History of theNorth AmericanExperienceThe world’s greatestconservation success story ofthe 20th Century
There have been two major threats to wildlifeconservation in our history. The first one occurredin the late 1800s, (many s...
1800’sEra of Decimation Wildlife viewed as inexhaustible in supply
Meriwether Lewis   William Clark
Impacts of Man Market hunting Commercial  trapping Urbanization Development Deforestation Population Habitat degrad...
Market Hunting
Extinction
Sportsmen met thefirst challenge
1830-1920
The Advent ofSportsmens Clubs   Currituck Sportsmen’s Club - 1879
Early Sportsmen’sPublications
1 870s – State SponsoredGame Laws  Elimination of the  uncontrolled take   of buffalo –MT
George Bird                 Grinnell                    1849 - 1938  Code of theSportsman 1880
Roosevelt and GrinnellFounders of the Conservation   GiffordMovement                               Pinchot
Yellowstone ProtectionAct The Beginning of Federal Wildlife Laws    -1894        Roosevelt    Grant      Grinnell         ...
Lacey Act Lacey Act – 1900: Federal offense to transport illegally taken wildlife across state lines.
Pelican Island Reserve1903First Refuge
Era of Science &Revenue
Aldo Leopold               Father of               wildlife               management,               and founder           ...
Leopold Establishes wildlife management as a science  (modeled after the Prussian Forestry System)   Professional societ...
Federal Aid and WildlifeRestoration Act 1937 –Pitmann-Robertson
Excise Tax Accepted
The sportsmen ofyesterday have left us atremendous legacy-TheNorth American Model
North American Modelof Wildlife Management
That legacy is unique
European Model
Today
We are experiencing a secondround threats today. If we don’ttake action nobody will. If nobodytakes action we stand to los...
Trends in Wildlife-Related       Recreation
Hunting License Holders for Nation                             17,000,000                             16,500,000 Number of...
So What’s the Big DEAL?             Times Change!         Mention the times when     we were young and we huntedbefore sch...
Study Methods     Mail survey Pilot Phase conducted in 2002 in 6  states Extensive pretesting in Summer  2004 Data col...
Measurement of Wildlife ValueOrientations   Series of Agree/Disagree statements    - Example (U):      The needs of human...
Ideal World            Utilitarian               PrinciplesWildlife exists                      Managefor human use       ...
Ideal World                    Mutualist            PrinciplesHumans and                              Animals shouldwildli...
Distribution of Wildlife Value OrientationTypesin the Region  50%  40%            34%                      33%  30%       ...
AZ Population Estimates7,000,0006,000,0005,000,0004,000,0003,000,0002,000,0001,000,000       0            1960   1967   19...
*Does not include Family, Youth or Super Combination Increased from prior year        Decreased from prior year
*Does not include Family or Super CombinationIncreased from prior year       Decreased from prior year
Resident Hunting Licenses as % of AZ’sPopulation(includes General Hunt, Family and Super Conservation)
Fishing License Holders for Nation                  31,000,000                  30,500,000                  30,000,000    ...
*Includes only full-price Class A Fishing Licenses. Does not include Family, Super or ½ Price Class A.                    ...
Resident Fishing Licenses as % of AZ’sPopulation(includes General, Super Conservation, Family and ½ Price)
Show your budget-demonstrate how muchmoney comes fromsportsmen, demonstratethat its simple economicsthat these declines ef...
There are groups who arefocused on Eliminatingthe privilege to hunt  "We are going to use the      “We realized that we ...
We’ve begun working tomeet these threats withpartners. It has somepositive effects
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness ofHunting, Shooting, and Fishing Recruitmentand Retention Programs   Photo: National Sh...
Percent who indicated being interested a lot in the following                                       activities.      100  ...
Q39/Q30. Which do you consider yourself?      100          80     72   75                    75                        71 ...
Percent who indicated being very likely to participate in the                             following activities next year. ...
Percent who strongly approve of the following activities.      100                    92                     89           ...
We are not very good at everyphase. We need your help.Without sportsmen, our future isthreatenedWith fewer hunters, there ...
Q118. Does anyone else in your family currently hunt?Yes                                                           95No   ...
Make the ask! Remind them ofthe legacy, remind them thethreats are real, if they don’t do itnobody will. If you leave it t...
We will have seen our lastcourageous game warden whenwildlife belongs to the new Royalty”Jim Posewitz
Remind them that all clubsshare the same fate, whetheryou are a deer club, elk club,bear club or sheep club. For thepurpos...
Handouts AFWA Grant A summit outline Importance of community conservation  clubs-Del Benson
Historical Perspective on Hunting and Conservation
Historical Perspective on Hunting and Conservation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Historical Perspective on Hunting and Conservation

531 views

Published on

Published in: Sports, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
531
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • History of the North American Experience. The world’s greatest conservation success story of the 20 th Century.   We enjoy unparalleled diversity and abundance of wildlife coupled coupled with free and equal access to enjoy and appreciate wildlife across regardless of socio-economic status. It’s the world’s greatest environmental success story of the 20 th Century.   Made possible by sportsmen- those who hunted for recreation rather than for commerce or necessity.   It was not a fortunate accident, but the result of hard purposeful work of individuals who hunted.   We’ve been too preoccupied with enjoying the fruits of leadership by men like TR, GBG, and Gifford Pinchot to keep an eye on where we came from. The diversity and abundance we of wildlife we have at our disposal to enjoy, appreciate, and use is astonishing. We have deer in our fields, bears in our oaks, ducks on our ponds, elk in our mountains, pronghorn in our grasslands and turkeys in our driveways all in the midst of 300 million people with enough firepower to kill all of them in no time flat. The future, which we are enjoying today, was in doubt in the 1800s. Wildlife and their habitats were decimated by unregulated, unmitigated exploitation. Designed and created by hunters with the future of hunting in mind.   It was not modeled on the tenants of preservation but rather on wise use (Term of the TR Admin). Important to note that not only game species were restored but all wildlife including songbirds, shorebirds, and predators.   Sportsmen were the men most responsible for the development of the continent’s conservation policy. Men who if alive today would be called insensitive to nature and wild things. But if an affinity for hunting and fishing is a manifestation of insensitivity, then how does one explain the fact that American sportsmen were by far the single most important group in the making of conservation here? Its important to remember this as our wildlife conservation efforts grow to meet new and different challenges in the 21 st century and beyond.
  • Lewis and Clark (1804-06) reports of buffalo from horizon to horizon. Elk so numerous they pledged not to describe them further for potential of losing credibility.
  • Focus on market hunting and commercial trapping
  • Market hunting – “tragedy of the commons” Henry William Herbert (aka Frank Forrester) observed the heath hen, white-tailed deer, turkey, and snowshoe hare are in trouble across New England by 1840”s Sportsmen begin to realize the biggest threat to game was commercial systematic exploitation. Even species like elk, whose habitat was relatively intact could be over-harvested to such a degree to imperil their very existence. Dramatic decline of species such as the buffalo and the passenger pigeon piqued the conscience of Americans and shattered their previous faith in the inexhaustibility of resources as no other issue, including habitat destruction.
  • Late 19 th Century - Wildlife is decimated Continent-wide. North American Wildlife’s darkest hour Many species on brink of extinction Passenger pigeon New England heath hen Labrador duck Great auk 1900 – PA deer hunter John Phillips believed they had killed their last deer after tracking for three days and not seeing another track
  • Two of the most important misconceptions about the history of conservation: It didn’t begin until the 20 th Century – actually began in last half of 19 th – 1870’s it has some major momentum, post Civil War. It began with forest conservation – actually began with wildlife (including mammals, birds and fish) – by sportsmen those concerned about the future of hunting for recreation not for necessity or commerce profit. Real vanguards of conservation.   Primary cause of oversight is the great deal of attention and credit paid to the TR/Pinchot era of setting aside and managing large tracts of forest reserves, who many considered (wrongly) as the start of the conservation movement.   Proof – where in the 1870’s was an effort in forestry that can be found for wildlife. There were no forestry clubs or journals.   Conditions during this time in NA:   Culture of the time sanctified man’s dominance over nature Laissez-faire economic order that encouraged the irresponsible use of resources Weak government institutions unwilling or unable to protect wildlife A heritage of opposition to any restraint on freedom particularly the tyrannical game laws of Europe
  • Sportsmen’s Clubs begin to develop across the continent. Wealthy, influential hunters who start to garner political attention. Representing a minority of Americans who were upper-class gentlemen hunters, representing the European traditions of sport, decidedly patrician. Many of who would go on to found and lead conservation organizations, and establish state and later national wildlife legislation. Common to all was their assertion that their love for wildlife began with hunting and fishing.   Close association of wealth and political influence that resided in these clubs made conservation a topic worthy of political attention.   1841 NY Sportsman’s Club – Hunters concerned for diminished hunting opportunity. (OR IS IT MAY 20, 1844??)   Would take credit for much of the legislation aimed at conserving wildlife in NY during the 1870s-80s. TR’s uncle Robert Barnwell Roosevelt is Club’s president for 29 years, from 1877 until his death in 1906.   By 1870’s many sportsman’s clubs in place, thanks to the establishment of sporting journals. By now, clubs are not exclusively for wealthy memberships.   Winter of 1874-5, alone, 100 clubs are established By 1878 there were 308 active clubs, mostly in New England, representing every settled region of the country, not counting gun clubs, angling clubs (34) and fox hunting clubs (14). Caused the development of many national organizations as well. 1875 there are 10-12 state organizations and one national one.   Post Civil War - a self imposed code – a one-sided contract with one’s quarry. Founded in European gentlemen’s values in sport.   Game should not be killed during the breeding season Should not be sold for profit Taken only in reasonable numbers without waste Pursued only by sporting methods Game should have fair chance of escape, even though its capture is made more doubtful as a result.   Code declared against such common practices as killing bears and lions in traps, killing swimming game from a boat, jack-lighting, crusting and deer hounding.   Beginning of concepts of Sport hunting as opposed to hunting for necessity or commerce, and Fair Chase .   These sport hunters see themselves as superior to others because of their spirit of generosity towards game.   Emphasize that - contrary to popular belief these restrictions were urged upon themselves, not forced by law.   Conflict with pot-hunters and market hunters. Elitist attitude, that caused conflict for decades. Common classes were guarded against the perceptions of the aristocratic control of game and their disgust with the tyranny of English game laws – one of their sorest and most remembered grieves of their “old country”.   Resentment towards aristocratic trespassers who established restrictive game laws that benefited only wealthy people who had the time and money to pursue game laws established to protect wildlife for their recreational enjoyment.   Ideas were aristocratic and un-American.   Clubs bought large tracts of land for protection of wildlife, drafted and enforced game laws aimed at ending market hunting.   Clubs are a primary vehicle for legislation aimed at game protection. Not satisfied with large
  • Herbert (Forrester) said sportsmen required organization, he felt that rural populations could be made to understand the greater purpose behind game laws and could be made to support wildlife conservation. The unification of sportsmen and the lack of organization in others swung the tide in the sportsmen’s favor in the pursuit of game laws to restore wildlife.   American Sportsman – 1871 Forest and Stream – 1873 Field and Stream – 1874 American Angler – 1881   Join concurrently with sportsmen’s clubs to awaken sportsman awareness nationwide. The importance of these two developments, operating their influence simultaneously cannot be overstated. They were complimentary of one another.   Become the mouth piece of Sportsman’s Clubs.   1850s The Spirit of the Times is the mouthpiece of the NY Sportsman’s Club. Advocated revision of the senseless and inefficient game laws of the state. Successfully lobbied for passage of new game laws and went about enforcing them themselves.   Provide vehicle for advocacy and recruitment of supporting popular public opinion. Powerful vehicle for to organize sportsmen and advocate against commercial use of wildlife.   While the nation remained indifferent, they poured out a steady stream of propaganda against the market men.   Cause Sportsmen to coalesce. Rapid growth in group identity.   Awaken concern among the general public.   At this time the code is still an ethical choice not founded in law.   Lobbied against market hunting.
  • Game laws had long history of unsuccessful efforts, mostly the responsibility of local jurisdictions. Poorly enforced.   1708 one of first (sportsman sponsored) in NY closed seasons to protect turkey, ruffed grouse, and heath hens during their breeding seasons (poorly enforced)   1734 NY limited take of fish to rod, hook and line, eliminating all other means such as gill nets and trot lines.   1806 prohibit summer hunting of woodcock.   1822 Daniel Webster served 10 days in the Massachusetts legislature – only bill he introduced was to make it unlawful to take brook trout by any means other than hook and line. First general protective measure applying strictly to game fish by an American legislature.   1838 NY passed a law prohibiting the use of sink boxes in killing geese. Market hunters got it repealed shortly after it passed.   1911 NY first state to prohibit the sale of game. 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act eliminates it for birds nationwide.   1858 Frank Forrester writes law to protect insectivorous birds in NY.   Most were established through influence of sportsmen’s clubs.   Poorly enforced through the remainder of the century. Often ephemeral in nature, even repealed in some cases.   Sportsmen begin to realize that enforcement must be removed from local jurisdictions and given over to state or even federal jurisdictions .   1850s game laws are considered ineffective.   1860 NY Sportsman’s Club successfully lobbied for revision of state game laws and created new laws for the protection of moose, deer, birds and fish.   Become a major part of the fabric of wildlife conservation in the 1870’s. They proliferate into a tangled mass of confusing and contradictory statutes.   By 1871 every state in the eastern and mid-Atlantic regions, except Delaware had a fish Commission. Same year the US Fish Commission was established – the first federal agency created to deal with the conservation of a specific natural resource – charged with managing the conflict between commercial and recreational fishermen and dwindling fish stocks. Sports fishermen were responsible for its establishment and continued support. Later merges into the USFWS.   1880 states had plenty of game laws, some felt they had too many. Enforcement still lacking. Advocates of county game wardens paid for by the hunters .   B&C Club pushed for passage of bill in 1885 to prohibit deer hounding. Later repealed. Then re-approved in 1897 for a 5-year pilot period, and included jack-lighting. Never appealed nor expired. Legislators who sponsored the bill were members of B&C.   1871 first game laws in MT aimed at uncontrolled take of buffalo.   Late 19 th Century game laws focus on elimination of commercial take, numbers (bag limits) and methods of take that conformed to the accepted standards of fair chase.
  • Editor, George Bird Grinnell, articulated the Code of the Sportsman, 1880. & Forest and Stream magazine. Noncommercial use of wildlife Without waste of any game killed Standards of behavior – self-regulating ( both as an individual ethics and as a group [OGT]). Ph.D in paleontology – (Yale 1880)   Becomes owner and editor of Forest and Stream from 1880-1911– buying it from his partner, George Hallock - uses it as the most powerful means of the time for changing public opinion and gaining public support over a period of time.   Continues to emphasize sportsmanship as a key ingredient of hunting and fishing.   Enriches the Code of the Sportsman.   Noncommercial use of game without waste (end of market hunting) Self regulating standards of behavior Taken in season, by legal methods   Advocates for regionally uniform game laws for contiguous states – by 1872 a proliferation of game laws made them confusing – basis for common hunting and fishing season dates among states that were in effect until recent decades.   Overcame resentment towards game laws due to perception by common classes as being aristocratic by advocating democratic access to wildlife. In 1881 (3/24/81 in F&S), said that laws in particular benefited the man of modest means, to protect resources local to him from wealthier hunters from other regions. Said that game laws protecting wildlife from destruction were not for the advantage of any narrow class or clique, but for the good of all people.   Advocates a democratic access to the resource to break down the distrust of the common man in his opposition to the perceived aristocracy of game laws.   Advocates sportsmen need to take responsibility for the perpetuation of their sport which meant that they needed to work for the conservation of game and the habitat on which it depended.   Advocated the continuous, apolitical systematic approach of all natural resources – applies today to state and federal wildlife jurisdictions as well as the NF, NP, and NWR systems.   Advocated for the first sportsman sponsored enforcement of game laws through a tax (license fees) on hunters to finance county game wardens (1880); - “those that dance must pay the fiddler.” Appointments must be apolitical, appointed by the states and not local citizen groups. Notion of paying for what had been traditionally free and unstructured so that states could regulate hunting was met with resistance.   1886 founder of Audubon Society for the preservation of nongame species. Membership is free to anyone who is willing to prevent: the killing of wild birds not used for food the destruction of nests and eggs the wearing of feathers as ornaments of dress.   Once again it is sportsmen who rally for the protection of nongame species while the nation remains indifferent.   1905 becomes president of the National Association of Audubon Societies (conglomerate of local chapters of group he founded).   Advocated for the concept now known as the state wildlife commission system.   1882 shifts his emphasis to forestry conservation – creating an awareness for the interconnectedness of all natural resources. Coins terms like harvest, crop and management. Touts virtues of European forestry were it developed into a science, and practiced by officers of the government. Advocates for apolitical management, and democratic use of forests for the benefit of all people. Suggests that leaving timber untouched was wasteful.   His inherent interest in code of sportsman, his education in paleontology – and its obvious lessons in the vulnerability of species, his first hand experience in the west with resource depletion, combined with his role as the editor of the nations leading outdoor journal, makes him uniquely positioned as the nucleus of the intellectual evolution of conservation.   1/17/84 uses the word conservation for the first time in a public address – more than 20 years before it becomes a catch word.   To gain public support in arguing for forest conservation stressed the more practical economic arguments, even though motive was wildlife conservation, a strategy that other sportsman naturalists would later employ, such as TR and Pinchot. Thus appealing to the utilitarian instincts of the nation.   Founded a policy and administration for YNP that became the foundation for the Park system today.   1884 advocated the need for a live, national organization of men bound together by their interests in game and fish to take active charge in all matters pertaining to the enactment and enforcement of laws on the subject.   Advocates 1888 to have management of natural resources separated from politics –a continuous, apolitical, systematic system - beginning of Commission system.   Leaves F&S after 35 years in 1911. It shifts from a weekly to a monthly in 1915, then ceased publication in 1930 after selling its subscription list to Field and Stream.
  • Teddy Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell, friends, avid hunters, become the Founders of the Conservation Movement . Put conservation on the national agenda.   Grinnell and Pinchot 2 most influential people in developing TR’s conservation philosophy.   Grinnell first with his report of the 1875 Ludlow expedition to the West, and his descriptions of hide hunting – slaughter of elk, deer, buffalo, antelope and sheep impressed TR.   TR’s first administration established 5 parks, 18 monuments, and 51 refuges. But his focal point was the forests. He set aside 148 million acres in the forest reserve system, called the Forest Service after 1907, staffed by professionals.   Shared a patrician’s sense of Noblesse oblige [(no-bless eh-blezh) Fr. nobility obligates ]. The obligation of honorable, generous, and responsible behavior associated with high rank or birth. About their innate right and ability to set policies for protecting the people’s natural assets from those that would otherwise consume them in short order for financial gain – longtime part of thinking of elite sportsmen. Obtained support by stressing the utilitarian and democratic aspects of their programs.   Grinnell had greater influence on TR than did Pinchot.. GBG was the idea pusher, TR was the implementer. Pinchot offered few new ideas. His main contribution was in his talents as a manager who implemented ideas already familiar to TR. He was the trained forest professional that Grinnell advocated for in 1884. He was the first to apply the principles of the European (Prussian) science of forestry to American conditions.   Grinnell was the originator and synthesizer of ideas, who prepared TR for Pinchot. Pinchot was impressed with TR’s receptivity to his principles of forestry. Behind that reception was 15 years of GBG.’s tutelage.   Pinchot and Tr were actually late-comers to the conservation movement. They teamed to make the words “conservation” and “wise use” household terms, but it was underway for 25 years before they engage.
  • Yellowstone Protection Act – first federal law designed to protect game. Took on a decades long fight for the protection of YNP becomes the focal point for the development of conservation for 2 decades.   Attempts to define the purpose of the park – ill defined in 1872 when established by Pres. Grant as a museum of wonders and curiosities. All but forgotten by the public through the 1870s-80s, it was exploited for private interests (improved with hotels, roads and other conveniences) Visits YNP in 1875 as naturalist for the Ludlow expedition whose purpose was to define its boundaries. 1876 vehemently attacks hide hunting in his portion of the Ludlow Report. 1881 a railroad was fast approaching its boundaries), frequented by hide hunters prompting him to launch campaign to define the park’s purpose. 1877, GBG advocated using the park as a reservation for buffalo, 1881, advocated the appointment of 6 wardens to prevent destruction of buffalo there 1882 launched a 12 year campaign to define the status of Yellowstone, and protect it from commercialization, in response to the establishment of the Yellowstone Valley Hunting Club who marketed to easterners a chance to kill buffalo. 1883 exposed the Yellowstone Improvement Company’s exploitation for private gain – attempts to lease 7 tracts of land in park for $2/ac. Entitling them to build roads, hotels, run cattle, and unlimited use of timber and arable land. 1883 lease approved, begins building 600 room hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs, sets up a saw mill on site and contracts for 20,000 pounds of wild meat for winter on 1883 1883-84 failed attempts at congressional legislation to save park, 1884 laws were considered unenforceable because it was in an unorganized county in WY. 1885 he exposes corruption by Park Superintendent Robert Carpenter, who spends most of his time in DC as a lobbyist for the Improvement Company, and files a personal claim on 1400 acres of park land for the intent to mine coal. Thanks to F&S and GBG he’s finally removed from office. 1885 TR joins the cause. 1891 B&C active in getting a bill introduced to Congress. 1894 high profile buffalo poaching case, prompts the introduction of a bill by Iowa’s John Lacey Yellowstone Protection Act. Used F&S to expose corruption in the park’s management, advocate for its expansion Founded a policy and administration for YNP that became the foundation for the Park system today.
  • Lacey was an avid hunter who in his speech to Congress mentioned his love for birds and hunting and who stated that the true sportsman who enjoys legitimate sport is the birds greatest friend.   Lacey Act of 1900 puts end to market hunting, beginning of the end to the feather trade. – no interstate transportation of unlawfully taken game. Resulted from a crusade made by sportsmen-naturalists to end the destruction of sea, song, and shorebirds for fashion. Grinnell’s Audubon Society was at the center of the fight since 1886, formed solely for the preservation of nongame species.
  • Roosevelt Large tracts of federal lands are placed into preserve system for the benefit of natural resources including wildlife (Wildlife Refuges, National Parks, and National Forests). Pelican Island Reserve in 1903 – first refuge. 50 more in 17 states and 3 territories in first term. 36 more in second term. Mistake to assert that refuges were all established to protect game. The first one’s were actually established to protect nongame birds from commercial hunters supporting the millinery trade.
  • 1930’s - enter the era of Science and Revenue Conservationist hunter-activists start working relationship with governments.   States struggled with being successful at wildlife management, revenues too small, law enforcement insufficient tool for meaningful recovery. Recall the Wildlife Management Triad: L.E., Research and Mgmt.  
  • Enter Aldo Leopold ( Father of Wildlife Management, and founder of the Wildlife Management Profession) Leopold remained a hunter throughout his life. Sand County Almanac was not intended to be an anti-hunting book as many of his followers would like to believe today. It provides balance.   He felt that sportsman was the highest honor a hunter could attain.   His land ethic evolved out of the code of the sportsman, and the sportsman-conservationist ideal.   American Game Policy of 1930 was a turning point in conservation. It stressed that existing conservation programs were insufficient – game laws and enforcement not enough. It called for recognizing the profession as a science. That research and management required funding beyond what could be supported by the license fees.
  •   Establishes Wildlife Management as a science and a uniquely North American profession. Modeled after the Prussian Forestry system. Professional societies Academic programs Accreditation systems Government agencies staffed with professional game managers Active research programs Writes the book Game Management in 1933. Writes Sand County Almanac in 1949 – perhaps mot oft-cited conservation publication today - a classic.
  • Along comes Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act - 1937 (Pitmann, NV Sen., Robertson VA Rep.).
  • Excise tax on hunter purchases. SUPPORTED - by the industry leaders – Federal, Remington Arms, Dupont. - Key provision – to be eligible for the funds the state legislatures had to enact laws that said license revenues could be used for no other purpose than wildlife conservation activities (Robertson’s 29 words). Within 12 months of passage 43 of 48 states passed required legislation. Remember this is the 30’s depression. How would an industry excise tax be welcomed today…era of prosperity?
  • Roosevelt Grinnell, and other visionary leaders make some critical decisions that define the North American model of Wildlife Management:   - Being men of means, they could have excluded the common folk from hunting, protecting game for themselves (European and African models were their examples); - Rather, they realized that to recover wildlife in N.A. they needed to make stakeholders of the common man. This captured the enthusiasm and support of all strata of society; -  Recognized that the greatest interest would be garnered by advocating use rather than preservation, utility fosters interest and attention; - Hence they decided that all Americans should have equal access to wildlife -  A resource so valuable to all of us should be owned by no one of us; -  They called for the elimination of market hunting; -  And advocated self-regulating hunter code of conduct - fair chase, and no waste of game (Sport Hunting – governed by a code of behavior/honor, not a frivolous recreational pursuit). Genesis of term: “Sport Hunting” By self-regulating, they meant individually and in policing violators; Power of volunteers as great equalizers.
  • Notice the differences here to the European Model:   -   Public ownership vs. Crown ownership -   All people of good standing have equal access to resource vs. no public access to resource (w/ penalty of death) -    Wise use vs. preservation -    An interactive role of citizen’s in nature vs. a custodial role of the crown -   Wildlife’s interests held by the common people vs. common people disinterested in wildlife’s abundance or demise -  An engaged public cherishing what’s theirs vs. a disinterested public in regards to the welfare of wildlife, perhaps even a resentful view -  Self-policing vs. poachers being considered honorable where wildlife belonged only to royalty   Know why Robin Hood – literature’s most notorious poacher - was a hero? Fictional character who’s story embodies the weakness of the European model. He had no stake in wildlife, nor did his neighbors He stole wildlife from the King, not his neighbors He had no sense of responsibility or reverence towards wildlife, it belonged to his enemy.  
  • Today   PA – now kills 400,000 deer/yr 1987 legal deer harvest in US was more than 8x entire population of deer in N.A. in 1900 White-tailed deer 500,000 (1900) - 20 million now Pronghorn 13,000 (1920) – 1 million in west Elk 40,000 (1900) – 1 million in 10 western states   Are there still threats today? Absolutely. Politics; exclusionists; landowner tags/ no fee for draw application. “ We will have seen our last courageous game warden when wildlife belongs to the new royalty.” J. Pozewitz.
  • Cooperative effort with WAFWA-member state agencies. Data were weighted by age and participation in wildlife-related recreation to ensure proper representation of population subgroups. ND n = 715
  • We measured wildlife value orientations using an approach that has been developed and tested extensively over a period of nearly 10 years. Extensive pretesting and refinement of the approach over time.
  • We can identify 2 main “streams” of thought or orientations that people have toward wildlife in our society. We can also define the ideal world and principles for treatment of wildlife that go along with each. The first of these is the utilitarian orientation. The ideal world for people who hold this orientation is one in which…
  • A second stream of thought regarding wildlife falls under this category of mutualism. In an ideal world according to this orientation, humans and animals live in harmony, and they benefit one another in their relationship – thus the term mutualism. A sense of caring goes along with this orientation…
  • Hunters and anglers donate more money to wildlife conseration per captiat than do non hunters or the general population as a whole in the united states (responsive management/NSSF 2008a) Excise taxes on hunting and fishing equipment fund wildlife conservation Hunters and anglers spend billions on their activity each year, making this endeaveor imporant economically Participation is declining, obviously, and has been for the past two decades, and fewer young people are entering the sport.
  • One of he largest hammer strokes taken by early sportsmen in their efforts to save plundered wildlife were laws passed to eliminate market hunting. These laws, in most cases, were drafted, supported, shepherded through the legislature, and passed, by sportsmen. Some laws that impacted market hunting included laws that: Set season dates and bag limits Closed season for take of song birds and shore birds and palagic birds Limited methods of take of wildlife The Lacey act. Of course these laws meant nothing, and would mean nothing today without courageous enforcement. Men and women of this state and every other state don badge and gun, at great personal peril, to protect the wildlife they know they will have a chance to enjoy. J.P. Said it best.
  • Handouts: Sand County Almanac Inherit the Hunt Role of Hunter in Conservation All have an AZ nexus.
  • Historical Perspective on Hunting and Conservation

    1. 1. History of theNorth AmericanExperienceThe world’s greatestconservation success story ofthe 20th Century
    2. 2. There have been two major threats to wildlifeconservation in our history. The first one occurredin the late 1800s, (many sportsmen don’t realizethe extent of the threat). Sportsmen met thefirst challenge and only sportsmen workingtogether can meet the current one.
    3. 3. 1800’sEra of Decimation Wildlife viewed as inexhaustible in supply
    4. 4. Meriwether Lewis William Clark
    5. 5. Impacts of Man Market hunting Commercial trapping Urbanization Development Deforestation Population Habitat degradation
    6. 6. Market Hunting
    7. 7. Extinction
    8. 8. Sportsmen met thefirst challenge
    9. 9. 1830-1920
    10. 10. The Advent ofSportsmens Clubs Currituck Sportsmen’s Club - 1879
    11. 11. Early Sportsmen’sPublications
    12. 12. 1 870s – State SponsoredGame Laws Elimination of the uncontrolled take of buffalo –MT
    13. 13. George Bird Grinnell 1849 - 1938 Code of theSportsman 1880
    14. 14. Roosevelt and GrinnellFounders of the Conservation GiffordMovement Pinchot
    15. 15. Yellowstone ProtectionAct The Beginning of Federal Wildlife Laws -1894 Roosevelt Grant Grinnell First Federal law designed to protect wildlife Hedges Lacey
    16. 16. Lacey Act Lacey Act – 1900: Federal offense to transport illegally taken wildlife across state lines.
    17. 17. Pelican Island Reserve1903First Refuge
    18. 18. Era of Science &Revenue
    19. 19. Aldo Leopold Father of wildlife management, and founder of the wildlife management profession
    20. 20. Leopold Establishes wildlife management as a science (modeled after the Prussian Forestry System)  Professional societies  Academic programs  Accreditation systems  Government agencies w/professional game managers  Active research programs Author: Game Management (1933) Author: Sand County Almanac (1949)
    21. 21. Federal Aid and WildlifeRestoration Act 1937 –Pitmann-Robertson
    22. 22. Excise Tax Accepted
    23. 23. The sportsmen ofyesterday have left us atremendous legacy-TheNorth American Model
    24. 24. North American Modelof Wildlife Management
    25. 25. That legacy is unique
    26. 26. European Model
    27. 27. Today
    28. 28. We are experiencing a secondround threats today. If we don’ttake action nobody will. If nobodytakes action we stand to lose whatwe love. The threats include:declining participation, enviro-litigants affecting land usedesignations, anti-hunting groups,anthropomorphism.
    29. 29. Trends in Wildlife-Related Recreation
    30. 30. Hunting License Holders for Nation 17,000,000 16,500,000 Number of License Holders 16,000,000 15,500,000 15,000,000 14,500,000 14,000,000 13,500,000 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008* People with Hunting Licenses in U.S. (Federal Assistance License Data)*Data incomplete.
    31. 31. So What’s the Big DEAL? Times Change! Mention the times when we were young and we huntedbefore school and left our guns in our cars
    32. 32. Study Methods  Mail survey Pilot Phase conducted in 2002 in 6 states Extensive pretesting in Summer 2004 Data collection in 19 western states, Fall 2004 (n = 12,673) Nonresponse follow-up phone survey (n = 7600) Data weighted by age and recreation participation Extensive validation testing
    33. 33. Measurement of Wildlife ValueOrientations Series of Agree/Disagree statements - Example (U): The needs of humans should take priority over fish and wildlife protection. - Example (M): Animals should have rights similar to the rights of humans.
    34. 34. Ideal World Utilitarian PrinciplesWildlife exists Managefor human use wildlife so& enjoyment that humans benefitAbundance ofwildlife for Needs ofhunting & humans takefishing priority over wildlife“Animals and plants are pieces of energy out thereto provide humans with food and inspiration.”
    35. 35. Ideal World Mutualist PrinciplesHumans and Animals shouldwildlife live side by have rights likeside without fear humansAll living things Take care ofpart of one big wildlifefamily Prevent crueltyEmotional to animalsbonding andcompanionshipNo animalsuffering “All of us need to protect all creatures on Mother Earth. We must speak for the ones who can’t.”
    36. 36. Distribution of Wildlife Value OrientationTypesin the Region 50% 40% 34% 33% 30% 20% 20% 13% 10% 0% Utilitarian Pluralist Mutualist Distanced
    37. 37. AZ Population Estimates7,000,0006,000,0005,000,0004,000,0003,000,0002,000,0001,000,000 0 1960 1967 1974 1981 1988 1995 2002 2009
    38. 38. *Does not include Family, Youth or Super Combination Increased from prior year Decreased from prior year
    39. 39. *Does not include Family or Super CombinationIncreased from prior year Decreased from prior year
    40. 40. Resident Hunting Licenses as % of AZ’sPopulation(includes General Hunt, Family and Super Conservation)
    41. 41. Fishing License Holders for Nation 31,000,000 30,500,000 30,000,000 29,500,000 29,000,000License Holders 28,500,000 28,000,000 27,500,000 27,000,000 26,500,000 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008* Year People with Fishing Licenses in U.S. (Federal Aid Data)*Data incomplete.
    42. 42. *Includes only full-price Class A Fishing Licenses. Does not include Family, Super or ½ Price Class A. Increased from prior year Decreased from prior year
    43. 43. Resident Fishing Licenses as % of AZ’sPopulation(includes General, Super Conservation, Family and ½ Price)
    44. 44. Show your budget-demonstrate how muchmoney comes fromsportsmen, demonstratethat its simple economicsthat these declines effectyour agency’s ability tofight to preserve ourheritage.
    45. 45. There are groups who arefocused on Eliminatingthe privilege to hunt  "We are going to use the  “We realized that we can ballot box and the bypass the officials and democratic process to sue, and that we can get stop all hunting in the things done in court”- United States" and "we Kieran Suckling, co- will take it species by founder of the Center for species until all hunting Biological Diversity-in is stopped in California. High Country News Then we will take it state Article by Tony Davis by state." - President of the HSUS
    46. 46. We’ve begun working tomeet these threats withpartners. It has somepositive effects
    47. 47. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness ofHunting, Shooting, and Fishing Recruitmentand Retention Programs Photo: National Shooting Sports Foundation Photo: First Shots, National Shooting Sports Foundation Presented to the Hunting and Shooting Sports Participation Committee Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Tuesday, September 28, 2010 Mark Damian Duda, Responsive Management
    48. 48. Percent who indicated being interested a lot in the following activities. 100 84 80 75 67 69 70 65 60Percent 40 20 0 Target shooting Hunting Fishing Pre-program survey Post-program survey
    49. 49. Q39/Q30. Which do you consider yourself? 100 80 72 75 75 71 59 60 55Percent 40 20 6 5 0 An angler or A shooter A hunter None of these fisherman Multiple Responses Allowed Pre-program survey Post-program survey
    50. 50. Percent who indicated being very likely to participate in the following activities next year. 100 80 77 77 72 68 59 60 56Percent 40 20 0 Fishing Shooting Hunting Pre-program survey Post-program survey
    51. 51. Percent who strongly approve of the following activities. 100 92 89 88 81 82 80 70 60Percent 40 20 0 Fishing when it is legal Target or sport shooting Hunting when it is legal to do so to do so Pre-program survey Post-program survey
    52. 52. We are not very good at everyphase. We need your help.Without sportsmen, our future isthreatenedWith fewer hunters, there arefewer traditional pathwaymentors-somebody needs topick up the ball and run with it
    53. 53. Q118. Does anyone else in your family currently hunt?Yes 95No 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent
    54. 54. Make the ask! Remind them ofthe legacy, remind them thethreats are real, if they don’t do itnobody will. If you leave it to thegovernment to fix, it won’t getfixed (they will agree). Tell themtheir agency, and their heritageneeds them.
    55. 55. We will have seen our lastcourageous game warden whenwildlife belongs to the new Royalty”Jim Posewitz
    56. 56. Remind them that all clubsshare the same fate, whetheryou are a deer club, elk club,bear club or sheep club. For thepurposes of preserving ourhunting and angling heritage,we must be one. They need tojoin with other stakeholders toshare equipment and man-power to preserve our heritage
    57. 57. Handouts AFWA Grant A summit outline Importance of community conservation clubs-Del Benson

    ×