Yourself as an Expert (Without Calling Yourself One)
 
Smbmad discover wisconsin_final
Smbmad discover wisconsin_finalSmbmad discover wisconsin_final
Smbmad discover wisconsin_final
 
More fans and more people to shows
More fans and more people to showsMore fans and more people to shows
More fans and more people to shows
 
Yumbutter
YumbutterYumbutter
Yumbutter
 
Educator Effectiveness Flow Chart (DPI)
Educator Effectiveness Flow Chart (DPI)Educator Effectiveness Flow Chart (DPI)
Educator Effectiveness Flow Chart (DPI)
 
Educator Effectiveness in Wisconsin (DPI)
Educator Effectiveness in Wisconsin (DPI)Educator Effectiveness in Wisconsin (DPI)
Educator Effectiveness in Wisconsin (DPI)
 
Weac
WeacWeac
Weac
 
03.1.14 weac.cp 2
03.1.14 weac.cp 203.1.14 weac.cp 2
03.1.14 weac.cp 2
 
2014.2 heros,warriors complete
2014.2 heros,warriors complete2014.2 heros,warriors complete
2014.2 heros,warriors complete
 

Poverty slides

  • 1. The Biology of Disadvantage: Childhood Poverty, Health, and Achievement Nicole Hair University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Economics and Institute for Research on Poverty March 2, 2014
  • 2. Talk Outline Stylized facts about “disadvantage” and inequality Consequences of childhood poverty for physical health, behavior, early achievement and educational attainment Theoretical framework for understanding how poverty might affect children and families Exploration of potential link between childhood poverty and brain structure and development Programs and policy responses aimed at mitigating influence of poverty on children
  • 3. What is Poverty? Having little or no money or means of financial support Federal government created a set of poverty thresholds in the 1960s In 2012, the poverty threshold (FPL) for family of three was $19,090 and for a family of four it was $23,050 US poverty rate 15% and WI poverty rate 11.4% in 2012 Alternative poverty measures are increasingly recognized as important US Census Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) takes into account government benefits and necessary expenses like taxes that are not in the official measure 2012 SPM poverty rate 16% slightly higher than official rate
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 10. Income gradient in health Children (and Adults) in poorer households tend to have poorer health Relationship holds across numerous dimensions or indicators of children’s health status
  • 11. Case, Lubotsky & Paxson, Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient, American Economic Review, vol. 92, iss. 5, pp. 1308-1334 (2002) Case, Lubotsky & Paxson, Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient, American Economic Review, vol. 92, iss. 5, pp. 1308-1334 (2002)
  • 12.
  • 13. Marginal Effects of Parental Income Level on Children (6 to 17 years) Reported Being in Fair or Poor Health
  • 14. Marginal Effects of Household Income Level on Adults’ Health (Reported Being in Fair or Poor Health)
  • 15. Currie and Lin, Chipping Away At Health: More On The Relationship Between Income And Child Health, Health Affairs (2007) vol. 26 no. 2: 331-344 Adapted from: Currie and Lin, Chipping Away At Health: More On The Relationship Between Income And Child Health, Health Affairs (2007) vol. 26 no. 2: 331-344 Low-income children are in worse health than other children Low-income children are more likely than other children to have chronic or acute condition and are more likely to be limited by these conditions
  • 16. Income Achievement Gap Socioeconomic disparities in cognitive outcomes and academic achievement have been well-documented Childhood poverty associated with lower scores on standardized tests, poorer grades in school, & less educational attainment (Brooks-Gunn, 1997; Haveman & Wolfe, 1995; Dahl & Lochner, 2012) Observed ability gaps across SES groups open up at early ages (Duncan et al., 1998; Cuhna et al., 2006)
  • 17. Low income children enter school with higher levels of problem behavior and these differences persist
  • 18. Low income children enter school with lower levels of academic skills and these differences persist
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Bottom Line Observed income gradient in health: children in poorer households tend to have poorer health Disparities in cognitive outcomes and academic achievement also well-documented Childhood poverty associated with lower scores on standardized tests, poorer grades in school, & less educational attainment
  • 23. How does poverty lead to these disparities??
  • 24. Relatively little known about how early exposure to poverty translated into deficits in cognition and achievement Recent research efforts involving biomarkers and brain scans attempt to gain insight into “black box” linking poverty to poor health and deficits in achievement Research on tie between poverty and anatomy of the brain with Jamie Hanson, Seth Pollak, Barbara Wolfe and others Goal of project: bring insight into what “causes” income achievement gap Potential neurobiological channel - explore whether brain structure/ development may serve as one bridge linking socioeconomic status to achievement
  • 25. SES, Environment & Brain Plasticity Brain structure and development offer window into processes linking poverty to deficits in cognition and academic achievement Childhood poverty associated with inequities in both physical and psychological environments (Evans, 2004) ↑ levels of life stress (family instability, violence) and exposure to environmental toxins ↓ parental nurturance and cognitive stimulation in the home Research with animals shows strong link between environment and brain Environmental stimulation or enrichment, parental nurturance, early life stress all affect brain growth and functioning (Rosenzweig et al., 1978; Greenough et al., 1975, 1978; Zhang et al., 2004) Small studies with humans suggest alterations in structure or functioning (for review, Hackman & Hanson 2012)
  • 26.
  • 27. Developed to aid in understanding brain maturation in “healthy, typically-developing” infants, children, & adults Size and scope unprecedented Objective 1: children and adolescents 4 to 18 years 823 observations from 389 unique children Objective 2: infants to age 4 years 200 observations from 81 unique children Anatomic MRI scans, cognitive & behavioral assessments, demographic characteristics Scans “interpreted” using structural imaging techniques (voxel based morphometry)
  • 28. FIGURE 1: This figure shows example axial slices from a typical subject scanned at birth (left column), 2 (middle column), and 4 years old (right column). T1 MRI, T2 MRI, and segmented gray matter (green) and white matter (red) are provided. Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
  • 29. A Bit of Background Anatomy of the Brain Brain can be divided into 2 hemispheres - right and left 3 types of materials or tissue Gray matter - what fires in brain White matter - wires of brain Cerebrospinal fluid - jello like substance absorbs impact Four lobes Occipital - visual regions Parietal - sensation and perception Temporal - memory, emotion, auditory Frontal - executive functions
  • 30.
  • 31. Selecting Brain Regions of Interest Cognitive neuroscience guides selection of brain regions of interest Selection Criteria: 1. Critical for sustained attention, planning, & cognitive flexibility Implications for learning and academic functioning 2. Protracted period of post-natal development More likely to be vulnerable to environmental experience 3. Focus on gray matter tissue Less heritable than other brain tissues (Gilmore et al., 2010)
  • 32. Brain Regions of Interest Total gray matter processing information, execution of actions Frontal lobe problem solving, attentional control, complex learning Temporal lobe memory, language comprehension (word identification, relation of heard sounds to letters of alphabet, attachment of meaning to words) Hippocampus learning, long-term memory (portion of temporal lobe)
  • 33. RESULTS: Infants 1. Infants from low-income families show delayed trajectories of brain development Used our estimated parameters to project total gray matter volume trajectories for infants of varying economic backgrounds based on the federal poverty level: 100 2. Results specific to gray matter critical for processing of information and execution of actions Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter AND slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood 3. Delays tied to emergence of disruptive behavioral problems among impoverished children Use Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); focus on childrens internalizing and externalizing behaviors
  • 34. Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
  • 35. Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
  • 36. Hanson JL, Hair N, Shen DG, Shi F, Gilmore JH, et al. (2013) Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth. PLoS ONE 8(12)
  • 37. RESULTS: Children and Adolescents 1. Examine potential neurobiological link between between poverty and deficits in cognitive and achievement outcomes Establish a reference for normative brain development Examine influence of poverty on regions of the brain critical for scholastic achievement, adjusting for developmental norms 2. Childhood poverty associated with atypical development in total gray matter, the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the hippocampus Children from poor households display a maturational lag: Regional volumes 5 to 8 percentage points below developmental norms 3. Tie regions of the brain to performance on standardized tests Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III)
  • 38. Normative Developmental Curve: Temporal Lobe Gray Matter
  • 39. Normative Developmental Curve: Hippocampus Gray Matter
  • 40. 80 85 90 95 100 105 RegionalVolumeasPercentageofAge-andSex- SpecificNorm Socioeconomic Status and Anatomic Brain Development Low Income (<$25,000) 60 65 70 75 Total Gray Matter Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Hippocampus RegionalVolumeasPercentageofAge SpecificNorm Express regional volumes as percentage of sex- and age-specific norm Examine deviations from norm among low income children Define household as low income or “poor” if reported household income below $25,000 (approximately 133% of FPL for family of four over our sample period)
  • 41. 80 85 90 95 100 105 RegionalVolumeasPercentageofSex-andAge- SpecificNorm Socioeconomic Status and Anatomic Brain Development Poor <$25,000 Near Poor $25,000-$35,000 High Income >$35,000 60 65 70 75 Total Gray Matter Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Hippocampus RegionalVolumeasPercentageofSex SpecificNorm
  • 42. Takeaways: Childhood Poverty and the Brain Poverty associated with atypical development Concentrated among poorest children (below 133% FPL) Regional volumes 5 to 8 percentage points below norms Maturational lag begins to emerge in infancy Each region tied to performance on indices of academic ability and/or childhood disruptive behaviors Consequences of atypical development for scholastic success Skills important determinants for range of adult outcomes Without interventions to mitigate influence of poverty, children’s potential limited at young ages by this tie
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. Programs and Policy Responses What works to lessen poverty’s influence on children? Extended development of critical brain regions establishes both greater vulnerability and opportunity Development highly sensitive to changes in the environment and nurturance - both negative and positive Suggests interventions to remediate early environments may have some success in altering link between poverty and deficits in achievement
  • 49. Income Support Programs Earned Income Tax Credit Significant increases in math and reading test scores among children whose families qualified for the credit (Dahl and Lochner, 2012) Casino revenues to American Indian families Positive effects of income disbursements on high school graduation and educational attainment (Akee et al, 2012) Can we generalize to other types of programs? Child tax credit, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increase families economic resources in similar ways.
  • 50. Early Childhood Education (3 to 5 year olds) Consistent evidence of short-run effects non-experimental evidence of long-run benefits from several program models i.e., Perry Preschool and Abecedarian Shown to increase long-term school attainment and earnings as well as reduce crime and the risk of adult poverty (Duncan, Ludwig, and Magnuson, 2010)
  • 51. Innovations and Uncertainty Home visiting programs Much to learn about how to promote positive parent-child interactions Approaches in very early childhood (birth-3) How to balance income support and employment Combining approaches Where should building parents human capital fit in?