North Dakota Social Media Survey Report - 2012

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North Dakota hunters and shooters are representative of our society as a whole. To engage new hunters and shooters, state fish and wildlife agencies need to focus resources and efforts on creating engaging content and platforms for this next generation of Conservationists.

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North Dakota Social Media Survey Report - 2012

  1. 1. NORTH DAKOTA RESIDENTS’ USE OFSOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THEIR HUNTING AND SHOOTING PARTICIPATION Conducted for the National Shooting Sports Foundation By the North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and Responsive Management 2012This project is supported by the Hunting Heritage Partnership, a grant program of the National Shooting Sports Foundation, Inc. Grant #26, Reporting Period: April 1, 2012 - March 12, 2013
  2. 2. NORTH DAKOTA RESIDENTS’ USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THEIR HUNTING AND SHOOTING PARTICIPATION 2012 North Dakota Game and Fish Department Terry Steinwand, Director Greg Link, Chief, Conservation and Communications Division The Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports Bill Creighton, CEO Responsive Management National Office Mark Damian Duda, Executive Director Martin Jones, Senior Research Associate Tom Beppler, Research Associate Steven J. Bissell, Ph.D., Qualitative Research Associate Andrea Criscione, Research Associate Patrick Doherty, Research Associate Lauren Jefferson, Research Associate Amanda Ritchie, Research Associate Carol L. Schilli, Senior Statistician Tim Winegord, Survey Center Manager Alison Lanier, Business Manager 130 Franklin Street Harrisonburg, VA 22801 Phone: 540/432-1888 Fax: 540/432-1892 E-mail: mark@responsivemanagement.com www.responsivemanagement.com
  3. 3. Acknowledgments The North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and theShooting Sports, and Responsive Management would like to thank Melissa Schilling of the National Shooting Sports Foundation for her input, support, and guidance on this project.
  4. 4. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation iSTUDY OVERVIEWThis study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation®(NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed atelephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters andtarget shooters residing in the state.Overall, the data suggest that while many North Dakotans visit social media websites likeFacebook, Twitter, and YouTube to obtain information about recreational activities andopportunities, such sites have not replaced more traditional means like the Internet in general,word-of-mouth from family, friends and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers.However, because about half of North Dakota residents, slightly less than half of North Dakotahunters, and a little over a quarter of North Dakota shooters are fairly regular users of socialmedia, and because social media, relative to many other outreach methods, provide timely andcost-effective opportunities for information dissemination, social media communicationsstrategies should certainly be utilized by agencies as often as possible. Additionally, the surveydata appear to confirm that social media outreach will be most effective in the targeting ofyounger markets: social media use was more common among members of the generalpopulation and hunters than among shooters, and shooters as a whole tended to be older than theother two respondent groups (respondents younger than the median age of 47 years old alsoshowed greater propensity for social media use than did respondents the median age or older).Also, because the survey found that social media use is more common among females thanmales, agencies may be able to help generate increased interest and participation from youngerwomen by focusing on this type of outreach.At the same time, it is critical to keep in mind that while social media may be an effective way totransmit various messages, the use of such media does not in itself guarantee the successfulreception of any specific message. Rather, social media represent a means to an end, the end inthis case being social influence from family members and friends in the form of invitationsencouraging those around them to try hunting or shooting. Indeed, the overriding importance ofinvitations and encouragement from friends and family members in getting people to try huntingand shooting is demonstrated by the fact that among North Dakota residents and hunterssurveyed, encouragement from family members is a greater motivator to trying a new activitythan is the expectation of personal enjoyment—that is to say, many people are likely to try a newrecreational activity, even if they are unsure they will enjoy themselves, if they are invited to doso by a family member.In this way, the research findings suggest that, rather than constituting any “silver bullet” inagency outreach and communications techniques, social media as a whole are more promisingfor the extent to which they expand ways for family members, friends, and others tocommunicate with and entice one another through the sharing of experiences, photos, and otherinvitational information. Whereas such sharing was certainly possible before the popularizationof social media, social media websites now make this sharing (including invitations and otherinfluence) simple and commonplace. Thus, one of the most important ways an agency can takeadvantage of social media will be to encourage its constituents to use social media platforms toshare things with friends and family members about their own experiences hunting and shooting.
  5. 5. ii NDGFD / CAHSS / RMThe survey found that among North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters,Facebook is by far the most popular social media website, and the most important appeal of sucha site is the opportunity it provides to communicate with family and friends; further, apart fromreceiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in an activity, the next mostimportant action that would influence people to participate in a new activity is the ability to viewimages and pictures of friends and family members engaging in the activity—one of the essentialfunctions of a social media site like Facebook.Just as these findings reinforce the importance of social media communication within existingnetworks of people (families, circles of friends, groups of coworkers, etc.), one limitation in theway an agency might communicate with its constituents through social media is illustrated by thefact that, currently, only about one in five North Dakota social media users engage with or followa specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational opportunities through a social mediaplatform. Still, despite such a modest level of present social media engagement with agenciesand organizations, the survey results suggest that numerous other pieces regarding NorthDakotans’ interest and involvement in social media are currently in place:• Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters who use social media feel that such sites are effective at helping people make decisions about whether to engage in recreational activities;• While non-social media contact such as phone calls, emails, and text messages are likely to be more influential than social media in encouraging people to participate in recreational activities, a substantial percentage of those who already use social media agree that they are more likely to participate in an event or activity if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media;• Around half of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters own a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet, and social media use is highly correlated with ownership of such devices;• In line with the above, large majorities of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners are likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity;• Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often.Finally, the data reinforce that, because support for hunting and target shooting among NorthDakotans is nearly universal, there exists a considerable margin by which participation in theseactivities can increase. The key, as stated earlier and as reinforced elsewhere by the quantitativeresults, will be for agencies and other organizations to encourage their constituents at everyopportunity to post about and describe their recreational experiences on their preferred socialmedia platforms. Utilized in this manner, the overall effectiveness of social media as anoutreach tool will be self-sustaining, particularly with regard to the promotion of newrecreational opportunities like hunting and shooting.
  6. 6. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation iiiEXECUTIVE SUMMARYINTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGYThis study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation®(NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed atelephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters andtarget shooters residing in the state.For the survey, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of thealmost universal ownership of telephones among North Dakota residents (both landlines and cellphones were called). The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by theNorth Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the ShootingSports, and Responsive Management. The software used for data collection was QuestionnaireProgramming Language (QPL). The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package forthe Social Sciences as well as proprietary software developed by Responsive Management.Responsive Management obtained a total of 1,509 completed interviews with North Dakotaresidents, including 1,004 interviews with members of the general population, 255 interviewswith hunters, and 250 interviews with target shooters.Throughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidenceinterval. For the entire sample of North Dakota residents, the sampling error is at most plus orminus 3.09 percentage points, based on a sample size of 1,004 and a population size of 522,720North Dakota residents ages 18 years old and older. For the sample of hunters, the samplingerror is at most plus or minus 6.13 percentage points, based on a sample size of 255 and apopulation size of 111,660 hunters in the North Dakota license database used for the sample.Finally, because no reliable source exists to identify the size of the target shooter population inNorth Dakota, sampling error was not calculated for this respondent group.
  7. 7. iv NDGFD / CAHSS / RMSURVEY FINDINGS AT A GLANCE• Overall, the most common sources of information for recreational activities among North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters include the Internet in general, word-of- mouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers.• About half of North Dakota residents, slightly less than half of North Dakota hunters, and a little over a quarter of North Dakota shooters are fairly regular users of social media (i.e., they visit social media sites at least sometimes).• Among all three respondent groups, Facebook is by far the most popular social media website, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter.• The most important appeal of social media websites is the opportunity to communicate with family and friends.• Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters who use social media feel that such sites are somewhat effective, rather than very effective, at helping people make decisions about whether to engage in recreational activities.• Only about one in five North Dakota social media users engage with or follow a specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational opportunities through a social media platform.• Less than half of North Dakota social media users regularly use social media to actively seek information about recreational activities, share things with others about recreational activities, or organize outings or events with friends or family members.• Contact such as phone calls, emails, and text messages from friends or family members are generally more influential than social media invitations and reminders in encouraging people to participate in recreational activities.• Among North Dakota residents and hunters, encouragement from family members is a greater motivator to trying a new activity than is the expectation of personal enjoyment.• Most North Dakota resident social media users and about half of hunter and shooter social media users agree that they are more likely to participate in an event or activity if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media.• Around half of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters own a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet.• While only small percentages of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners currently use mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities, large majorities of each group are likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity.• Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often.
  8. 8. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation v• Support for hunting and target shooting among North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters is nearly universal, and interest in going hunting or target shooting in North Dakota in the next year is quite high among all three groups.• Relatively small percentages of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters regularly play video games; however, a number of those who play hunting- or shooting-related video games agree that such games increase their interest in actually going hunting or target shooting.GENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES An initial question in the survey asked respondents about the main sources they used to learn about recreational activities, and the most common are the Internet, word-of-mouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers: • Among general population North Dakota residents, 39% use the Internet, 37% rely on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, and 25% use print newspapers. Smaller percentages use television (18%) and print magazines (13%). • Among North Dakota hunters, nearly half (46%) depend on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, while a third (33%) use the Internet to learn about recreational activities. Meanwhile, 13% use print newspapers, 11% use television, and 10% use print magazines. • Among North Dakota shooters, the top source of information is the Internet (38%), followed by word-of-mouth from family, friends, and others (33%), and print newspapers (23%). Similar to the other groups, smaller percentages of shooters use print magazines (12%) and television (11%), while a further 11% name the North Dakota Game and Fish Department print magazine (as opposed to the online version) as a source of information on recreational activities.ATTITUDES TOWARD AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIAGeneral Use of Social Media Substantial percentages of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters visit social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube at least sometimes (the survey measured usage on a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never):
  9. 9. vi NDGFD / CAHSS / RM • Slightly more than half of North Dakota general population residents (51%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; meanwhile, nearly a third (30%) say they visit such sites daily, while 39% never visit social media sites. • Just under half of North Dakota hunters (43%) and slightly more than a quarter of shooters (28%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; at the same time, almost half of hunters (42%) and well over half of shooters (58%) never visit social media sites. (At the other end of the spectrum, 24% of hunters and just 12% of shooters visit such sites daily.) Respondents who said they visited social media sites at least rarely were asked which sites they visited most often: by far, the most commonly used social media site is Facebook, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter: • Among North Dakota general population residents who visit social media sites, 86% use Facebook. The next most commonly visited sites among those who use social media are YouTube (24% of residents who use social media visit this site) and Twitter (14%). Meanwhile, less than a tenth of residents use Google+ (7%), Pinterest (4%), or LinkedIn (1%). • Facebook is also by far the most popular site among North Dakota hunters and shooters who visit social media sites (76% of hunters and 79% of shooters who use social media visit Facebook). This is followed by YouTube (29% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), Twitter (3% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), and Google+ (7% of hunters and 2% of shooters who use social media). A follow-up question asked respondents what they liked most about the social media sites they visited most often, and the most common response is that the site(s) allows communication with family and friends: • Among North Dakota general population residents who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site (respondents could name up to three preferred sites), 66% say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, while a further 29% say that their favorite site(s) helps them stay informed. Other important aspects are that the site is entertaining (16%), that the site is easy to use or relevant (15%), or that the site allows the person to look up information (14%).
  10. 10. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation vii • Preferred qualities among North Dakota hunters and shooters who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site generally resemble responses from general population residents: 53% of hunters and 49% of shooters say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, 18% of hunters and 26% of shooters say that their most-visited site(s) is informative, 18% of hunters and 16% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) is convenient and accessible, and 21% of hunters and 8% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) has entertaining content.Opinions Regarding the Effectiveness of Social Media in Influencing Decision-Making The survey asked respondents who used social media their opinions on the effectiveness of social media to accomplish two separate things: provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions in general, and provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them. Large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters feel that social media are effective at doing both of the two things, although respondents in all three groups more often say that social media are somewhat effective, as opposed to very effective: • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions in general: o 76% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 30% saying very effective; o 77% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 29% saying very effective; o 72% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with just 16% saying very effective; • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them: o 74% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 27% say very effective; o 69% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 24% say very effective;
  11. 11. viii NDGFD / CAHSS / RM o 59% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 20% say very effective.Engagement With Specific Agencies and Organizations Via Social Media The survey asked respondents who used social media whether they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities on social media platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (this could include “following” an agency or organization or being signed up for regular updates or alerts via a social media website). Among respondents who used social media, no more than a fifth of each of the three respondent groups said they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities: • Among North Dakota general population residents who used social media, 19% said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. o North Dakota residents who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with a non-profit organization (28%), followed by an outdoor recreation club (16%), a school or college (14%), or a business of some type (10%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (45% of those who engaged with an agency or organization gave this reason), followed by being a member of or working for the agency or organization (29%), or having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (22%). • Among North Dakota hunters and shooters who used social media, 17% of hunters and just 7% of shooters said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. o North Dakota hunters who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (28%), a non-profit organization (20%), a business of some type (16%) or an outdoor recreation club (12%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization among hunters who do so are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (40%), having shared or
  12. 12. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation ix common interests with the agency or organization (16%), or being a member of or working for the agency or organization (16%). o North Dakota shooters who engage with a specific agency or organization overwhelmingly engage with various types of businesses (43% of shooters who engage with specific agencies or organizations mentioned this type), followed by non- profit organizations (38%), and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (25%). Shooters’ most common reasons for engaging with a specific organization include having shared or common interests with the organization (57%) or seeking specific information of some kind (25%).Specific Uses of Social Media Respondents who used social media were asked how often they visited social media sites for three specific reasons (as in a previous line of questions, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with; to share things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate; and to organize outings or events with friends or family members. In general, less than half of each of the three respondent groups do these things at least sometimes: • Regarding actively seeking information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with: o 44% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 25% do this never; o 35% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 32% do this never; o 17% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 43% do this never. • Regarding sharing things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate: o 45% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 23% do this never;
  13. 13. x NDGFD / CAHSS / RM o 43% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 27% do this never; o 39% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 50% do this never. • Regarding organizing outings or events with friends or family members: o 33% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 31% do this never; o 31% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 41% do this never; o 18% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 54% do this never.Opinions on Actions Influencing Recreational Participation All respondents (not just those who visited social media sites) were read a list of things that could potentially influence their participation in recreational activities, and were asked whether each item on the list would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, a little, or not at all in helping them to decide whether to participate. The list included the following: • Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with you; • Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; • Receiving text alerts on your mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; • Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity; • Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity; • Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before you decide to try it; • Being able to post a picture of yourself participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram; • Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment; • Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on your own likes and interests listed on your Facebook page.
  14. 14. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation xi In general, the actions having the most degree of influence involve personal or direct contact or invitations from friends or family members; on the other hand, items involving websites or the distribution of automatic information generally receive lower ratings of influence. The most instructive ranking concerns the items that would influence respondents to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal: • Among North Dakota general population residents, the top item in the ranking, by far, is receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (54% of residents say this would influence them a great deal). Other important items in the list had at least a fifth of residents saying they would influence them to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal: o Being able to see images and pictures of friends and family members engaging in the activity before they decided to try it (32% say this would have a great deal of influence); o Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (31%); o Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (26%); o Receiving text alerts on a mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity (21%). • Among North Dakota hunters and shooters, the top item in the ranking is, again, receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (56% of hunters and 46% of shooters say this would influence them a great deal). The only other items with at least a fifth of hunters and shooters rating them as having a great deal of influence are receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (34% of hunters and 21% of shooters) and receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (27% of hunters and 28% of shooters). Individuals who used social media were asked whether they had ever decided to participate in an activity or other event primarily because of an invitation or reminder received from a friend or family member through social media: slightly more than half of North Dakota resident social media users (55%), more than a third of North Dakota hunter social media
  15. 15. xii NDGFD / CAHSS / RM users (38%), and about a quarter of North Dakota shooter social media users (24%) said that they had done so. • Individuals who decided to participate in an activity because of a social media invitation from a friend or family member most commonly attended social events with friends or family (44% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 31% of shooters) sports events or activities (12% of general population residents, 16% of hunters, 25% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (8% of general population residents, 8% of hunters, 23% of shooters). In a similar question, respondents who used social media were asked whether they had ever purchased a product or participated in an activity or other event primarily because they received a coupon, invitation, or reminder from a company or organization through social media: slightly more than a third of North Dakota resident social media users (35%), a third of North Dakota hunter social media users (33%), and nearly half of North Dakota shooter social media users (47%) had done this. • Social media users who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly mentioned general coupons or marketing promotions (36% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 15% of shooters), sports events or activities (18% of general population residents, 7% of hunters, 4% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (9% of general population residents, 15% of hunters). Note that the vast majority of North Dakota shooters who had purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder received through social media (74%) could not recall the specific type of product, activity, or event. o Residents, hunters, and shooters who purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly received such coupons and reminders from known, trusted companies and organizations, rather than new or unknown companies and organizations: 83% of residents, 81% of hunters, and 62% of shooters who made use of such coupons and reminders did so with known, trusted companies, compared to just 11% of residents, 15% of hunters, and 4% of shooters who received and used coupons and reminders from new or
  16. 16. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation xiii unknown companies and organizations. (Note that 35% of shooters said they were unsure of whether the company/organization was known and trusted or new and unknown.) Respondents who used social media were asked whether they agreed or disagreed that they are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if they receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site: • Among North Dakota general population social media users, 61% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 33% disagree: • Among North Dakota hunter social media users, 54% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 37% disagree: • Among North Dakota shooter social media users, 45% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 44% disagree:OWNERSHIP AND USE OF MOBILE DEVICES The survey measured ownership of various computer and smartphone devices: large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters own personal computers and laptops, while generally no more than half of each group own smartphones or tablet devices. • Among North Dakota general population residents: o 82% own a personal computer; o 70% own a laptop; o 41% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; o 29% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook. • Among North Dakota hunters: o 75% own a personal computer; o 66% own a laptop; o 51% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android;
  17. 17. xiv NDGFD / CAHSS / RM o 26% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook. • Among North Dakota shooters: o 82% own a personal computer; o 60% own a laptop; o 35% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; o 19% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook. Smartphone owners most commonly use their smartphones to browse websites or surf the Internet, check email, for professional networking or business purposes, or to check the weather. Common uses of tablets are fairly similar to those of smartphones, with tablet owners most often mentioning browsing websites or surfing the Internet, read books or e-books, checking email, professional networking or business purposes, or playing games. Substantial percentages of mobile device (i.e., smartphone or tablet) owners use their device at least sometimes to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation (as before, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): • Among North Dakota general population mobile device owners, 48% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (24% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose). • Among North Dakota hunter mobile device owners, 57% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (22% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose). • Among North Dakota shooter mobile device owners, 27% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (38% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose). While only small percentages of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners currently use mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities, large
  18. 18. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation xv majorities of each group say they would be likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity. Less than half of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners have ever used a mobile device to scan a QR (Quick Response) code anywhere, but notable percentages of each group say they would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity.GENERAL RECREATIONAL PREFERENCES In a question regarding preference for indoor recreational activities, outdoor recreational activities, or both types about equally, North Dakota general population residents are split between preferring outdoor activities (46%) and both types about equally (46%). Just 8% say they generally prefer indoor recreational activities. On the other hand, majorities of both hunters (64%) and shooters (62%) express a preference for outdoor activities, while about a third of each group (34% of hunters and 33% of shooters) say they enjoy both indoor and outdoor activities about equally. Hunting, fishing, and other outdoor activities top the lists of recreational activities in which residents, hunters, and shooters most enjoy participating. Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters say they are interested in participating in new recreational activities that they have never tried, although they more often say they are somewhat interested, rather than very interested. The survey asked respondents to rate on a scale of 0 to 10 the importance of three different factors in helping them to decide whether to participate in a new activity: that the respondent thought that they would personally enjoy the activity, that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement, and that family invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement. Among members of the general population and
  19. 19. xvi NDGFD / CAHSS / RM hunters, the item with the highest mean rating of importance is that family invite them to participate and encourage their involvement (among general population residents, this item receives a mean rating of 7.45; among hunters, the mean rating is 6.93). By contrast, the item with the highest mean rating of importance among shooters is that the respondent himself or herself thought that they would personally enjoy the activity (in the latter group, this item receives a mean rating of 7.19). Meanwhile, for all three groups, the item with the lowest mean rating of importance is that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement.ATTITUDES TOWARD AGENCY USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN PROMOTINGRECREATION Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often. Similar to the above, strong majorities of all three respondent groups would look for information from the Department at least as often as they do now if the Department were to offer information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Substantial percentages of residents, hunters, and shooters are interested in receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube: • Among general population residents, 60% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 21% very interested (38% say they are not at all interested in receiving information in this way). • Among hunters, 55% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 26% very interested. Just under half (42%) are not at all interested.
  20. 20. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation xvii • Shooters express the least amount of interest in receiving information from the Department through social media: 45% are interested, with just 16% very interested; meanwhile, more than half (55%) say they are not at all interested.ATTITUDES TOWARD HUNTING AND SHOOTING Support for hunting among all three groups of respondents is quite strong: 87% of North Dakota residents, 91% of hunters, and 89% of shooters support legal, regulated hunting, with most expressing strong, rather than moderate, support. • Among North Dakota general population residents, 60% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 44% very interested. • Among North Dakota hunters, 95% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 89% very interested. • Among North Dakota shooters, 78% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 62% being very interested. As with hunting, support for legal target shooting is nearly universal among all three groups of respondents: 91% of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters support legal target shooting. Again, most support is strong. • Among North Dakota general population residents, 59% are interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year, with 34% very interested. • Among North Dakota hunters, 79% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with 47% very interested. • Among North Dakota shooters, 68% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with a third (33%) very interested. North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters most commonly say that there are too few public shooting ranges in the state, rather than too many or about the right amount: • Among general population residents, 43% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 23% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure. • Among hunters, 56% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 16% are unsure.
  21. 21. xviii NDGFD / CAHSS / RM • Among shooters, 41% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure.OPINIONS ON HUNTING AND SHOOTING VIDEO GAMES The survey explored propensity for video games, particularly video games involving or focused on hunting or shooting activities. In general, no more than about a quarter of residents, hunters, or shooters play video games at least sometimes. However, hunting and shooting games do appear to be fairly commonly played by regular video game players: • Among North Dakota general population residents: o Around a quarter (27%) play video games at least sometimes, while 55% say they never play video games. o Among video game players, 45% currently play or have played hunting video games, while 31% currently play or have played shooting video games. The most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter. o General population residents who play hunting video games are fairly split regarding whether such games make them more interested in actually going hunting: 54% agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport, while 37% disagree; 10% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. By far, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity. o There is slightly more agreement that shooting-related video games increase interest in the actual activity: 57% of residents who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, while 33% disagree (10% are again unsure or neither agree nor disagree). The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity, or that the respondent has no interest in shooting an actual firearm. • Among North Dakota hunters: o Nearly a fifth (18%) play video games at least sometimes, while 56% say they never play video games.
  22. 22. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation xix o Among video game players, 50% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 47% currently play or have played shooting video games. As before, the most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter. o 52% of hunters who play hunting-related video games agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 32% disagree, and 17% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. As before, a common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity (note that a substantial percentage of those who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement). o While 41% of hunters who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, 49% disagree (10% are unsure or neither agree nor disagree). Once again, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity. • Among North Dakota shooters: o 15% play video games at least sometimes, while 64% say they never play video games. o Among video game players, 55% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 25% currently play or have played shooting video games. (Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter remain the most common games.) o A third of shooters who play hunting-related video games (33%) agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 38% disagree, and 29% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games or that video games are more fun; note that, as with hunters, a substantial percentage of shooters who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement. o Shooters who play video games most commonly disagree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting: 67% are in disagreement, with just 29% agreeing and 5% neither agreeing nor disagreeing. Among those who disagree, the unanimous reason is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity.
  23. 23. xx NDGFD / CAHSS / RMTABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction and Methodology ........................................................................................................1 Use of Telephones for the Survey ...........................................................................................1 Questionnaire Design ..............................................................................................................1 Survey Sample.........................................................................................................................1 Telephone Interviewing Facilities ...........................................................................................2 Interviewing Dates and Times.................................................................................................2 Telephone Survey Data Collection and Quality Control.........................................................2 Data Analysis...........................................................................................................................3 Sampling Error ........................................................................................................................4 Additional Information about the Presentation of Results in the Report ................................5General Sources of Information on Recreational Activities ............................................................6Attitudes Toward and Use of Social Media...................................................................................10 General Use of Social Media.................................................................................................10 Opinions Regarding the Effectiveness of Social Media in Influencing Decision-Making..........................................................................................12 Engagement With Specific Agencies and Organizations Via Social Media.........................13 Specific Uses of Social Media...............................................................................................15 Opinions on Actions Influencing Recreational Participation................................................16Ownership and Use of Mobile Devices .........................................................................................76General Recreational Preferences ................................................................................................105Attitudes Toward Agency Use of Social Media in Promoting Recreation..................................117Attitudes Toward Hunting and Shooting .....................................................................................125Opinions on Hunting and Shooting Video Games.......................................................................148Demographic Data .......................................................................................................................164About Responsive Management ..................................................................................................185
  24. 24. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 1INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGYThis study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation®(NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed atelephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters andtarget shooters residing in the state. Specific aspects of the research methodology are discussedbelow.USE OF TELEPHONES FOR THE SURVEYFor the survey, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of thealmost universal ownership of telephones among North Dakota residents (both landlines and cellphones were called). Additionally, telephone surveys, relative to mail or Internet surveys, allowfor more scientific sampling and data collection, provide higher quality data, obtain higherresponse rates, are more timely, and are more cost-effective. Telephone surveys also have fewernegative effects on the environment than do mail surveys because of reduced use of paper andreduced energy consumption for delivering and returning the questionnaires.QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNThe telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by the North Dakota Game andFish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and ResponsiveManagement, based on the research team’s familiarity with studies examining sources ofinformation for hunting, sport shooting, and other types of recreation. Responsive Managementconducted pre-tests of the questionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey.SURVEY SAMPLEThe samples of North Dakota general population residents and target shooters were obtainedfrom professional sampling firms that specialize in providing scientific samples for surveys,including representative samples with cell phones. The sample of hunters was provided by theNorth Dakota Game and Fish Department, based on its licensing records. All three NorthDakota general population, shooter, and hunter survey samples were representative of theirrespective populations.
  25. 25. 2 NDGFD / CAHSS / RMTELEPHONE INTERVIEWING FACILITIESA central polling site at the Responsive Management office allowed for rigorous quality controlover the interviews and data collection. Responsive Management maintains its own in-housetelephone interviewing facilities. These facilities are staffed by interviewers with experienceconducting computer-assisted telephone interviews on the subjects of outdoor recreation andnatural resources.To ensure the integrity of the telephone survey data, Responsive Management has interviewerswho have been trained according to the standards established by the Council of American SurveyResearch Organizations. Methods of instruction included lecture and role-playing. The SurveyCenter Managers and other professional staff conducted a project briefing with the interviewersprior to the administration of this survey. Interviewers were instructed on type of study, studygoals and objectives, handling of survey questions, interview length, termination points andqualifiers for participation, interviewer instructions within the survey questionnaire, reading ofthe survey questions, skip patterns, and probing and clarifying techniques necessary for specificquestions on the survey questionnaire.INTERVIEWING DATES AND TIMESTelephone surveying times are Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturdayfrom noon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. A five-callbackdesign was used to maintain the representativeness of the sample, to avoid bias toward peopleeasy to reach by telephone, and to provide an equal opportunity for all to participate. When arespondent could not be reached on the first call, subsequent calls were placed on different daysof the week and at different times of the day. The survey was conducted in October 2012.TELEPHONE SURVEY DATA COLLECTION AND QUALITY CONTROLThe software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL). Thesurvey data were entered into the computer as each interview was being conducted, eliminatingmanual data entry after the completion of the survey and the concomitant data entry errors thatmay occur with manual data entry. The survey questionnaire was programmed so that QPL
  26. 26. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 3branched, coded, and substituted phrases in the survey based on previous responses to ensure theintegrity and consistency of the data collection.The Survey Center Managers and statisticians monitored the data collection, includingmonitoring of the actual telephone interviews without the interviewers’ knowledge, to evaluatethe performance of each interviewer and ensure the integrity of the data. The surveyquestionnaire itself contains error checkers and computation statements to ensure quality andconsistent data. After the surveys were obtained by the interviewers, the Survey CenterManagers and/or statisticians checked each completed survey to ensure clarity and completeness.Responsive Management obtained a total of 1,509 completed interviews with North Dakotaresidents, including 1,004 interviews with members of the general population, 255 interviewswith hunters, and 250 interviews with target shooters. It is important to note that the surveyasked some questions only of specific respondents. In particular, this was done when a follow-up question did not apply to some respondents. For instance, only those who said they visitedsocial media websites daily, often, sometimes, or rarely were asked follow-up questions aboutsocial media. In the results, these follow-up questions generally include a parentheticalstatement indicating that the question was asked only of certain respondents and/or that the graphshows responses only among a specific subgroup in the sample.DATA ANALYSISThe analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well asproprietary software developed by Responsive Management. The results were weighted bydemographic characteristics so that the samples were representative of North Dakota residents asa whole.On questions that asked respondents to provide a number (e.g., number of years lived in NorthDakota), the graph shows ranges of numbers rather than the precise numbers. Nonetheless, inthe survey each respondent provided a precise number, and the dataset includes this precisenumber, even if the graph only shows ranges of numbers. Note that the calculation of means andmedians used the precise numbers that the respondents provided.
  27. 27. 4 NDGFD / CAHSS / RMCrosstabulations were run on many questions, including crosstabulations by the hunter andshooter samples. Other crosstabulations were run, as appropriate, as part of the analysis.Finally, some questions show the results broken down by various individual respondentcategories, particularly major demographic categories.SAMPLING ERRORThroughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidenceinterval. For the entire sample of North Dakota residents, the sampling error is at most plus orminus 3.09 percentage points. This means that if the survey were conducted 100 times ondifferent samples that were selected in the same way, the findings of 95 out of the 100 surveyswould fall within plus or minus 3.09 percentage points of each other. Sampling error wascalculated using the formula described below, with a sample size of 1,004 and a population sizeof 522,720 North Dakota residents ages 18 years old and older. For the sample of hunters, thesampling error is at most plus or minus 6.13 percentage points, based on a sample size of 255and a population size of 111,660 hunters in the North Dakota license database used for thesample. Finally, because no reliable source exists to identify the size of the target shooterpopulation in North Dakota, sampling error was not calculated for this respondent group.Sampling Error Equation ⎛ Np (.25) ⎞ ⎜ − .25 ⎟ Where: B = maximum sampling error (as decimal)B=⎜ Ns ⎟(1.96 ) NP = population size (i.e., total number who could be surveyed) ⎜ Np − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ NS = sample size (i.e., total number of respondents surveyed) ⎝ ⎠Derived from formula: p. 206 in Dillman, D. A. 2000. Mail and Internet Surveys. John Wiley & Sons, NY. Note: This is a simplified version of the formula that calculates the maximum sampling error using a 50:50 split (the most conservative calculation because a 50:50 split would give maximum variation).
  28. 28. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 5ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PRESENTATION OF RESULTS IN THEREPORTIn examining the results, it is important to be aware that the questionnaire included several typesof questions: • Open-ended questions are those in which no answer set is read to the respondents; rather, they can respond with anything that comes to mind from the question. • Closed-ended questions have an answer set from which to choose. • Single or multiple response questions: Some questions allow only a single response, while other questions allow respondents to give more than one response or choose all that apply. Those that allow more than a single response are indicated on the graphs with the label, “Multiple Responses Allowed.” • Scaled questions: Many closed-ended questions (but not all) are in a scale, such as excellent-good-fair-poor. • Series questions: Many questions are part of a series, and the results are primarily intended to be examined relative to the other questions in that series (although results of the questions individually can also be valuable). Typically, results of all questions in a series are shown together.Some graphs show an average, either the mean or median (or both). The mean is simply the sumof all numbers divided by the number of respondents. Because outliers (extremely high or lownumbers relative to most of the other responses) may skew the mean, the median may be shown.The median is the number at which half the sample is above and the other half is below. In otherwords, a median of 150 means that half the sample gave an answer of more than 150 and theother half gave an answer of less than 150.Most graphs show results rounded to the nearest integer; however, all data are stored in decimalformat, and all calculations are performed on unrounded numbers. For this reason, some resultsmay not sum to exactly 100% because of this rounding on the graphs. Additionally, roundingmay cause apparent discrepancies of 1 percentage point between the graphs and the reportedresults of combined responses (e.g., when “strongly support” and “moderately support” aresummed to determine the total percentage in support).Finally, some graphs pertain to more than one section of the report, so these graphs are discussedin more than one section of the report. In these instances when the graph is discussed in morethan one section, the graph is only shown in one section with a call-out in the other sectionindicating where the graph is located.
  29. 29. 6 NDGFD / CAHSS / RMGENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RECREATIONALACTIVITIES An initial question in the survey asked respondents about the main sources they used to learn about recreational activities, and the most common are the Internet, word-of-mouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers: • Among general population North Dakota residents, 39% use the Internet, 37% rely on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, and 25% use print newspapers. Smaller percentages use television (18%) and print magazines (13%). o A second graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who use the Internet or online resources (including the Internet in general, specific websites, and/or social media sites) to learn about recreational activities. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who have played hunting or shooting video games before (63% of whom use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities), followed by those with children under the age of 18 living in their household (62%), those who own a smartphone (58%), those who use Facebook (58%), and those who own a tablet device (58%). At the bottom of the ranking are those who do not use Facebook (just 31% of this group use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities), those who visit social media sites rarely or never, and those the median age of 47 or older (34%). • Among North Dakota hunters, nearly half (46%) depend on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, while a third (33%) use the Internet to learn about recreational activities. Meanwhile, 13% use print newspapers, 11% use television, and 10% use print magazines. • Among North Dakota shooters, the top source of information is the Internet (38%), followed by word-of-mouth from family, friends, and others (33%), and print newspapers (23%). Similar to the other groups, smaller percentages of shooters use print magazines (12%) and television (11%), while a further 11% name the North Dakota Game and Fish Department print magazine (as opposed to the online version) as a source of information on recreational activities.
  30. 30. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 7 Q15. In general, what sources do you use to learn about recreational activities to participate in or become involved with? (Among all North Dakota residents) Internet 39 Family / friends / co-workers / neighbors / 37 general word-of-mouth Newspapers - PRINT 25 TV 18 Magazines - PRINT 13 Radio 7 Multiple Responses Allowed Facebook 6 North Dakota Game and Fish Department 5 magazine - PRINT General population Internet - specific website 3 North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1 official website Newspapers - DIGITAL/ONLINE 1 Pinterest 1 Google+ 1 YouTube 1 North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1 magazine - DIGITAL/ONLINE Other 3 Dont know 7 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent
  31. 31. 8 NDGFD / CAHSS / RM Percent of each of the following groups who use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities: Has played hunting or shooting video games 63 Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household 62 Owns a smartphone 58 Uses Facebook 58 Owns a tablet device 58 Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes 57 Is younger than the median age (47) 57 Education level is bachelors degree or higher 54 Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) 52 Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year 51 Is female 48 Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year 48 Has been shooting 47 Has never been hunting 46 Lives in a small city / town or rural area 45 Lives in an urban or suburban area 44 Has been hunting 44 Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year 43 Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year 42 Is male 42 Has never been shooting 41 Does not own a tablet device 40 Has never played hunting or shooting video games 39 Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more 38 Education level is less than a bachelors degree 38 Does not own a smartphone 36 Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household 36 Is the median age (47) or older 34 Visits social media sites rarely or never 32 Does not use Facebook 31 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent
  32. 32. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 9 Q15. In general, what sources do you use to learn about recreational activities to participate in or become involved with? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters) Family / friends / co-workers / neighbors 46 / general word-of-mouth 33 Internet 33 38 Newspapers - PRINT 13 23 TV 11 11 Magazines - PRINT 10 12 Multiple Responses Allowed North Dakota Game and Fish 7 Department magazine - PRINT 11 Internet - specific website 8 6 North Dakota Game and Fish 8 Department official website 5 Radio 5 6 Hunters 4 Target shooters Facebook 2 North Dakota Game and Fish 2 Department magazine - 1 Newspapers - DIGITAL/ONLINE 1 0 YouTube 1 0 Other 1 3 Dont know 4 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent
  33. 33. 10 NDGFD / CAHSS / RMATTITUDES TOWARD AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIAGENERAL USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA Substantial percentages of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters visit social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube at least sometimes (the survey measured usage on a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): • Slightly more than half of North Dakota general population residents (51%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; meanwhile, nearly a third (30%) say they visit such sites daily, while 39% never visit social media sites. o A second graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who use Facebook (89% of whom visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes), those younger than the median age of 47 (72%), those who own a smartphone (71%), those who have lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of 35 years (67%), and those who have played hunting or shooting video games before (67%). o Another graph shows a breakdown of the top groups who visit social media sites rarely or never: in this analysis, the top groups include those who do not use Facebook (90% of whom visit social media sites rarely or never), those the median age of 47 or older (67%), those who do not own a smartphone (62%), and those who have lived in North Dakota for the median of 35 years or more (62%). o North Dakota residents who said they never visited social media sites were asked why they never did so, and the most reason, by far, was simply having no interest (59% of those who never visit social media sites gave this answer). Other, less common reasons included having no time (15%) or not having enough patience with electronics or computers in general (12%). • Just under half of North Dakota hunters (43%) and slightly more than a quarter of shooters (28%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; at the same time, almost half of hunters (42%) and well over half of shooters (58%) never visit social media sites. (At the other end of the spectrum, 24% of hunters and just 12% of shooters visit such sites daily.)
  34. 34. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 11 o As before, the most common reason among hunters and shooters for never visiting social media sites is a lack of interest (57% of hunters and 58% of shooters gave this answer). Other common reasons included not having patience with computers or electronics (19% of hunters and 15% of shooters who never visited social media sites said this), not owning the necessary computers, smartphones, or other electronics (17% of hunters; 13% of shooters), or not having enough time (8% of hunters; 19% of shooters). Respondents who said they visited social media sites at least rarely were asked which sites they visited most often: by far, the most commonly used social media site is Facebook, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter: • Among North Dakota general population residents who visit social media sites, 86% use Facebook. The next most commonly visited sites among those who use social media are YouTube (24% of residents who use social media visit this site) and Twitter (14%). Meanwhile, less than a tenth of residents use Google+ (7%), Pinterest (4%), or LinkedIn (1%). o Another graph shows responses to this question out of all respondents to the survey, including those who said they never visit social media sites: this graph shows that, in total, 52% of North Dakota residents use Facebook, 15% visit YouTube, and 9% use Twitter. o A graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who use Facebook. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes (91% of whom use Facebook), those the median age of 47 or younger (72%), those who own a smartphone (71%), those who have lived in North Dakota for less than the median of 35 years (69%), and those who get information about outdoor recreation from digital or online sources (67%). • Facebook is also by far the most popular site among North Dakota hunters and shooters who visit social media sites (76% of hunters and 79% of shooters who use social media visit Facebook). This is followed by YouTube (29% of hunters and 13% of shooters who
  35. 35. 12 NDGFD / CAHSS / RM use social media), Twitter (3% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), and Google+ (7% of hunters and 2% of shooters who use social media). o As before, a graph shows responses to the question out of all hunters and shooters surveyed, including those who said they never visit social media sites: in total, 44% of hunters and 34% of shooters use Facebook, 17% of hunters and 6% of shooters visit YouTube, 2% of hunters and 6% of shooters use Twitter, and 4% of hunters and 1% of shooters use Google+. A follow-up question asked respondents what they liked most about the social media sites they visited most often, and the most common response is that the site(s) allows communication with family and friends: • Among North Dakota general population residents who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site (respondents could name up to three preferred sites), 66% say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, while a further 29% say that their favorite site(s) helps them stay informed. Other important aspects are that the site is entertaining (16%), that the site is easy to use or relevant (15%), or that the site allows the person to look up information (14%). • Preferred qualities among North Dakota hunters and shooters who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site generally resemble responses from general population residents: 53% of hunters and 49% of shooters say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, 18% of hunters and 26% of shooters say that their most-visited site(s) is informative, 18% of hunters and 16% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) is convenient and accessible, and 21% of hunters and 8% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) has entertaining content.OPINIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ININFLUENCING DECISION-MAKING The survey asked respondents who used social media their opinions on the effectiveness of social media to accomplish two separate things: provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions in general, and provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions specifically about recreational
  36. 36. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 13 activities and whether to participate in them. Large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters feel that social media are effective at doing both of the two things, although respondents in all three groups more often say that social media are somewhat effective, as opposed to very effective: • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions in general: o 76% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 30% saying very effective; o 77% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 29% saying very effective; o 72% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with just 16% saying very effective; • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them: o 74% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 27% say very effective; o 69% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 24% say very effective; o 59% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 20% say very effective.ENGAGEMENT WITH SPECIFIC AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS VIA SOCIALMEDIA The survey asked respondents who used social media whether they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities on social media platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (this could include “following” an agency or organization or being signed up for regular updates or alerts via a social media website). Among respondents who used social media, no more than a fifth of each of the three respondent groups said they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities: • Among North Dakota general population residents who used social media, 19% said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. A second graph shows
  37. 37. 14 NDGFD / CAHSS / RM the responses to this question out of all respondents to the survey, including those who said they never visit social media sites: this graph shows that, in total, 12% of North Dakota residents follow a specific agency or organization through social media. o North Dakota residents who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with a non-profit organization (28%), followed by an outdoor recreation club (16%), a school or college (14%), or a business of some type (10%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (45% of those who engaged with an agency or organization gave this reason), followed by being a member of or working for the agency or organization (29%), or having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (22%). • Among North Dakota hunters and shooters who used social media, 17% of hunters and just 7% of shooters said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. As before, an additional graph shows the responses to this question out of all North Dakota hunters and shooters surveyed, including those who said they never visit social media sites: in total, 10% of North Dakota hunters and 3% of North Dakota shooters follow a specific agency or organization through social media. o North Dakota hunters who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (28%), a non-profit organization (20%), a business of some type (16%) or an outdoor recreation club (12%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization among hunters who do so are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (40%), having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (16%), or being a member of or working for the agency or organization (16%). o North Dakota shooters who engage with a specific agency or organization overwhelmingly engage with various types of businesses (43% of shooters who engage with specific agencies or organizations mentioned this type), followed by non- profit organizations (38%), and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (25%). Shooters’ most common reasons for engaging with a specific organization include
  38. 38. North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation 15 having shared or common interests with the organization (57%) or seeking specific information of some kind (25%).SPECIFIC USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA Respondents who used social media were asked how often they visited social media sites for three specific reasons (as in a previous line of questions, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with; to share things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate; and to organize outings or events with friends or family members. In general, less than half of each of the three respondent groups do these things at least sometimes: • Regarding actively seeking information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with: o 44% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 25% do this never; o 35% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 32% do this never; o 17% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 43% do this never. • Regarding sharing things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate: o 45% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 23% do this never; o 43% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 27% do this never; o 39% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 50% do this never. • Regarding organizing outings or events with friends or family members: o 33% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 31% do this never;
  39. 39. 16 NDGFD / CAHSS / RM o 31% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 41% do this never; o 18% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 54% do this never.OPINIONS ON ACTIONS INFLUENCING RECREATIONAL PARTICIPATION All respondents (not just those who visited social media sites) were read a list of things that could potentially influence their participation in recreational activities, and were asked whether each item on the list would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, a little, or not at all in helping them to decide whether to participate. The list included the following: • Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; • Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with you; • Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; • Receiving text alerts on your mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; • Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity; • Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity; • Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before you decide to try it; • Being able to post a picture of yourself participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram; • Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment; • Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on your own likes and interests listed on your Facebook page. In general, the actions having the most degree of influence involve personal or direct contact or invitations from friends or family members; on the other hand, items involving websites or the distribution of automatic information generally receive lower ratings of influence. The most instructive ranking concerns the items that would influence respondents to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal:

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