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Population Ecology

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Population Ecology

  1. 1. Zebra Population EcologyFlamingos Yellow Fusiliers
  2. 2. Populations increaseor decrease based onfour variables... • Births • Immigration Black Wildebeest • Deaths • Emigration Leatherback Turtle
  3. 3. Most populations are distributed in ‘clumps’• Advantages • Resources tend to be found in patches • There is better protection • Better chances for a meal (lions, wolves) Cape buffalo being pursued by lions in Botswana • Mating and care of young
  4. 4. Characteristics of a population...• Age Structure • Pre- reproductive • Reproductive • Post- reproductive Fifi and her kin
  5. 5. Limits on a population...• Carrying Capacity is determined by... • Environmental Resistance: disease, food, water, weather, predation • Biotic Potential: intrinsic rate of growth
  6. 6. Exponential and Logistic Growth• Exponential Growth or the J-shaped curve • no limits to reproduction or resources• Logistic Growth or the S- shaped curve • Environmental resistance brings population within carrying capacity
  7. 7. TapewormSpecific Examples ofEnvironmental Resistance • Density Dependent Factors • food, disease, predators, parasites • Density Independent Factors • weather, natural disasters, habitat loss, pollution Deforestation in The Philippines
  8. 8. Predator-PreyRelationships• Bottom-Up Control • Snowshoe Hare and Lynx in Canada • Natural fluctuation in prey population Lynx regulates the predator• Top-Down Control • Wolf and Elk relationship in Yellowstone Snowshoe Hare
  9. 9. Reproductive Patterns and Survival Strategies• R-selected species • early sexual maturity/early reproduction • lots of young/high mortality of young • minimal care of young • high growth rate/ Locust Swarm in Mauritania low life expectancy
  10. 10. More SurvivalStrategies...• K-selected species • late sexual maturity late reproduction • low birthrate/low mortality of young Humpback female • parental care of young and calf • low population growth rate
  11. 11. A Few Final Words...• K-selected species • prefer mature, stable ecosystems • comprise the majority Philippine Eagle of Endangered Species• R-selected species • excellent at colonizing ‘disturbed’ ecosystems

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