Fossil FuelsTwo-fold problem •Affordable fossil fuels will be depleted in 50-100 years at the current rate of consumption. It takes 50 years to convert from one type of energy technology to another. •The potential environmental impacts of global warming as a result of continued burning of fossil fuels. •Exploration/production of crude oil damaging to the environment (i.e. North Slope/ANWR)
Non-Renewable Energy•75% of global energy is fossil fuel, 6% nuclear. The rest is renewable.•With 4.5% of world’s population, the US uses 24% of the world’s energy.•India with 17% of the population uses only 3%.•China and India will become major players as more citizens can afford cars
How do we stretch our sources of energy?Best alternatives: •Energy efﬁciency •Insulation •High mileage vehicles •Energy-efﬁcient appliances Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Net Energy Cost Net energy=Total amount of energy from the resource MinusThe costs of exploration, extracting, processing, anddelivering to customers.Right now oil is cheap. Nuclear is expensive.
Fossil Fuels: Crude Oil• Trapped in Earth’s crust (sedimentary rock formations)• Primary Oil Recovery- light crude, well is drilled and crude is pumped out• Secondary Oil Recovery- water is pumped into adjacent well, forces oil into original well• Tertiary Oil Recovery- Superheated steam or detergent forced into well to remove heavy crude
Uses of Crude OilWhat is crude used for? •Fuel: transportation/heat •Petrochemicals: plastics, etc.
Who has the crude oil?•OPEC Saudi Arabia o Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela o Saudi and Venezuela control 70% of oil production globally•64% of oil is in the Middle East (26% in Saudi Arabia alone!)•Russia and Mexico are also major producers Hugo Chavez
Fossil Fuels: Natural GasNatural Gas •CH4 mostly •Lies above most oil •Russia and Iran 50% •US 3% •Transition Fuel •Will last 125 years at Kazakstan present rate of consumption
Fossil Fuels: Coal•At present rate will last 225 years (65 years if rate increases 2% /year)•Mostly for production of electricity and Strip Coal Mine manufacture of steel•High environmental cost: mining, acid rain, mercury o Fly-ash, coal sludge, air pollution Coal Miner
Environmental Impacts of Coal Relative Global Warming Factor for Energy SourcesCO2 Content per Unit of energyCoal 280%Synthetic fuels from coal 150%Oil 100%Natural Gas 86%Nuclear 17%
History of Nuclear Power•1950’s AEC Promotion/Regulation of Atomic Age; 25% of the funding came from the Federal Government•Insurance companies balked at coverage. Price-Anderson Act prevented industry from signiﬁcant liability.•Since 1989 there has been a decrease in US in nuclear produced electricity•Since 1975 the number of reactors has declined in US. In Asia the number has increased.•China wants nuclear so that it doesn’t have to burn coal.
How a Nuclear Plant Works• Core: 35,000-50,000 fuel rods. Filled with fuel pellets. 97% non-ﬁssion U-238; 3% ﬁssionable U-235 (normally U-235 is 0.7% enriched).• Control Rods: Absorb neutrons, regulate rate of ﬁssion• Moderator: ater. Slows down neutrons. W (Chernobyl had graphite)• Coolant: Water. Cool fuel rods in reactor core. Produces steam for turbines.
The Decline of The Nuclear Industry• Hurt by accidents • Chernobyl (1986) and TMI (1979)• Storage issue (100,000 years) • Yucca Mountain• Security (nuclear proliferation, terrorism)