Walker, Chapter 4


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Walker, Chapter 4

  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Four Police Organizations
  2. 2. Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations <ul><li>Officers wear uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>Military-style rank designations </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical command structure </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian organizational style </li></ul><ul><li>Legal authority to use deadly force and carry weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivates an “us versus them” attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages the idea of a “war on crime” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian style contrary to democratic principles and produces low morale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid structure leaves room for job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Police Departments as Organizations <ul><li>Dominant style is as a complex bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Complex organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Tasks assigned to “bureaus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Hierarchy and clear division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Responsibility for specific tasks delegated to lower-ranking employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Clear chain of command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Clear unity of command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Written rules and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Flow of info according to chain of command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Clear career paths </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pros and Cons of Bureaucracy in Policing <ul><li>Rigid, inflexible, and unable to adapt to </li></ul><ul><li>external changes </li></ul><ul><li>Communication within the organization often breaks down </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be inward looking, self-serving, and isolated from the people they serve </li></ul><ul><li>Are accused of not using the talents of their employees and even stifling creativity </li></ul>The Problems The Positives <ul><li>Capacity to coordinate many activities at once through specialization of departments </li></ul><ul><li>Control of police discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative rule making </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal and vertical cliques </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism <ul><li>Professionalism challenged by the bureaucratic nature of policing </li></ul><ul><li>Professional departments adopted a “by the book” approach to policing </li></ul><ul><li>The bureaucracy imposes formal controls over the behavior of police officers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Changing Police Organizations <ul><li>Community Policing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralizes decision making (territorial and administrative) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Officers from different ranks based on talents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating Learning organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about needs, plan and implement change, and learn from achievements and failures </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Community Policing <ul><li>Community policing attempts to modify the police organization through de-bureaucratization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. decentralize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. deformalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. despecialize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. delayerize </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. COMPSTAT: Computer Comparison Statistics <ul><li>Clarifies the department’s mission, goals, and values </li></ul><ul><li>Holds managers accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational power and authority transferred to commanders who are responsible for geographic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Resources are transferred to commanders. </li></ul><ul><li>Data used to identify problems and to evaluate success and failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle managers expected to use innovative problem-solving tactics </li></ul>
  9. 9. Civil Service <ul><li>Formal and legally binding procedures governing personnel decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly universal </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: to ensure personnel make decisions objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces the hierarchy of police depts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards hierarchy - Status hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seniority hierarchy - Rank hierarchy </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Police Unions <ul><li>Majority of police officers represented by unions </li></ul><ul><li>Three major police unions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Fraternal Order of Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. International Union of Police Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Teamsters Law Enforcement League </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Police Unions Continued <ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The method of determining conditions of employment through bilateral negotiations” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grievance Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides due process to employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unions and Shared Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Impasse Settlement and Strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Police Unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in salaries and benefits </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Police Organizations and Their Environment <ul><li>Contingency Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations are structured to achieve specific goals (crime control) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations operate in relation to their external social and political environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource Dependency Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations must obtain resources to survive </li></ul></ul>