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  1. 1. Telecommunications & Networking Networking Fundamentals ©UNT in partnership with TEA 1
  2. 2. Computer Networks  A computer network is defined as having two or more devices (such as workstations, printers, or servers) that are linked together for the purpose of sharing information, resources, or both. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 2
  3. 3. Why Do We Need Networking? If you own multiple PCs, you have probably thought about how great it would be if your computers could talk to each other. With your computers connected, you could:  Share a single printer between computers  Share a single Internet connection among all the computers in your home  Access shared files such as photographs, MP3s, spreadsheets and documents on any computer in the house. The need to share information is an important part of the development of computer networks. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 3
  4. 4. Why Do We Need Networking? (cont…)  It avoids duplication, conserves resources, and allows for the management and control of key information.  Play games that allow multiple users at different computers  Send the output of a device like a DVD player or Webcam to your other computer(s) ©UNT in partnership with TEA 4
  5. 5. Network Administration  The ongoing task of maintaining and adapting the network to changing conditions belongs to network administrators and support personnel.  Network administrator responsibilities include setting up new user accounts and services, monitoring network performance, and repairing network failures.  They evaluate new technologies and requirements, administrators must measure the benefits of the new features against the issues, costs, and problems that they may introduce to the network. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 5
  6. 6. Overview of Networks  In providing services, networked computers take on different roles or functions in relation to each other.  Two computers typically communicate with each other by using request/response protocols. The requester takes on the role of a client, and the responder takes on the role of a server. Then they switch roles (peer-to-peer).  Some computers take the role of server all the time to manage resources, share files, manage security, and provide services to all other computer on the network (client/server).  By using local-area network (LAN) and wide-area network (WAN) technologies, many computers are interconnected to provide services to their users. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 6
  7. 7. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 7 A Peer-to-Peer Network Printing • Sharing printers • Sharing storage • Sharing resources Peer Peer S DHEW LET T PACKARD Si SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000
  8. 8. A Peer-to Peer Network  In a peer-to-peer network, the networked computers act as equal partners, or peers, to each other. As peers, each computer can take on the client function or the server function alternately.  In a peer-to-peer network, individual users control their own resources. They may decide to share certain files with other users and may require passwords before they allow others to access their resources.  A peer-to-peer network works well with a small number of computers, perhaps 10 or fewer. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 8
  9. 9. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 9 A Client/Server Network • Shared printers • Network storage • Network security features • Other network resources Storage PrintingS DHEWL ET T PACKARD Si Client Client SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 Server SD REMOTEACCESSSERVER 5408 pentium......... Communications Servers provide clients with access to:
  10. 10. A Client/Server Network  In a client/server network arrangement, network services are located in a dedicated computer whose only function is to respond to the requests of clients.  The server contains the file, print, application, security, and other services in a central computer that is continuously available to respond to client requests.  Multiple computers can use a single installed application as long as you have purchased a user license for maximum number that will access the application at one time.  Typically, desktop computers function as clients and one or more computers with additional processing power, memory, and specialized software function as servers. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 10
  11. 11. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 11 A Typical Network Windows 2000 Server Apple Macintosh OSX Windows 98 Windows 2000 Professional Shared network printer Unix/Lunix Shared disk Shared CD-ROM SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 S DHEWLETT PACKARD Si SD REMOTEACCESSSERVER 5408 pentium......... Since modern networks are based on protocols, different OS’s can communicate and share information. SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000
  12. 12. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 12 Local Area Network (LAN) Small geographical area SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 SD P110 Professional Workstation 5000 Wide Area Network (WAN) Large geographical area
  13. 13. Local-Area Networks  The general shape or layout of a network is called its topology. A topology can refer to either a logical or physical layout.  LANs connect many computers in a relatively small geographical area such as a home, an office, a building, or a campus.  LANs require the networked computers to share the communications channel that connects them. The communications channel that they all share is called the medium. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 13
  14. 14. Wide-Area Networks  WANs connect computers in a large geographical area such as cities, states, and countries.  Wide area connections between computers use point-to-point, serial communications lines. These lines are called point-to-point because they connect only two computers, one on each side of the line.  Wide area connections make use of the communications facilities put in place by the utility companies, called common carriers, such as the telephone company.  WANs typically connect fewer computers than LANs and normally operate at lower speeds than LANs. WANs, however, provide the means for connecting single computers and many LANs over large distances.©UNT in partnership with TEA 14
  15. 15. Circuit-switched vs. Packet- switched  In a circuit-switched network, a connection is established and all data is transmitted over that circuit (telephone system).  A modem connected to the phone system uses a circuit.  Connect one POTS (Plain Old Telephone System) to another  Any dial-up connection  In a packet-switched network, each individual packet of data can take a different path.  Any always-on connection  Cable, DSL, T1  Internet traffic uses packet-switching technology. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 15
  16. 16. Data Transmission  The data channels over which a signal is sent can operate in one of three ways: simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex.  Simplex is a single one-way baseband transmission that only travels in one direction.  Half-duplex transmission is an improvement over simplex because the traffic can travel in both directions but only in one direction at a time (transmit or receive).  Typically, a modem uses a half-duplex transmission  Full-duplex transmission operates like a two-way, two-lane street. Traffic can travel in both directions at the same time. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 16
  17. 17. Physical Topologies  The physical topology defines the way computer and other devices are connected. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 17
  18. 18. Physical vs. Logical Topology  Networks can have both a physical and logical topology.  Physical topology – Refers to the layout of the devices and media.  Logical topology – Refers to the paths that signals travel from one point on the network to another. That is, the way in which data accesses media and transmits packets across it.  A network can have a one type of physical topology and a completely different type of logical topology or they can be the same. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 18
  19. 19. Types of Media  Coaxial cable - copper-cored cable surrounded by a heavy shielding. Uses BNC connector.  Twisted pair - Shielded and Unshield  Shielded - Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cable combines the techniques of cancellation and the twisting of wires with shielding. Uses STP connector  Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cable is used in a variety of networks. It has two or four pairs of wires. Uses RJ45 connector  Fiber-optic cable is a networking medium capable of conducting modulated light transmissions. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 19
  20. 20. Network Cabling ©UNT in partnership with TEA 20
  21. 21. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 21 Ethernet UTP with RJ-45 Connectors
  22. 22. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 22 Coaxial Cable and BNC Connectors
  23. 23. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 23 Fiber-optic Cable Central filler 900 µm diameter tight-buffer optical fiber Color-coded elastomeric subcable jacket Core-locked™ outer jacket Ripcord Subcable Core-locked™ subcable jacket Aramid strength member Acrylate fiber coating Optical fiber 900 µm diameter tight-buffer
  24. 24. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 24 568A Scheme G/W G O/W B B/W O Br/W Br 568B Scheme O/W O G/W B B/W G Br/W Br STANDARD
  25. 25. Networking Devices ©UNT in partnership with TEA 25
  26. 26. OSI Model  The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is an industry standard framework that is used to divide the functions of networking into seven distinct layers. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 26
  27. 27. Common Networking Devices  A Network Interface Card (NIC) - a device that plugs into a motherboard and provides ports for the network cable connections. It is the computer's interface with the LAN.  Repeater – a device that is used to extend an Ethernet wire to allow more devices to communicate with each other.  Hub – A multi-port repeater. May be active (amplify and clean up the signal) or passive (signal is just split) ©UNT in partnership with TEA 27
  28. 28. Common Networking Devices  Bridge- connect network segments. The basic functionality of the bridge resides in its ability to make intelligent decisions about whether to pass signals on to the next segment of a network.  Switch - sometimes described as a multi-port bridge. A switch is a more sophisticated device than a bridge.  Router - the most sophisticated internetworking devices discussed so far. They are slower than bridges and switches, but make "smart" decisions on how to route (or send) packets received on one port to a network on another port.  Firewall - a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system ©UNT in partnership with TEA 28
  29. 29. Network Interface Card  There are several important considerations to bear in mind when selecting a NIC to use on a network:  The type of network – NICs are designed for Ethernet LANs, Token Ring, FDDI, and so on.  The type of media –such as twisted-pair, coaxial, fiber-optic, or wireless.  The type of system bus –PCI or ISA.  Today its common to find the network connected to USB. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 29
  30. 30. Switches Switches are a vital part of today’s LANs. Switches allow out high speed networks (100/1000Mbps) to travel without collisions. A switches main functions are: 1. Make intelligent decisions based on a computers MAC address (layer2) 2. It is primarily used to connect network segments. 3. Break collision domains 4. Interconnect different switches with a high speed backbone. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 30
  31. 31. Routers Much of the work required to get information from one computer network to another is done by routers -- they're the crucial devices that let information flow between, rather than within, networks. Routers are specialized computers that send your messages, and those of every other Internet user, speeding to their destinations along thousands of pathways. When information needs to travel between networks, routers determine how to get it there. A router bases all of its decisions on IP addresses (layer 3). ©UNT in partnership with TEA 31
  32. 32. Routers A router has two separate but related jobs: 1. It ensures that information doesn't go where it's not needed. This is crucial for keeping large volumes of data from clogging the connections of "innocent bystanders." 2. It makes sure that information makes it to the intended destination(s). In performing these two jobs, a router is extremely useful in dealing with two separate computer networks. It joins the two networks, your home network and the Internet in this case, passing information from one to the other. It also protects the networks from one another, preventing the traffic on one from unnecessarily spilling over to the other. Regardless of how many networks are attached, the basic operation and function of the router remains the same. Since the Internet is one huge network made up of tens of thousands of smaller networks, routers are an absolute necessity. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 32
  33. 33. Firewalls  Whether you are one of the growing number of computer users with fast, always-on Internet access or you're still using a dial-up connection, you may want to consider implementing a firewall. A firewall is simply a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system. You use a firewall to protect your home network and family from offensive Web sites and potential hackers. If an incoming packet of information is flagged by the filters, it is not allowed through.  You should note that some spam is going to get through your firewall as long as you accept e-mail. And, while some firewalls offer virus protection, it is worth the investment to install anti-virus software on each computer. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 33
  34. 34. Firewalls  Hardware firewalls are incredibly secure and not very expensive. One of the best things about a firewall from a security standpoint is that it stops anyone on the outside from logging onto a computer in your private network. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 34
  35. 35. Networking Standards ©UNT in partnership with TEA 35
  36. 36. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 36 IEEE 802 Standards • 802.1: High-level interface • 802.2: Logical link control • 802.3: CSMA/CD (Ethernet) • 802.4: Token Bus • 802.5: Token Ring • 802.6: MANs • 802.7: Broadband LANs • 802.8: Fiber-optic LANs • 802.9: Integrated data and voice networks • 802.10: Security • 802.11: Wireless networks
  37. 37. Most Popular Physical Network Architectures  Ethernet (most popular)  Token ring  FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)  Wireless LAN technology ©UNT in partnership with TEA 37
  38. 38. Ethernet  The Ethernet architecture is now the most popular type of LAN architecture.  The Ethernet architecture is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard. The IEEE 802.3 standard specifies that a network implements the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access control method.  Wireless and Satellite both use Ethernet  Satellites are located over the equator  Weather can effect its performance ©UNT in partnership with TEA 38
  39. 39. Ethernet Networking Ethernet has many advantages:  It is the fastest home-networking technology (100 Mbps).  It can be inexpensive if the computers are close to one another.  It is extremely reliable.  It is easy to maintain after it is set up.  The number of devices that can be connected is virtually unlimited.  There is a great deal of technical support and information available. And a few disadvantages:  If you have more than two computers, you'll need additional equipment.  It can be expensive if wiring and jacks need to be installed.  Set-up and configuration can be difficult.  The technical jargon and the number of options can be confusing. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 39
  40. 40. Ethernet Networking  To connect the computers, you will need Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Category 5e cable. This type of cabling is designed to handle speeds up to 1000-Mbps needed by Ethernet. The RJ-45 connector at the end of the cable looks very similar to the RJ-11 connector on a phone cord but is slightly bigger (and not compatible).  You can buy Cat 5e cables in predetermined lengths with the connectors already attached (expensive).  If you plan to install the Cat 5e cabling in the walls of your house, you can buy the cable in rolls, cut it to length and connect the cable to special RJ-45 wall boxes. UTP has a maximum usable length of 100 meters. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 40
  41. 41. Ethernet Networking *Note: If you want to connect just two computers, you can avoid the hub or switch and use a crossover Cat 5 cable. With a crossover cable, you directly connect one NIC card to the other without a hub or switch. This only works for two computers -- to connect more than two you need a hub or switch. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 41
  42. 42. Ethernet Variations, Distinguished by Speed  10-Mbps Ethernet  Uses either shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable, unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable (CAT3 or higher), or coaxial cable  100-Mbps Ethernet or Fast Ethernet  Uses UTP (CAT5 or higher) or STP cable  100BaseFX uses fiber-optic cable (single-mode, multi-mode, and plastic)  1000-Mbps or Gigabit Ethernet  Uses twisted-pair (CAT5e or higher) and fiber- optic cable©UNT in partnership with TEA 42
  43. 43. Token Ring  IBM originally developed Token Ring as reliable network architecture based on the token-passing access control method  Token Ring standards are defined in IEEE 802.5  Physical star; logical ring  Transmits data at 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps  Uses a centralized device called a MAU (Multistation Access Unit)  Less popular than Ethernet ©UNT in partnership with TEA 43
  44. 44. Fiber Distributed Data Interface  FDDI is a type of Token Ring network. Its implementation and topology differ from the IBM Token Ring LAN architecture, which IEEE 802.5 governs.  As its name implies, FDDI runs on fiber-optic cable, and thus combines high-speed performance with the advantages of the token-passing ring topology.  Multiple nodes can have data on the ring at the same time  Often used for a large LAN in a large company or as a backbone network to connect several LANs in a large building ©UNT in partnership with TEA 44
  45. 45. Wireless LANs (WLANs)  Make connections using a wireless NIC  Communicate directly or connect to a LAN by way of a wireless access point (AP)  Popular where cables are difficult to install  Slower than wired networks  Security is an issue  Standards  IEEE 802.11b (11Mbps at 2.4GHz) - 1999  IEEE 802.11a (54Mbps at 5GHz) - 2001  IEEE 802.11g (54Mbps at 2.4GHz) - 2003  IEEE 802.11n (100Mbps at 2.4Ghz) - 2006  Bluetooth ©UNT in partnership with TEA 45
  46. 46. Windows on a Network  Supports three suites of protocols  TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)  Protocol suite for the Internet  IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange)  Designed for use with Novell NetWare  Not supported on Internet  NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)  Proprietary Windows protocol for use on networks isolated from the Internet ©UNT in partnership with TEA 46
  47. 47. Bandwidth Technologies ©UNT in partnership with TEA 47
  48. 48. Bandwidth Technologies ©UNT in partnership with TEA 48 1Gbps up to 40Gbps
  49. 49. Bandwidth Technologies ©UNT in partnership with TEA 49
  50. 50. Ethernet Combo Card ©UNT in partnership with TEA 50
  51. 51. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 51 TCP/IP Protocol Suite
  52. 52. TCP/IP Utilities  TCP/IP is used to exchange information on the Internet.  Ping is a simple but highly useful command-line utility that is included in most implementations of TCP/IP.  Ping works by sending an ICMP echo request to the destination computer. The receiving computer then sends back an ICMP echo reply message.  Tracert is a utility included with Windows that displays the route a packet takes on its journey from source computer to destination host. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 52
  53. 53. TCP/IP Utilities  Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the means by which networked computers map Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to physical hardware (MAC) addresses that are recognized in a local network.  The ARP cache is the means by which a correlation is maintained between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 53
  54. 54. TCP/IP Utilities  The command arp –a is used to display the arp cache.  The command arp –d deletes the arp cache. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 54
  55. 55. TCP/IP Utilities  Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), a protocol used to obtain IP address information based on the physical or MAC address.  RARP provides the rules by which the physical machine in a LAN can request to learn its IP address from a gateway server ARP table or cache. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 55
  56. 56. TCP/IP Utilities  TCP/IP configuration information can be displayed using different utilities, depending on the operating system:  ipconfig – Windows NT and Windows 2000 (command-line)  winipcfg –- Windows 95, 98, and 2000 (graphical interface)  ifconfig – UNIX and Linux (command-line)  config – NetWare (server console) ©UNT in partnership with TEA 56
  57. 57. Utilities and Applications  Telnet - used to access remote devices for configuration, control, and troubleshooting.  Nbtstat – Displays current information about TCP/IP and NetBEUI when both are being used on the same network.  Netstat – Displays information about current TCP.IP connections.  Route – Allow you to manually control network routing tables. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 57
  58. 58. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 58 Every service or process running on a computer is addressed by a unique port number. Port Numbers
  59. 59. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 59 How a URL Is Structured A URL contains the protocol used, the host name of the web sever, the network name, and the path and filename of the requested file. • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – Address for a Web page file or other resource on the Internet
  60. 60. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 60 Top-Level Domain Names
  61. 61. Microsoft Windows and the Network ©UNT in partnership with TEA 61
  62. 62. Networking Basics To install a network in your home, there are three steps: 1. Choose the technology you will use for the network. The main technologies to choose between are standard Ethernet, phone-line-based, power-line- based and wireless. 2. Buy and install the hardware. 3. Configure the system and get everything talking together correctly. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 62
  63. 63. Configuring the System  Once you have the hardware installed, you are ready to configure your network. The first configuration step is naming the PCs in the network.  Before your computer can become part of a network, it has to have a name and a workgroup.  Each computer in your home network needs to have a different name, and they all need to be in the same workgroup. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 63
  64. 64. Naming the PC  In Windows 9x, move the mouse pointer over the Network Neighborhood icon on the desktop and click the right mouse button once.  Select Properties from the menu. The Network Properties window will pop up, listing information about the network adapter(s) and protocols installed on that computer.  When the window opens, click the Identification tab. You will see three boxes (as shown above).  In the first box, enter the name you wish to give the computer. You can name it anything, but each computer in your home must have a its own unique name.  In the second box, enter the name you plan to use for the workgroup -- make sure all of the computers have the same workgroup name. You may want to write it down to make sure that you enter the exact same workgroup name on each computer in your network. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 64
  65. 65. Naming the PC  In Windows XP, click the Start button (bottom left hand corner) and select the Control Panel.  If not already in the "Classic view", select the Classic view option (upper left corner of the window - you can switch between the classic view and the category view).  Click on the "System" icon.  Select the "Computer Name" tab.  You will see that the computer has a "Full Computer Name" and a "Workgroup". Click the "Change" button to change them.  In the first box, enter the name you wish to give the computer. You can name it anything, but each computer in your home must have a its own unique name.  In the second box, enter the name you plan to use for the workgroup -- make sure all of the computers have the same workgroup name. You may want to write it down to make sure that you enter the exact same workgroup name on each computer in your home network. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 65
  66. 66. Setting the IP Address  In a TCP/IP-based LAN, PCs use Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to identify each other.  An IP address is a 32-bit binary number.  is an example of an IP address. This type of address is described as a dotted decimal representation.  A secondary dotted decimal number, known as the subnet mask, always accompanies an IP address. The dotted decimal number is a subnet mask.  The IP address that is entered is unique for each host and resides in the computer driver software for the NIC.©UNT in partnership with TEA 66
  67. 67. Setting the IP Address in Windows 9x ©UNT in partnership with TEA 67
  68. 68. Setting the IP Address in Windows 2K/XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 68
  69. 69. DHCP Servers  The most common and efficient way for computers on a large network to obtain an IP address is through a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. DHCP is a software utility that runs on a computer and is designed to assign IP addresses to PCs.  The IP address information that a DHCP server can hand out to hosts that are starting up on the network includes the following:  An IP address  A subnet mask  Default Gateway  Optional values, such as a Domain Name System (DNS) server address©UNT in partnership with TEA 69
  70. 70. IP Addresses  A computer uses APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) to assign an IP address to itself if a DHCP server is unavailable.  ©UNT in partnership with TEA 70
  71. 71. Default Gateway  The default gateway is the "near side" interface of the router, the interface on the router to which the local computer's network segment or wire is attached.  In order for each computer to recognize its default gateway, the corresponding near side router interface IP address has to be entered into the host Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties Dialog Box.  The default gateway allows communication with other networks. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 71
  72. 72. Domain Name System  Most hosts are identified on the Internet by friendly computer names known as domain names.  The Domain Name System (DNS) is used to translate computer names such as to their corresponding unique IP address. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 72
  73. 73. Using winipcfg ©UNT in partnership with TEA 73 On Windows 9x and 2000, use the winipcfg utility to display a PC’s IP address and MAC address.
  74. 74. Using ipconfig ©UNT in partnership with TEA 74 On Windows NT, 2000, and XP, use ipconfig /all command to show the current IP and MAC addresses.
  75. 75. Proxy Server ©UNT in partnership with TEA 75 A proxy server stands between a private network and the Internet.
  76. 76. Host Names and NetBIOS Names  Use characters rather than numbers to identify a computer on a network  Easier to remember and use than IP addresses  Two name resolution services track relationships between character-based names and IP addresses  DNS (Domain Name System) tracks host names  Microsoft WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) tracks NetBIOS names ©UNT in partnership with TEA 76
  77. 77. Host Names and NetBIOS Names  Windows 98 assumes a computer has a NetBIOS name (up to 15 characters)  Windows 2000/XP assumes a host name that uses TCP/IP convention; up to 63 characters  Applications that use TCP/IP for network communication use WinSock to make API calls to the OS  For Windows 98 using NetBIOS names, the computer runs through a checklist to discover the IP address  NetBEUI uses DNS to resolve the name, not WINS ©UNT in partnership with TEA 77
  78. 78. Assigning NetBIOS Names ©UNT in partnership with TEA 78 Each computer in a workgroup in Windows 9x must be assigned a name that other users on the network will see in their Network Neighborhood window.
  79. 79. How Computers Find Each Other on a LAN ©UNT in partnership with TEA 79 An entry in your client Hosts file will tell the client the IP address of an intranet Web site when no DNS service is running in Windows 9x.
  80. 80. Installing TCP/IP Using Windows 98 ©UNT in partnership with TEA 80
  81. 81. Configuring TCP/IP Using Windows 98 ©UNT in partnership with TEA 81
  82. 82. Configuring DNS Service under TCP/IP for Windows 98 ©UNT in partnership with TEA 82
  83. 83. Installing a NIC Using Windows 2000/XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 83
  84. 84. Network Identification in Windows 2000/XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 84
  85. 85. Configuring TCP/IP Using Windows 2000/XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 85
  86. 86. Configuring a Wireless NIC ©UNT in partnership with TEA 86
  87. 87. File Sharing  To use file sharing in Windows 9x, first check that File and Printer Sharing is enabled. You do this by running the mouse pointer over the Network Neighborhood icon on the desktop and clicking the right mouse button once. Select Properties from the menu. In the large white box, the item "Client for Microsoft Networks" should be visible.  Sometimes the software required to make a computer a client of a particular type of network isn't loaded. When a computer is a "client" of a network, that computer can communicate and share information with other computers that are clients of the network. When you first set up networking on a Windows 9x computer, the set-up process normally adds the "Client for Microsoft Networks" software. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 87
  88. 88. File Sharing If it’s not present:  Click Add in the Network Properties window.  Choose Client from the list of choices in the window that pops up.  Click Add. You will see a list of different companies or vendors on the left pane (side) of the window.  Click Microsoft in that left pane. This will bring up a list of Microsoft's software clients in the right pane.  Choose Client for Microsoft Networks from the list and click OK. Windows will copy all of the necessary files and may prompt you for the Win9x CD. If so, insert the CD and continue. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 88
  89. 89. File Sharing Once the software is installed, you should be back to the original Network window. Now let's enable file sharing:  Click the button labeled File and Print Sharing...  You will see two options, one for sharing files and the other for sharing printers. Click the box next to each option to enable it.  Once it is enabled, you will see a checkmark in the box. Click OK to close the sharing-options window.  Click the Access Control tab near the top of the Network window. For easier control of who can access which files, click the box beside Share-level Access Control.  Click OK to close the Network window. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 89
  90. 90. File Sharing  Sharing a folder is extremely easy in Windows XP. Simply open the Windows Explorer (Click the Start button, click on All Programs, choose Accessories and click on the Windows Explorer icon). Find the folder you wish to share. Right click on the folder, and in the menu that appears select "Sharing and Security..." Click on the Sharing tab. Click on "Share this folder on the network" and give the folder a unique name.  When you share a folder, you have an option to make the folder (and all the files in it) read-only. If it is read-only, people can look at the files in the folder but they cannot change any of the files. If not, then they can modify files in the folder, delete files, rename files and add new files. A check box lets you specify if the folder is read-only or not.  To access a shared folder, open the Windows Explorer, Choose "My Network Places" in the list on the left, find the shared folder that you wish to access and open it. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 90
  91. 91. File Sharing Windows 9x ©UNT in partnership with TEA 91 Windows XP
  92. 92. Sharing Printers Windows 9x  To share a printer, first make sure you have completed the steps outlined above to activate File and Printer Sharing. Then:  Click the Start button, move to Settings and select Printers. A window will open listing all of the printers on the local system.  Move over the icon for the printer you wish to share and click the right mouse button to bring up the menu. Select Sharing...  The Properties window will pop up with the Sharing tab section open. Click the Shared As option and type in a name for the printer. You may also elect to require a password to access the printer.  Click OK to close the window. This printer is now shared. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 92
  93. 93. Sharing Printers Windows XP  Click the Start button (bottom left hand corner) and select the Control Panel.  If not already in the "Classic view", select the Classic view option (upper left corner of the window - you can switch between the classic view and the category view).  Click on the "Printers" icon.  Right click on the printer that you wish to share.  Click the Sharing... option.  Click on the sharing option and give the printer a name on the network.  To access a shared folder, you also use the "Printers" icon in the control panel. Click on the "Add a Printer option. Click "Next" in the Wizard that appears. Indicate that you wish to search for printers on the network. Then browser for the printer on the network and select it. You will then be able to print on the network printer as though it is connected to your own machine. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 93
  94. 94. Sharing Printers Accessing the printer from another computer works the same for both:  Go to that computer and open the Printers window.  Double-click the Add a Printer wizard.  Choose the Network Printer option and click Next.  The wizard will display a list of all shared printers on the LAN. Choose the printer you wish to access and click Next again. The wizard will then install the appropriate driver if it is available, or else request that you put in a disk or CD with the driver software.  Once the wizard finishes installing the software, the printer will appear to your system just like a local printer. ©UNT in partnership with TEA 94
  95. 95. Sharing Resources in Windows 98 ©UNT in partnership with TEA 95
  96. 96. Sharing Resources in Windows 98 ©UNT in partnership with TEA 96
  97. 97. Sharing Files and Folders with the Workgroup ©UNT in partnership with TEA 97
  98. 98. Sharing Files and Folders with the Workgroup ©UNT in partnership with TEA 98
  99. 99. Network Drive Maps  One of the most powerful and versatile methods of communicating over a network  Make one PC (client) appear to have a new hard drive when that hard drive space is actually on another host computer (server)  Make files and folders on a host computer available even to network-unaware DOS applications ©UNT in partnership with TEA 99
  100. 100. Setting Up a Network Drive on 9x and XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 100 Right click on My Computer and choose Map Network Drive.
  101. 101. Setting Up a Network Drive on 9x and XP ©UNT in partnership with TEA 101 To map a network drive, enter a drive letter to use on your PC and the path to the host computer or folder. Only XP will allow you to change you username and domain.
  102. 102. Results of Drive Mapping ©UNT in partnership with TEA 102 Contents will show up under the Explorer or My Computer as the drive letter you selected.