Walker, Chapter 2


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Walker, Chapter 2

  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Two The History of American Police
  2. 2. The Relevance of History <ul><li>Knowledge of the development of policing contributes to our understanding of contemporary practices and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Police organization, reforms, and police-community relations today are deeply rooted in the past. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Relevance of History <ul><li>The study of police history can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatize the fact of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put current problems into perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help us understand what reforms have worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerts us to the unintended consequences of reforms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The English Heritage <ul><li>The Constable, Sheriff, & Justice of the Peace </li></ul><ul><li>The Watch System </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Robert Peel </li></ul><ul><li>London Metropolitan Police (1829) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission, Strategy, Organizational Structure </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. First Modern America Police <ul><li>New York - first police department with a day and night shift (1844) </li></ul><ul><li>Did not wear uniforms but had a hat and badge </li></ul><ul><li>Did not carry firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Officers hired based on who they knew </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three Eras of American Policing <ul><li>The political era (1830s-1900) </li></ul><ul><li>The professional era (1900-1960s) </li></ul><ul><li>The era of conflicting pressures (1960s-present) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Law Enforcement in Colonial America <ul><li>Sheriff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by colonial governor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief local government official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law enforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain bridges and roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Constable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some responsibility for enforcing law and maintaining order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally elected, later appointed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watchmen patrolled to guard against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, only night watch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All males were expected to serve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave Patrol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctly American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guard against slave revolts and capture runaway slaves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. American Policing in the 19 th Century <ul><li>Establishment of Modern Police Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization, Industrialization, Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown in Law and Order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Political Era </li></ul><ul><li>Police Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection based on political connection </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Patrol <ul><ul><li>Foot patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No communications system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In time, call boxes emerged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major social welfare institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. American Policing in the 20 th Century <ul><li>Police Professionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August Vollmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Father of American Police Professionalism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated higher education for police officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of Berkeley, California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote Wickersham Commission Report (1931) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Professionalization Movement <ul><li>Reformers sought to define policing as a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to eliminate the influence of politics on policing </li></ul><ul><li>Argued for hiring qualified police chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to raise standards for patrol officers </li></ul><ul><li>Applied modern management principles </li></ul><ul><li>Create specialized units like traffic, vice </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Diary of a Police Officer: Boston, 1895 <ul><li>The recently discovered 1895 diary of Boston police officer Stillman S. Wakeman provides a revealing glimpse into actual police work 100 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Officer Wakeman was “an officer of the neighborhood.” He spent most of his time on patrol responding to little problems that neighborhood residents brought to him: disputes, minor property crimes, and so on. He spent relatively little time on major offenses: murder, rape, robbery. He resolved most of the problems informally, acting as a neighborhood magistrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Officer Wakeman’s role was remarkably similar to that of contemporary patrol officers. He was reactive and a problem solver. The major difference was the absence of modern police technology: the patrol car and the 911 telephone system. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Important Issues in American Policing in the 20 th Century <ul><li>Police Subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Racial/Ethnic Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis of the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>The Research Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>State Police Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court Decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. New Technologies <ul><li>Patrol car just before WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way radio, late 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone for citizens to call police </li></ul>
  15. 15. New Developments <ul><li>Changing police officer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race and gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of police discretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies and SOP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant improvement in salaries and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community policing and problem-oriented policing </li></ul>