To define the costs of victimization toAmerican society.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes8.1
8.1 The Costs of VictimizationWho is a Victim?The word VICTIM has been used to describe essentially anyperson subjected to injurious circumstances beyond their controlor provocation. Victimization may come at the hands of otherpeople, nature, or various types of accidents. The costs to societyare enormous…• The cost of police and first responders• The cost of medical care• The cost of housing and relocation• The long-term emotional effects of victimization• The costs associated with bringing victimizers to justice• The costs associated with lost productionMuch of the burden of this cost falls on the taxpayer, and thus it isimportant to develop the most effective strategies as possible forresponding to victims.
To list and describe the various victimtypologies.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes8.2
8.2 Victim TypologiesCategorizing Victims• The VIOLATED VictimVictims of sex crimes, including sexual assault, sexual abuse, andsexual battery.• The ASSAULTED VictimVictims of physical violence. Includes both active and passive victims, as wellas abducted children.• The UPROOTED VictimVictims of forced relocation and deculturation following natural disasters andlarge-scale crises.• The PASSIVE VictimVictims of observing and vicariously experiencing another’s trauma.• The OPPRESSED VictimVictims of economic, social, or emotional oppression or cruelty.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimIncludes those who are sexually assaulted, both adults andchildren.Scope of the ProblemIn 2009 there were 88,097 reported forcible rapes in America.This doesn’t include those that go unreported.Types of Rape• Stranger rapes• Acquaintance rapes• Statutory rapesDepending on the State, the crime of rape may be referred toas sexual assault, sexual abuse, sexual battery, or predatorysexual assault.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimIn an effort to change the public’s perception of rapevictims, and also how the male-dominated criminal justicesystem has in the past handled their cases, RAPE SHIELD LAWShave been enacted around the country.Prior to these laws it was not uncommon or defense attorneys toargue that victims of rape actually wanted to be raped, or thatit was their own sexual promiscuity that led to the assault. Thishad the effect in most cases of traumatizing the victim all overagain.Rape shield laws now prevent a victim’s sexual history in mostcases from becoming an issue during the trial.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimTHE POLICE RESPONSEWhen the police respond to most crimes, their response isoffender-centered, meaning their primary focus is on identifyingand apprehending the offender. In the case of sexualassault, their response must be victim-centered.If done correctly, their response will help to lessen thepsychological trauma to the victim. If done incorrectly, it willonly exacerbate it.An appropriate response will also lead to the gathering of morecredible evidence with which to identify, apprehend, andconvict the offender.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimTHE POLICE RESPONSE• It is critical that a female officer become involved in the response.• Officers should be reassuring and comforting, and remain with thevictim throughout the initial evidence gathering phase.• Detailed questioning about the rape beyond the attacker’s descriptionshould be avoided until the crisis is properly de-escalated and the victimdecompresses psychologically.• it is critical that the victim not change clothes or shower. They shouldbe transported to the hospital for a physical exam and evidencecollection by qualified staff.• Only after the medical exam is completed, and the victim has had theopportunity to shower, should a detailed interview be attempted. Aqualified representative from local women’s shelter should be present.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimRAPE TRAUMA SYNDROMEIt is important that anyone responding to or investigating cases ofrape understand this syndrome. A rape victim’s behavior may beconfusing to an officer if they are suffering the effects of RTS.During the acute phase of RTS, which can last from 2-4 weeksafter the attack, the following reactions may be experienced:- Revulsion toward self- Self-blame- Extreme mood swings from anger to fear- Sorrow and grief- Disorientation- Physical symptoms such as nausea and insomnia
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Violated VictimRAPE TRAUMA SYNDROMEThe second phase of RTS can last longer, from months to evenyears. Symptoms may include:- Recurring nightmares- Strained relationships with men- Loss of sexual desire- Intense fear of things they associate with attackIn the most extreme cases, victims may even experience acomplete emotional breakdown and demonstrateschizophrenic-like behaviors.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Assaulted VictimPASSIVE VS. ACTIVE VICTIMSAssaulted victims are those who are physically attacked, butwithout a sexual component.PASSIVE: Those victims who have no prior connection to theirattackers.ACTIVE: Those victims who were participants in the situation thatled to their assault.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Assaulted VictimCHILD ABDUCTIONApproximately 115 non-family child abductions each year inAmerica in which the child is detained at leastovernight, transported at least 50 miles, held for ransom, orintended to be kept permanently or killed.In almost all states now, when an abduction takes place, there isan AMBER ALERT. This alert notifies the general public that anabduction has happened, along with descriptive informationabout the child, the abductor, and the vehicle used.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Assaulted VictimTHE AMBER ALERT• A.M.B.E.R. – “America’s Missing: Broadcasting EmergencyResponse”• Established following the abduction and murder of 9-year-oldAmber Hagerman in Arlington, TX. Has been responsible for thesafe return of over 500 children.• Criteria for initiating an alert:Police must confirm that an abduction has taken place.The abducted child must be at risk of death or serious injury (as opposed toparental abduction).There must be sufficient descriptive information available about the child, theabductor, or the abductor’s vehicle to make the alert potentially useful.The child must be 17-years-old or younger.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Uprooted VictimPrimarily victims of natural disasters.Hurricane Katrina resulted in nearly 1 million residents of NewOrleans being relocated as far away as Texas and Georgia.Oftentimes victims of these types of circumstances will becomedesperate, and may do desperate things like looting, stealingvehicles, and resorting to violence against one another.Those who respond to large-scale disasters must be cognizant ofthe effects of uprooting on the victims of those disasters.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Oppressed VictimThis category includes those who are victims of psychologicaland economic abuse or oppression.• The wife of an emotionally-abusive husband• The person stuck in the web of a cult• The single mother who cannot escape abject poverty• The elder residents of an emotionally-abusive nursinghomeOftentimes because there is no crime involved, and because of privacyrestrictions, the police fail to get involved in many of these situations.They can certainly act as a referral source however. It is thus critical thatthey understand this type of victimization.
8.2 Victim TypologiesThe Passive VictimThose who are traumatized by simply observing another personbeing victimized.• One of the most common types confronted by police officers isthe child-witness of spousal abuse. It is estimated that 3.3 millionchildren each year witness domestic violence. These kids are ahigh risk for juvenile delinquency, sexual promiscuity, andsubstance abuse.• This category also includes those who are exposed daily toinner-city violence. These young people are particularlyvulnerable to stress disorders resulting from death immersion.These young people experience a profound loss of trust, a hatredfor self, a lack of internalized morals and ethics, and abreakdown of their sense of caring.
To summarize the types of victimservices available in the community.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes8.3
8.3 Victim ServicesCommunity ServicesIt is critical that every criminal justice professional who may come incontact with victims be familiar with all the various victim services that areavailable in the community and serve as a referral source/ facilitator.• Victim compensation• Victim advocacy programs• Crisis counseling• Emergency legal advocacy• Shelter/ Safe houses
To explain some of the problemsassociated with victim eyewitnessreports.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes8.4
8.4 Victim Eyewitness ReportsThe Victim-WitnessTrauma can and often does have a negative effect on memory andrecall. Perception is less accurate in a crisis situation. Stresses increasesa person’s emotional response, and this acts to constrict theirperceptual field.Memory and recall may also be impacted by personal bias. Forexample, a woman assaulted in an unlit area of a particular ethnicneighborhood may erroneously report that her attacker was a memberof that ethnic group because she expects it to have been. Herperception is impacted both by the stress of the attack, and by personalbias.It is natural for the brain to fill in the missing pieces of a memory basedon expectations and experience. Thus, a victim may unknowingly recalldetails of their attack that are false memories.
8.4 Victim Eyewitness ReportsThe Victim-WitnessOne method often used for victim-witness recall is FORENSICHYPNOSIS. It is used when the stress and trauma of the event ispreventing the victim-witness from recovering memories thathave either been repressed or not consciously processed at thetime they were witnessed.In a state of heightened relaxation, or a trance-state, the person’sconscious mind no longer blocks the recovery of threateningmemories.