Walker, Chapter 10


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Walker, Chapter 10

  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Ten Innovations in Police Strategy
  2. 2. Impetus for Change in Policing <ul><li>Local police departments were isolated and alienated from important segments of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Research had undermined the assumptions of traditional police management and police reform. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the fact that the police role is complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the importance of citizens as co-producers of police services </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Roots of Community Policing: Broken Window Hypothesis <ul><li>Broken Windows Hypothesis : Developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling; argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay. A broken window begins neighborhood decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Social Disorder (Social Disorganization): A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physical Disorder: A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood; examples include vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and trash buildup. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Community Policing <ul><li>Community Policing : A model of policing that stresses a two-way working relationship between the community and the police; the police become more integrated into the local community, and citizens assume an active role in crime control and prevention. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Community Policing <ul><li>Community Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration between police and community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens can express problems and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police can educate citizens about crime and disorder in community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows citizens to present complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides forum for police to inform the citizen about successes and failures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil and administrative law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other municipal agencies </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Effectiveness of Community Partnernships <ul><li>Foot Patrol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased citizens’ feelings of safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feelings toward police department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied feedback on effectiveness of crime reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Watch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly found to have little impact on crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policing Where “Community” Has Collapsed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More successful among middle-income people, homeowners, and whites than among really poor renters and racial minorities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Organizational Change <ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evidence of Organizational Change <ul><li>Little evidence to support the idea that police organizations are changing their structure as a consequence of community policing </li></ul><ul><li>However, increased police visibility as a result of community policing </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of community policing principles into academy training for officers </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problem Solving <ul><li>Last element of community policing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the police and the community engage in a cooperative effort to solve neighborhood problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires participants to identify the underlying causes of problems rather than respond to the problems themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>58% of local police agencies encourage officers to engage in problem-solving projects </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pulling It All Together: Implementing Community Policing at the Departmental Level <ul><li>Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The CAPS Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Involvement of entire department and entire city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Permanent beat assignment for officers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Commitment to training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Community involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Link between policing and delivery of other city services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Emphasis on crime analysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. (CAPS) Obstacles to Change <ul><li>1. Problem of resources </li></ul><ul><li>2. Public opposition to planned closing of precinct station houses </li></ul><ul><li>3. Getting rank-and-file officers committed to CAPS </li></ul><ul><li>4. The 911 system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional system would pull officers away from problem-solving activities </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. CAPS in Action <ul><li>Citizen interaction with police important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted through regular beat meetings where citizens could discuss neighborhood problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems discussed included drug problems, youth problems, loud music, police disregard for citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of CAPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of awareness of program, but did not increase as time went on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased police visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More time spent on problem-solving </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Community Policing: Problems and Prospects <ul><li>A Legitimate Police Role? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A matter of policy choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Political Police? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community policing expands police role and erodes traditional limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more they dig into the root of social problems, the more they place limits on individual liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralization and Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization creates a potential loss of control over police behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Poor and Minority Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive on lives of those living in low-income areas, more arrests, fewer men in these communities who can find jobs due to their criminal record </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflicting Community Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Especially financial interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But Does Community Policing Work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YES: Study funded by the COPS Office showed that the community policing strategy implemented by the Clinton administration was extremely effective </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing: <ul><li>Herman Goldstein recognized complexity of the police role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped draft the American Bar Association standards that emphasized different responsibilities of police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goldstein argues we should think of the police as a government agency providing a wide range of miscellaneous services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also argues that the police are prisoners of their communication system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>911 forces them into a reactive role and makes them think in terms of isolated incidents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Problem Solving Process (SARA) <ul><li>1. Scanning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for and identify possible problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information about the problem and attempt to identify its scope, nature and cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis information used to develop a strategy to address the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the effectiveness of the response </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing <ul><li>Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased police presence in area reduced reported burglaries by 60 percent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilized SARA model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem-Oriented Policing in San Diego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of officers used some aspect of SARA model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, most POP projects were not carried out in a traditional “text book” fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced youth-gang homicides by 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents’ fear of crime reduced by 21% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith in police increased by 33% </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing <ul><li>Zero-Tolerance Policing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on broken windows theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls for the police to primarily focus on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by interventions that aggressively enforce criminal and civil laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the presumption that communities that need the police the most are also the least likely to have strong community social institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not attempt to carefully identify problems or thoroughly analyze cause of problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on place-specific interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A back-to-basics strategy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing <ul><li>Zero Tolerance Policing in NYC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giuliani instituted zero-tolerance strategy that focused on enforcement efforts against panhandling, vandalism, public drunkenness, public urination, and prostitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result was a drop in serious crime rate, however this also came about as part of a general nation-wide trend in drops in crime rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation Restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chandler, AZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructured police department and gave more responsibility to planning and development dept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result was a decrease in public morals crimes like prostitution and disorderly conduct </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Potential Problems with Zero-Tolerance Policing <ul><li>Conflict between police and the public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages officers to be overly aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in no. of citizen complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in crime in the long run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An arrest record has a long-term impact on a person’s immediate and future employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on poor and minority communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on minor offenses means poorer minority communities will be affected more </li></ul></ul>