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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

  1. 1. Persuasive Writing
  2. 2. We are PR Professionals <ul><li>PR writers are advocates in the marketplace of public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>We must use persuasive techniques that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truthful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially acceptable </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basics of Communication <ul><li>Sender (advances the objectives of the organization/sender) </li></ul><ul><li>Message (what should they think, believe or do - research to find out what they know before you make the message) </li></ul><ul><li>Media (TV, billboard, newspaper, friend) </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver (public you must reach) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Message Basics <ul><li>Message must be – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acted upon </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Persuasive Writing <ul><li>Audience Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your audience/targeted public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source Credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert/Charismatic/Sincere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeals to Self-Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s in it for me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message Clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy-test on audience/public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon the public won’t understand </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Persuasive Writing Cont… <ul><li>Timing & Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal Events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbols, Slogans, Acronyms </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Persuasive Writing Cont… <ul><li>Content & Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalize/humanize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factual, people believe #s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys/Polls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People want to know what others think </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I use it” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image-transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Appeals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. More About Persuasion <ul><li>Generally speaking, positive appeals are more effective than negative appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrity is most effective when audience has low involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emotional appeals/fear appeals best when audience has interest in topic, concern </li></ul><ul><li>Highly fear-arousing appeals work only when immediate action can be taken </li></ul><ul><li>W/highly-educated audience use LOGICAL appeal, not emotional one </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition is key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminds them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down resistance to message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps overcome competing messages </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Examples
  10. 10. Caution, Do Not… <ul><li>Use false or distorted facts to support your argument </li></ul><ul><li>Do use illogical reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t say you’re an expert if you aren’t </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use smear tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t appeal to hatred or “God” to further your cause </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t conceal your real purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT advocate something you don’t believe </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is a Theory? <ul><li>A theory is an explanation for observable phenomena. It is a proposition that tries to explain the observed facts related to a specific problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magic Bullet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-Step Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses & Gratifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Effects (Agenda-Setting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion & Adoption </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Magic Bullet Theory <ul><li>One of the earliest media theories </li></ul><ul><li>Direct effects </li></ul><ul><li>Passive audience </li></ul><ul><li>Media has powerful influence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two-Step Flow Theory <ul><li>Use of opinion leaders (those who pay attention to the news/info) </li></ul><ul><li>People rely on more knowledgeable people to tell them how to vote, what to think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message goes from opinion leaders to aware or interested public, then to unaware audiences </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>People do not act on message if it’s contrary to their beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore you must introduce information that causes them to QUESTION their beliefs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Media Effects (Agenda-Setting Theory) <ul><li>Media has limited effects </li></ul><ul><li>Media doesn’t tell people what to think, but WHAT TO THINK ABOUT! </li></ul><ul><li>Above the fold? Leads the newscast? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Framing <ul><li>How media select certain facts, themes, words </li></ul><ul><li>How did Bush frame war with Iraq? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War on terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for WMD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam a threat to other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam a threat to his own people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-compliance issue </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Framing Cont… <ul><li>How media frames: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War on terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for WMD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam a threat to other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam a threat to his own people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-compliance issue </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Diffusion & Adoption Theory <ul><li>Five Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) Adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE v. PASSIVE audience/public </li></ul>
  19. 19. Active or Passive? <ul><li>Passive audiences need to be lured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catchy themes or slogans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short messages only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHAT MEDIA IS RIGHT FOR THIS TYPE OF AUDIENCE? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Diffusion & Adoption Cont… <ul><li>PR most influential in first two steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Friends/family most influential in trial & evaluation stages </li></ul><ul><li>A person does not necessarily go through all 5 stages with any given product/idea </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factors that Affect Adoption Process <ul><li>Relative Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Uses & Gratifications Theory <ul><li>Media has limited effects </li></ul><ul><li>People CHOOSE what media they consume </li></ul><ul><li>Active audience members </li></ul>
  23. 23. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological needs (food, clothing, shelter) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety needs (loss of life, protection against danger) </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs (friendship, love) </li></ul><ul><li>Ego needs (self-esteem, status) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfillment needs (talent, intellect) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Applying Theories to PR <ul><li>Magic Bullet? </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Step Flow? </li></ul><ul><li>Media Effects (Agenda-Setting)? </li></ul><ul><li>Framing? </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion & Adoption? </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Gratification </li></ul>
  25. 25. Agenda-Setting Theory A local newspaper decides to run a front page article on the drug bust of a prominent member of the community.
  26. 26. Two-Step Flow Theory An anti-tobacco campaign that targets elementary students uses popular high school students to communicate the message.
  27. 27. Uses & Gratifications Theory Shirley’s Green House develops a weekly gardening program that airs locally on TV Channel 31.

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