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Equilibrium

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• Equilibrium

1. 1. Equilibrium: LeChatelier’s Principle, Ksp, and Keq Until this point most of our reactions have gone to completion forming water, gas, or a precipitate. In equilibrium reactions, however, there is product and reactant at the same time. NO2
2. 2. Equilibrium Constant2 SO2 + O2 <->2 SO3 (air pollution)N2 + O2 <->2 NO2 (air pollution)Keq = Equilibrium Constant= [Concentration of Products] [Concentration of Reactants]Keq = [SO3]2 [SO2]2 [O2]
3. 3. Calculate the Keq forthe following reaction: CH4 + 2 H2S <-> CS2 + 4 H2 (0.45M) (0.30M (0.35M) (0.20M) (0.35) (0.0016) Keq = [CS2] [H2]4 = 0.013 [CH4] [H2S]2 (0.45) (0.09) =1 Equilibrium favors prod. & react. >1 Equilibrium favors products <1 Equilibrium favors reactants
4. 4. Le Chatelier’s Principle: If you disturb a reaction at equilibrium, the reaction returnsto equilibrium in such a directionto partially undo the disturbance.
5. 5. A Couple of Equilibrium Questions... 2 CO (g) + O2 (g) <->2CO2 (g) E= -563 kjoules Stress Shift Why Add heat Add O2 Add catalyst Decrease Pressure Pb(NO3)2 (s) <-> Pb+2 (aq) + 2NO3-1 (aq) E= +34 kjoules Stress Shift Why Add NaCl Add NH4C2H3O2 Increase temperature Increase pressure
6. 6. Ksp: Solubility Product ConstantKsp has major importance in slightlysoluble compounds such as uric acid andthe cause of gout in humans, and in anatural contaminant of drinking waterFeS.
7. 7. Calculation of Ksp...Ksp =BaSO4 (s) <-> Ba+2 (aq)+ SO4-2 (aq)Ksp = [Ba+2] [SO4-2]Ksp for BaSO4 1.1x 10-10 M =Ba+2 ion = Sq. Rt. 1.1 x 10-10 =1.05 x 10-5SO4-2 ion= same as above