Modern Model of the Atom

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  • Modern Model of the Atom

    1. 1. Modern Model of The Atom• Rutherford’s Model: Pro’s and Con’s • Improved on (Thomson’s) Plum Pudding Model • Protons inside, Electrons outside • Couldn’t explain how electrons stayed outside
    2. 2. Niels Bohr and The Planetary Model of The Atom• Inspired by Niels Bohr the work of Bunsen and Kirchoff• Emission spectra of Spectrometer elements Bunsen and Kirchoff
    3. 3. Bohr: Electrons are ‘quantized’• Emission spectra Emission Spectra• Electrons in of a Few Elements Energy Levels• Electrons • Ground State Ground State vs. Excited and Excited State State
    4. 4. Bohr Model=Planetary Model• Bohr’s Model Pro’s and Con’s • Explained small atoms well • Failed to explain where electrons were in larger atoms Nitrogen Atom
    5. 5. Quantum Mechanic Model of The Atom• Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg Schrodinger• 1925-30• Refined Bohr’s Model• Wave or Cloud Model of Electrons• Electrons in orbitals of Heisenberg differing energy
    6. 6. Quantum Mechanic Rules• Energy level (n=energy level)• Type of orbital (s,p,d,f) s-orbital• Shape of orbital p-orbital • sphere, dumbbell, rosette, d-orbital complex f-orbital• Number of Electrons in orbital Shapes • s=2; p=6; d=10; f=14 of Orbitals
    7. 7. Quantum Mechanic Rules Continued...• Aufbau Principle • electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy first • (s<p<d<f)• Hund’s Rule • electrons occupy adjacent orbitals before pairing• Pauli Exclusion Principle • electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spin
    8. 8. The Periodic Table:Where Are The S, P, D, and F Orbitals? s-orbitals d-orbitals p-orbitals f-orbitals
    9. 9. Orbital Diagrams and Electron Configurations• orbital diagrams show us where bonding occurs• We’ll do elements 1-10• You will do elements 11-18, tonight Aufbau Diagram

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