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LEAD WASTE CLEANUP FROM ARTISENAL GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES<br />Sunke Village, Anka Location, Zamfara State, Federal Republi...
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA<br />2<br />
HISTORIC GOLD LODE LOCATIONS<br />3<br />
Artisanal GOLD EXTRACTION PROCESS<br />EXCAVATE  GOLD ORE AT MINES / VEINS<br />BREAKING ROCK – Using tools to break large...
Ore Grinding Methods<br />HydroCarbons<br /> (Diesel)<br />CarboHydrates<br /> (Muscle)<br />5<br />
TOXICOLOGY OF LEAD<br />6<br />
CDC Preliminary Survey June, 2010<br />Surveyed 119 family living compounds<br />2/3 reported processing ore within compou...
INTERVENTION TIMELINE<br />March 2010<br />Doctors Without Borders / Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) responds to a reported...
THE ROAD TO SUNKE(or Abare, Duza, TungarDaji)<br />9<br />
SUNKE<br />10<br />
REMEDIATION PROTOCOLS<br />US EPA Standards (remediate if)<br /> ≥ 400 ppm Soil Lead Max in Child’s Play Area<br />≥ 1,200...
REMEDIATION PROCEDURES<br />Meet with Chief  to Hire Local Workers, Landfill Location and Co-ordinate Work<br />Develop La...
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Meet with Chief to Hire Local Workers, Locate Landfill and Co-ordinate Work<br />13<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Develop Landfill Outside Village<br />14<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Meet With Families (Mothers) for Compound Entry and Co-operation<br />15<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Test and Map Remediation Areas<br />X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer<br />16<br />
Areal View and Planning Plot, Sunke<br />17<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Excavate and Bag Contaminated Soils<br />18<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Transport and Dispose Bags in Landfill(s)<br />19<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Clean Soil Cap Areas per Protocols<br />20<br />
REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Post-Remediation Health Training of Families<br />Advocacy Group from Nigerian Ministry of Heal...
HEALTH & SAFETY<br />End-of-Day Decontamination<br />Washing Facilities for Contaminated Soil Handlers (Excavation and Dis...
HEALTH & SAFETY<br />23<br />
THE TEAM<br />24<br />
LOCAL STAFF<br />25<br />
ANKA<br />GUSAU<br />26<br />
THE FUN STUFF<br />27<br />
THE FUN STUFF<br />28<br />
LEAD DISPERSION COSTS<br />Ore Contains:<br />Au (gold) =    123 –   6,320   ppb<br />Pb (lead) = 7,550 – 22,500   ppm<br ...
AFTER THOUGHTS<br />The Lure of Gold is Irresistible<br />Subsistence Farmers; Gold is the Cash Crop<br />Processing will ...
OPPORTUNITIES<br />Int’l Funding Sources<br />First Coast Engineers<br />31<br />
STRATA<br />DEVELOPED WORLD<br />1 BILLION<br />$ 30,000 > GDP (PPP) Per Capita<br />(Shepherding  Abundance)<br />North &...
Strata Economy Comparisons<br />33<br />
WWW.FOREIGNASSISTANCE.GOV<br />34<br />
WHERE IT GOES<br />$ 37 billion<br />$ 4.5 billion<br />$ 1.1 billion<br />35<br />
INTERNATIONAL FUNDING SOURCES<br />36<br />
DEVELOPMENT  CONTRACTORS<br />37<br />
ROLES<br />38<br />
www.devex.com<br />39<br />
40<br />
41<br />
YOUR TOOLS INVENTORY<br />LANGUAGES<br />	ENGLISH   (        FIDIC)<br />	SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, PORTUGESE<br />	RUSSIAN...
COMMON SENSE – “STREET SMARTS”<br />43<br />
REFERENCES<br />Blacksmith Institute 		www.blacksmithinstitute.com<br />Bill Huffman – LinkedIn	 http://www.linkedin.com/p...
QUESTIONS<br />45<br />
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Lead Waste Cleanup rev May 17

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Lead Waste Cleanup rev May 17

  1. 1. LEAD WASTE CLEANUP FROM ARTISENAL GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES<br />Sunke Village, Anka Location, Zamfara State, Federal Republic of Nigeria, West Africa<br />First Coast<br />Joint Engineers Luncheon<br />FES ASCE SAME EWB<br />May 17, 2011<br />1<br />
  2. 2. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA<br />2<br />
  3. 3. HISTORIC GOLD LODE LOCATIONS<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Artisanal GOLD EXTRACTION PROCESS<br />EXCAVATE GOLD ORE AT MINES / VEINS<br />BREAKING ROCK – Using tools to break large pieces of rock into gravel-sized pebbles<br />GRINDING ROCK – Using grinding machines to break pebble-sized rocks into fine powder<br />WASHING ROCK – Using water to wash dust or rocks in a pan to collect gold flakes<br />DRYING ROCK – Leaving powder-like rocks out to dry<br />SEPERATING – Using mercury in a large bowl to amalgamate gold flakes<br />MELTING – Using heat to vaporize mercury that sticks to gold after the separating process<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Ore Grinding Methods<br />HydroCarbons<br /> (Diesel)<br />CarboHydrates<br /> (Muscle)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. TOXICOLOGY OF LEAD<br />6<br />
  7. 7. CDC Preliminary Survey June, 2010<br />Surveyed 119 family living compounds<br />2/3 reported processing ore within compound<br />Families reported 118 of 463 children < age 5 (26%) died in previous 12 months (82% of deaths within previous 6 months)<br />Soil sampled 45 ppm to >100,000 ppm lead (US EPA limit < 400 ppm)<br />85% of compounds had some readings > 400 ppm<br />205 living < age 5 children were blood sampled<br />100% > 10 ppm blood lead level<br /> 97 % > 45 ppm blood lead level<br />values ranged 33.3 to 445 ppm blood lead level<br />7<br />
  8. 8. INTERVENTION TIMELINE<br />March 2010<br />Doctors Without Borders / Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) responds to a reported outbreak of malaria in Zamfara. Normal treatments are ineffective. Reports excessive child deaths to Nigerian Ministry of Health.<br />May 2010<br />Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health contacts WHO and CDC for assistance in determining cause.<br />June 2010<br />CDC surveys villages in Zamfara and determines the cause is a severe lead poisoning epidemic<br />MSF requests help from Blacksmith Institute (NY) which , in turn, requests the technical assistance of TerraGraphics (ID)<br />Emir of Anka orders halt to ore processing within the villages.<br />Blacksmith Institute and TerraGraphics begins remediation in 2 of 9 villages identified as contaminated; work halted at commencement of 2-month rainy season (July / August).<br /><ul><li>August 2010</li></ul>Blacksmith Institute contacts Engineers Without Borders for additional technical advisors for expedited remediation beginning in October.<br />November 2010<br />Bill Huffman arrives in Nigeria for 7 weeks of duty.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. THE ROAD TO SUNKE(or Abare, Duza, TungarDaji)<br />9<br />
  10. 10. SUNKE<br />10<br />
  11. 11. REMEDIATION PROTOCOLS<br />US EPA Standards (remediate if)<br /> ≥ 400 ppm Soil Lead Max in Child’s Play Area<br />≥ 1,200 ppm Soil Lead Avg in Occupied Areas<br />ZAMFARA Standards for Living Compounds & Common Areas<br /> < 400 ppm: No Action<br /> ≥ 400 ppm: Clean Soil Cap (3 in ~ 8 cm of laterite)<br /> ≥ 1,000 ppm: Excavate to < 400 ppm, Clean Soil Cap<br />11<br />
  12. 12. REMEDIATION PROCEDURES<br />Meet with Chief to Hire Local Workers, Landfill Location and Co-ordinate Work<br />Develop Landfill Outside Village<br />Meet With Families (Mothers) for Compound Entry and Co-operation<br />Test and Map Remediation Areas<br />Excavate and Bag Contaminated Soils<br />Transport and Dispose Bags in Landfill(s)<br />Clean Soil Cap Areas per Protocols<br />Post-Remediation Health Training of Families<br />Close Landfill(s)<br />12<br />
  13. 13. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Meet with Chief to Hire Local Workers, Locate Landfill and Co-ordinate Work<br />13<br />
  14. 14. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Develop Landfill Outside Village<br />14<br />
  15. 15. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Meet With Families (Mothers) for Compound Entry and Co-operation<br />15<br />
  16. 16. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Test and Map Remediation Areas<br />X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Areal View and Planning Plot, Sunke<br />17<br />
  18. 18. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Excavate and Bag Contaminated Soils<br />18<br />
  19. 19. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Transport and Dispose Bags in Landfill(s)<br />19<br />
  20. 20. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Clean Soil Cap Areas per Protocols<br />20<br />
  21. 21. REMEDIATION PROCEDURE<br />Post-Remediation Health Training of Families<br />Advocacy Group from Nigerian Ministry of Health<br />Wash All Compound Fixtures and Clothes<br />Bathe The Children<br />Raise a Ruckus if processing returns to compound<br />Close Landfill(s)<br />1 Meter of Cover (bags below normal crop roots)<br />Monuments and Placards<br />21<br />
  22. 22. HEALTH & SAFETY<br />End-of-Day Decontamination<br />Washing Facilities for Contaminated Soil Handlers (Excavation and Disposal Crews)<br />Purple Pants and T-shirts collected and laundered daily (nightly)<br />Dust Masks Distributed, Collected, Disposed Daily<br />Daily Meal<br />White Rice<br />Red Sauce<br />Two pieces of meat or ½ cup of beans<br />22<br />
  23. 23. HEALTH & SAFETY<br />23<br />
  24. 24. THE TEAM<br />24<br />
  25. 25. LOCAL STAFF<br />25<br />
  26. 26. ANKA<br />GUSAU<br />26<br />
  27. 27. THE FUN STUFF<br />27<br />
  28. 28. THE FUN STUFF<br />28<br />
  29. 29. LEAD DISPERSION COSTS<br />Ore Contains:<br />Au (gold) = 123 – 6,320 ppb<br />Pb (lead) = 7,550 – 22,500 ppm<br />Waste contains:<br />Pb (lead) @ 1,000 ppm (guess) <br />~ 13,400 tons <br />Cleanup Budget $2,300,000<br />Typical Gold Earnings $170,000<br />Cost Ratio 13.59<br />29<br />
  30. 30. AFTER THOUGHTS<br />The Lure of Gold is Irresistible<br />Subsistence Farmers; Gold is the Cash Crop<br />Processing will return to the villages after cleanup<br />Hydrocarbons (credit) vs Carbohydrates (free)<br />Alternative Actions / More Economical Solutions<br />Clean Soil Cap Everywhere (in lieu of excavation)<br />Move The Village<br />Do Nothing<br />30<br />
  31. 31. OPPORTUNITIES<br />Int’l Funding Sources<br />First Coast Engineers<br />31<br />
  32. 32. STRATA<br />DEVELOPED WORLD<br />1 BILLION<br />$ 30,000 > GDP (PPP) Per Capita<br />(Shepherding Abundance)<br />North & South Maritime States<br />USA Canada Western Europe Japan South Korea UAE Israel Australia New Zealand<br />DEVELOPING WORLD<br />5 BILLION<br />$ 30,000 > GDP (PPP) Per Capita > $ 2,200<br />(Social Services, Urbanization)<br />BRICS& Asian Tigers & OPEC<br />Brazil Russia (& Former Soviets) India China South Africa SE Asia Middle East Chile Argentina <br />UNDERDEVELOPED WORLD<br />1 BILLION<br />$ 2,200 > GDP (PPP) Per Capita<br />(Disease, Famine, Survival)<br />Failed States & Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Cuba Venezuela Bangladesh Afghanistan North Korea Burma Sudan Somalia DRC<br />Ref: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Strata Economy Comparisons<br />33<br />
  34. 34. WWW.FOREIGNASSISTANCE.GOV<br />34<br />
  35. 35. WHERE IT GOES<br />$ 37 billion<br />$ 4.5 billion<br />$ 1.1 billion<br />35<br />
  36. 36. INTERNATIONAL FUNDING SOURCES<br />36<br />
  37. 37. DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTORS<br />37<br />
  38. 38. ROLES<br />38<br />
  39. 39. www.devex.com<br />39<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />
  41. 41. 41<br />
  42. 42. YOUR TOOLS INVENTORY<br />LANGUAGES<br /> ENGLISH ( FIDIC)<br /> SPANISH, FRENCH, ARABIC, PORTUGESE<br /> RUSSIAN, MANDARIN<br />CREDENTIALS<br /> ADVANCED DEGREES<br /> STEM<br /> Medical, Public Health<br /> Political, Legal<br /> INDUSTRY CERTS (i.e., USGBC/LEEDS; ISO9001)<br /> METRIC SYSTEM (Hard METRIC vs Soft METRIC)<br /> PROFESSIONAL LICENSURE (USA/INT’L)<br />COMMUNICATIONS<br /> SOCIAL NETWORKS ( LinkedIn, Devex)<br /> SKYPE<br /> INT’L CONFERENCES<br />42<br />
  43. 43. COMMON SENSE – “STREET SMARTS”<br />43<br />
  44. 44. REFERENCES<br />Blacksmith Institute www.blacksmithinstitute.com<br />Bill Huffman – LinkedIn http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=59283542<br />EWB-USA www.ewbusa.org<br />CDC www.cdc.gov<br />DEVEX www.devex.com<br />USAID www.foreignassistance.gov<br />CIA World Factbook www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook<br />Center for http://blogs.cgdev.org/mca-monitor /2011/03/u-s-<br />Global Development foreign-assistance-and-corruption-It%E2%80%99s-all<br /> -relative.php<br />CNN Report (June 2010) www.cnn.com/video/?/video/world/2010/06/14/<br />purfoy.nigeria.lead.cleanup.cnn<br />CNN Report (Nov 2010) http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/world/2010/11/30/<br />purefoy.nigeria.gold.lead.poison.cnn<br />44<br />
  45. 45. QUESTIONS<br />45<br />

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