Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
 Dr. Jawaher Al- Mudhahki
Chief Executive – QQA
President of ANQAHE
 Dr. Syed Ahmad Hussein
President – QA Islamic
 Theme 1: Qualifications Framework
 Theme2: External Quality Assurance
 Theme3: Trends & issues in Cross
Border Higher ...
Qualification Framework as a
Life Long Learning Tool
Prof. Zita Mohd Fahmi – MQA,
Malaysia
Theme 1:
Qualifications Framew...
National Qualifications
Framework-As a Lifelong Learning
Tool
Zita Mohd Fahmi
Deputy CEO-Quality Assurance Sector
Malaysia...
Contents
• Lifelong Learning Statements and Strategies
• National Qualifications Framework promotes LLL
▫ Objectives of NQ...
“Lifelong Learning”
• “to include all purposeful learning activity,
undertaken on an ongoing basis with the aim of
improvi...
Lifelong Learning
• In the knowledge based global economy of th 21st
century, future prosperity, security, peace, social
h...
Identified Competencies
“Competencies” should take
into account skills,
knowledge,
values and attitudes
• Social competenc...
UNESCO, Regional and National
Strategies for LLL
• UNESCO Initiativies, guidelines
• ASEAN-”Lifelong learning for All is e...
From cradle to ….-human capital
Impact of Lifelong learning
Strategy
Early
childhood
Basic
education
Tertiary
▪ University / Colleges
▪ Polytechnic
▪ Community colleges
▪ TEVT
Professional
wo...
Connections with NQF -(UNESCO)Shanghai
Consensus: Transforming TVET for Highly Skilled Workers
• 3. Adapting qualification...
Concurrent -Development of National
and Regional Qualifications
Frameworks
• We need institutional architecture of
LLL, in...
Demands of an NQF
Globalisation- regional
frameworks
qualification
comparable and
transparent (RQF)
Technical
Advancement-...
17
Generally Identified Purposes of National
Qualification Frameworks (NQF)
• To make national qualification systems
easie...
National Qualifications Framework
• NQF –systematic classifications arrangement of levels of
learning achievements (qualif...
“Qualifications”
Learning Assessment Validation Certification Award
•Considered both a process and the outcomes of
this pr...
20
General Core elements of NQFs
• Levels of qualifications
• Descriptors of learning outcomes across
levels or qualificat...
4/5TH Generation NQF-levels with
jobs
Levels
Entry level sttements
Sectors- Pillars-Academic, TVET & Skills
Learning Outco...
Practical Objectives of NQF
To establish National Standards for learning
Outcomes
Qualifications description
To promote...
23
“Tools” to Support LLL-Learning
Achievements
1. Provides National Standards for Learning outcomes
(generic/specific)
Le...
Cont. Tools for LLL
3. Qualifications within an NQF
• Visibility of the acquired learning outcomes
/competencies
• Reflect...
25
4. Parity of Esteem of Qualifications in
NQF
- Tools- Clear policies, certification, recognition,
equivalency assessmen...
Access and Articulation
6. Access –articulation
• Variety of learners
• Pathways for progression-vertical, horizontal
and ...
Accreditation of Prior Experiential
Learning (APEL) & Open Learning
7. APEL- “Learning never stops”
• Widens access to all...
FORMAL
LEARNING
IN-
FORMAL
LEARNING
NON-
FORMAL
LEARNING
INDIVIDUALS
INSTITUTIONS
EMPLOYERS
INDUSTRY
SOCEITY
NATION
Recogn...
NQF and Equivalency Assessments
8. Assessment for equivalency
• Important in situations where credentials and certificatio...
Quality Assurance systems
9. Quality assurance mechanism
• NQF functions must be underpinned by
an effective quality assur...
“The Planet
cannot survive
until becomes a
learning
Planet.”
THANK YOU,
Zita Mohd Fahmi
zita@mqa.gov.my
Building Qualification Framework
Ms. Margaret Cameron– SQA,
Scotland
Theme 1:
Qualifications Framework
Independent Consultant
Contracted by SQA
..an instrument for the development and
classification of qualifications according to a set of
criteria for levels of lear...
Raffe (2009)identifies 3 approaches
1. Communications Framework:
Starting point: existing education and training system.
A...
Levels
Eg introductory
Advanced etc
Recognition
of Prior
Learning
Qualifications
Design
Assessment
Strategies
Certificatio...
There are differing views on how the development of
frameworks takes place:
3 examples discussed.
TUCK
OND. VLAANDERAN/HOG...
Tuck sets out 3 key requirements:
1. Purpose and Scope
 What is the NQF trying to achieve and what sectors are to be incl...
4 stages:
1. Conceptualisation and design
 Country analysis, rationale and main policy objectives
2. Consultation and Tes...
10 stage approach
1. Relevant national body makes decision to start
2. Setting the agenda: clear purpose
3. Organising the...
 Levels
 Level descriptors
 Qualifications Design
 Criteria
◦ Outcome based
◦ Assessment
 Quality Assurance
 Some ha...
National Responsibilities
Nation identifies reasons for a NQF.
Different NQFs for different purposes.
Key stakeholders in ...
Decisions on:
 Linked or unified
 Tight or loose
 Degree of centralisation
 Level descriptors
◦ Helps understanding
◦ ...
 Management of the framework, NQF Body
- Degree of centralisation / regulation
 Development and Promotion
 Qualificatio...
 Consulting with stakeholders
 Developing NQF Policies
 Developing guidance documents on how to
implement the policies
...
The Same
Enabling Diversity
Different levels
Institutional
Teaching and learning, staffing,
Programme/qualification
Design, Assessment
Process
Placing...
QA
Body
QA Body
NQF
Tuck cautions creating a complex and detailed quality assurance system
can be a time consuming and con...
TUCK:
The task of accrediting all institutions offering
qualifications on the NQF is an onerous one. There is a
danger of ...
Assessments must be:
• Valid
• Reliable
• Practical
• Quality Assured
Shift from Norm Referenced
to Criterion Referenced
R...
 Language
 Trying to do too much too soon
 Policy borrowing instead of policy `creating’
 Qualifications Frameworks ha...
 Takes time and work for all involved
 Institutions need to be `on board`. A successful
framework will depend on them to...
Quality Framework in the Turkish
National Education
Dr.Ömer Açıkgöz, General Director for the
Vocational and Technical Ed...
Coffee
Break
 Quality Assurance in the Arab
Region
Dr. Nadia Badrawi, Vice President -
ANQAHE
Theme 2:
External Quality Assurance
 Accreditation and Quality
Assurance in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia
Prof. Abdulla Al Musallam, Secretary
General,
Nationa...
Accreditation and Quality Assurance
in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Roundtable Meeting- Bahrain
27-29 October, 2013
Profess...
 The Saudi Arabian Context
 The NCAAA
• Objectives
• Main Functions
• Principles Underlying the System
• Development Str...
Saudi Arabian Context
• HE providers are Responsible to Several different
ministries
 MOHE
 Technical & Vocational Training Corporation
(TVTC)...
• Structural changes
 merger of 102 girls colleges,18 teachers colleges and 50
health colleges and institutes into univer...
INSTITUNSTION 2003 2010 GROWTH
PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES 8 24 200%
COLLEGES IN PUBLIC UNIV 199 445 124%
PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES 1 8...
Enrollment Growth
2003 – 2010
Unpublished National Higher Education Record
0
100
200
300
400
500
PUBLIC
PRIVATE
2003
2010
UNIVERSITIES COLLEGES
Unpublished National Higher Education Record
UNIVERSI...
PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE GROWTH
Unpublished National Higher Education Record
Professional College Growth
2003 – 2010
COMMUNITY COLLEGES
Unpublished National Higher Education Record
Community College Growth
2003 – 2010
National Commission for Academic
Accreditation & Assessment
(NCAAA)
• The Government of SA has recognized the need
to provide a national mechanism to ensure that
educational standards are
– ...
• Independent body responsible to the Council of HE
• Responsible for supporting quality improvement,
• Responsible for ac...
• Establish standards and processes for QA and
accreditation
• Planning, training and support for quality
improvement
• Ac...
1. Q relates to all functions of institutions
2. Emphasis on Q improvement, not just meeting
minimum standards
3. Q assess...
• Staged development over a five year
period.
• Our approach to QA is to draw on good
international practice but insist on...
• Inexperience in institutions and involvement of
people from many systems has required
detailed explanations and standard...
Stages of Development
Stage One
Stage 1: Development of procedures,
standards and materials.
Stage 2: Transitioning to the new system
Stage 3: F...
Stage 1:
Development of procedures,
standards and materials.
Stage One
•Key documents
– National Qualifications Framework
– Standards for Institutions (and Self Evaluation Scales)
– S...
Standards
Stage One
In Saudi Arabia
Eleven standards in five groups have
been identified, relating to broad areas of
activity in pos...
Standards
Institutions Programs
• Mission and Objectives
• Governance and Administration
• Management of QA and
Improvemen...
Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards
• These standards are described with several levels of
detail.
– General state...
Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards (Cont.)
Standard 1. Mission, Goals and Objectives
General statements of the mi...
Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards (Cont.)
Standard 1. Mission, Goals and Objectives
Good practices that are norm...
Self-evaluation rating scales
Self Evaluation Scales
• In an experienced QA system most of these
practices are known and understood (and
generally follo...
Stage One
• Institutions (or groups within them) indicate
whether these practices are followed, and if they are,
how well ...
For Example
Is this true?
Y/ No/ NA
 Faculty are available at sufficient scheduled times for
consultation and advice to s...
104
For Example
• Reference material to support individual and self directed study is
available and accessible.
• Adequate...
Stage One
The scales are designed for five point ratings.
Numbers 1 to 5 could be used, but a starring
system is preferred...
Stage One
Acceptable Performance (3 Stars)
–Three stars--practice usually followed,
quality acceptable but substantial roo...
Stage One
High Quality Performance ( 4 and 5 Stars)
• Four Stars
The practice is followed consistently.
Indicators of Q ...
Stage One
High Quality Performance (4 and 5 Stars)
• Five Stars: The practice is followed
consistently and at a very high ...
Stage 2
Transition to the new system
Stage One
• Training and preparation,
 Training Programs (over 200 programs,
more than 11,000 participants)
 National sy...
Pilot reviews
Stage One
The pilot project was planned to:
• Try out the proposed processes and materials
for self studies and external r...
Stage One
• Identify any additional explanatory materials
that may be needed to assist with general
implementation;
• Help...
Developmental Reviews
Stage One
• Provide experience with the procedures for
accreditation of institutions and programs
• Identify matters that ...
Developmental Reviews
2010-2011
Institutional
Reviews
Program
Reviews
Public 4 34
Private 1 5
Total 5 39
Developmental Reviews
2011-2013
Institutional
Reviews
Program
Reviews
Public 8 51
Private 0 0
Total 8 51
Developmental Reviews
Fields of Study
2010-2011 2011-2013
Health
Professions
10 11
Arts/Sciences and
Technology
15 17
Busi...
Stage 3
Full Implementation
Implementation of Accreditation Processes
● Eligibility Review (Assessment of Eligibility
Compliance)
● Institution/Progra...
Stage 3
Implementation of Accreditation Processes
● Response to Recommendations
● Accreditation Review Committee
(Consiste...
Accreditation Review Committee
The Charge to the Committee:
“Provide advice and comments on whether
the judgement of standards applied in
making recommen...
Purpose of the Accreditation Review Committee
• To provide a consultative forum on the
reports of the external review pane...
Purpose of the Accreditation Review Committee
• To keep under review, consistency and
continuity with previous Committee
r...
1. Mr. Peter Williams, Chair
2. Dr. Ian Allen
3. Dr. Steven Crow
4. Dr. David Wolf
5. Mr. Denis McGrath
6. Dr. Hamad M. H....
Accreditation Decision
Accreditation Decision
The NCAAA considers the
● recommendations of the external review
panel
● findings of the Accreditat...
Recommendation on Accreditation
● Full Accreditation
institution or program has successfully demonstrated, through
interna...
Accreditation Reviews
Accreditation Reviews
2010-2011 Cycle
Institutional
Reviews
Program
Reviews
Public 2 1
Private 5 22
Total 7 23
Accreditation Reviews
2010-2011 Cycle
Health Professions 8
Arts/Sciences and
Technology
5
Business Management 8
Liberal
Ar...
Accreditation Reports
Institutions Programs
Public 2 1
Private 5 22
Total 7 23
Fields of Study
Health
Professions
8
Arts/S...
“One of our major objectives is to support
the institutions and programs in achieving
recognition for having met or exceed...
Thank You !
 The role of external quality
assurance in contributing to the
sustainability of a higher education
system
Prof Dolina Do...
The role of external quality
assurance in contributing to the
sustainability
of a higher education system
October 2013
IslamicNetwork
Conference
The scope
 The higher education sector and the higher education
system
 Key role players in th...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Distinction between
Higher education sector
 Refers to aggregate of higher
education institutio...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Typical higher education system
Legislation
/Decrees
Regulatory
bodies
NQF
EQA
HEIs
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Higher education - a shared responsibility between:
Higher education system:
Bahrain
Ministry of...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Roles of each
HEIs
Develops and
delivers
programmes
Assesses
Certifies
QQA/DHR
Two types of
qual...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
What makes a sustainable higher education
system?
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Quality
Flexibility
Knowledge and
expertise
Principles of fairness,
equity and integrity
Element...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
A sustainable higher education system:
Socio-economic
needs
International
context
Aware of trend...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
How does an EQA contribute to a
sustainable higher education
system?
IslamicNetwork
Conference
External quality reviews
Accountability
Increased demand for higher education – massification -s...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
External quality reviews:
contribution to sustainability
Provide decision makers with evidence-b...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Workshops
analysis &
evidence
Panel
comprises
international,
regional and
local
Portfolio
meetin...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Typical external quality review process
Review Report
Institution
preparing self-
evaluation rep...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
How does this contribute to a sustainable
higher education system?
DHR outputs – Review
Reports,...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Globalization: Internationalization in higher
education means Flexibility
HEIs operate not only ...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Flexibility for all components in system
Institutions, regulatory bodies and EQAs
need to be fle...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Implications for Islamic Network
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Bahrain experience shows importance of:
Political leadership
Key players working together
Fair, ...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Partnerships
 Between EQAs in Islamic network - ongoing
dialogue to develop and maintain mutual...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Strength of Islamic network
Can work together across national
boundaries to stimulate the furthe...
IslamicNetwork
Conference
Thank you…
 Role of RARE in Quality
Assurance
Prof. Dr. Anwar Ul Haq, Associate Dean Riphah
Academy of Research and Education, Ripha...
Role of Riphah Academy of
Research and Education in
Quality Control
Riphah International Univesity
Riphah Academy of Research and Education
–Vision
–Mission
–Functions of Research Wing
–Func...
The Riphah International University was granted Federal
Charter by Government of Pakistan vide Ordinance
No.LXXVI of Octob...
Mission Statement
• “Establishment of State-of-the-Art
Educational Institution with a
Focus on Inculcating Islamic
Ethical...
Certification
ISO 9001..2008
certified by
Lloyd’s Register, UK
Quality Policy
“We are committed to make Riphah
International University, a centre of
excellence for Quality Education in ...
Programs
31 Under graduate
51 Masters
19 M.Phil and
11 Ph.D
Faculty Strength is about 1500.
Ph.D degree holders 50
MS or M...
Islamic International Engineering College (IIEC), Islamabad, (1998)
Faculty of Engineering & Applied Sciences (FAES)
Offer...
Faculty of Health and
Medical Sciences (FHMS)
• Islamic International Medical College (IIMC), Rawalpindi, (1996)
• Islamic...
Teaching Hospitals
• Hearts International Hospital, Rawalpindi,
(Established since 1996)
• IIMCT Pakistan Railways Hospita...
International Linkages
• Islamic Hospital Amman, Jordan, 2004.
• Federation of Islamic Medical Associations (FIMA), 2004
•...
National Linkages
• Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(PCSIR)
• HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, ...
VISION
• The Riphah Academy of Research and Education
(RARE) endeavors to, generate, promote, coordinate
and sustain world...
MISSION
• The RARE is dedicated to inculcate culture of
conducting quality research, scientific investigation in
various b...
FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
RESEARCH WING
• Defining research policy, setting by-laws for research
support rules and re...
• Encouraging the faculties to pursue research in basic,
clinical, applied and social sciences, with a focus on
areas of n...
• Enhancing global visibility through dissemination of
research information, generating publications,
promoting awareness ...
• Identifying areas in different faculties where needs
for improved professional excellence exist
• Assisting in identifyi...
• Helping to meet quality assurance parameters in
research, education and scholarship leading to
enhance university statur...
• Follow up of existing MoUs, if mutually agreeable, and
identify new and potential understandings.
• Recommending grants ...
Teacher Evaluation by QEC
as per PEC / HEC guide
line in every semester
A: Strongly Agree B: Agree C:
Uncertain D: Disagre...
Course Evaluation Proforma
being devised by QEC as per
guide lines of PEC / HEC
A: Strongly Agree B: Agree C: Uncertain
D:...
1. Eligibility Criteria for appointments of faculty
members
2. Rules for admission and examination of
M.Phil./MS and Ph.D....
Prayer & Lunch
Break
 Global Trends in Quality Assurance in
Higher Education
Dr Hassmik Tortian, Programme Specialist,
UNESCO
Theme 3:
Trends ...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Ms Hassmik Tortian, PhD, Programme Specialist
Division for Teacher ...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• Defining Quali...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education
 1998 World Confe...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education (Cont’d)
Growth...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• Defining Quality
• At the 1998 UNESCO World Conference it was alr...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Defining Quality (Cont’d)
A decade later the definition provided in...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• Defining Quality (Cont’d)
• Quality assurance (QA) in higher educ...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
The Process of Quality Assurance
 Self Study or self-review of the...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Cross-Border Higher Education
• Many new cross-border models for hi...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Managing Mobility
 The comparability of educational qualifications...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Evaluating Qualifications
 How educational qualifications are eval...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
The Growing Emphasis on Outcomes
• Growing emphasis on the "outcome...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
The Role of the Players
 ENQA – EQAR
 CHEA
 APQN
 RIACES
 ANQA...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Capacity Building
 There is greater recognition of the value of th...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Capacity Building (Cont’d)
 UNESCO and The Global initiative in Qu...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
• Capacity Building (Cont’d)
 GIQAC Phase II Financed by the Repub...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Conclusion
 Quality assurance will continue to be a high priority ...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Conclusion
• Quality remains difficult to define and subsequently p...
Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education
Thank you
 Building congruence between the
internal and the external QA
systems
Prof. Mohamed Miliani, President of the
National Ev...
Building congruence between IQA and EQA:
The Algerian experience
Prof. Mohamed MILIANI
President of the National Evaluatio...
PROBLEMATICS of the Ministry’s ROADMAP : BUILDING COHERENCE
translated in the Strategic Plan
VISION/ORIENTATIONS/ GUIDING ...
First step (from 2010)
(ad hoc Committee for the implementation of QA: CIAQES)
The ROADMAP:
- Elaborate and monitor a prog...
RELATION BETWEEN IQA & EQA
Paving the way for EQA
1st step: 2nd step:
UNIVERSITY’S
PERFORMANCE
UNIVERSITY’S
INTERNAL
ASSES...
The QUALITY SYSTEM (building congruence)
MEASURES/OUTCOMES/ACTIVITIES RESOURCES/RESPONSIBILITIES SET SCHEDULE
the LMD trai...
In order to achieve coherence between the different factors of HE
change, necessity to build congruence between the elemen...
PERSPECTIVES
STRATEGY 2030 OF THE SECTOR
Stated in terms of mid and long-term objectives and realisations:
On the one hand...
 Cross Border Higher Education-Best
Practices followed in SAARC
Countries
Ms. Sheema Haider, Director, Quality
Enhancemen...
CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION.
BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN
SAARC COUNTRIES
Presented by: Sheema Haider
Director Quality Enh...
CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION
 “Higher education that takes place in
situations where the teacher, student,
program, inst...
218
CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION
Cross-border education is a subset of
“internationalization of higher education” and can be
...
SIGNIFICANCE OF CROSS BORDER
HIGHER EDUCATION
Impact of Globalization
Globalization affects each country differently. It c...
The SAARC member countries shares similarities in terms of :
1. Geographic and climatic conditions
2. Socio-economic aspec...
INITIATIVES TAKEN BY SAARC
 Establishment of South Asian Universities (SAU)
India proposed to create a center of excellen...
INITIATIVES TAKEN BY SAARC
 Indian Council for Cultural Relations ( ICCR) Scholarships
Under the SAARC chair fellowship s...
SCENARIO OF EDUCATION
IN SAARC COUNTRIES
AFGHANISTAN
Total Population 29.82 Million (2012)
GDP (2012) $ 18.03 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 1993 2...
BANGLADESH
Total Population 154.7 Million (2012)
GDP (2012) $154.7 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 1990, 72...
BHUTAN
Total Population 7.4 lacs (2012)
GDP (2012) $1.780 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2011 ,
88.3
 Net...
INDIA
Total Population 1.237 Billion (2012)
GDP (2012) $1.842 Trillion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2008, 92.1
...
Total Population 3.38 lacs (2012)
GDP (2012) $2.22 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2011 , 96.2
 Net enrolm...
Total Population 3.38 lacs (2012)
GDP (2012) $2.22 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2000 , 71.1
 Net enrolm...
Total Population 179.2 Million (2012)
GDP (2012) $231.2 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2010 , 74.1
 Net e...
SRILANKA
Total Population 20.33 Million (2012)
GDP (2012) $ 59.42 Billion
 Net enrolment in Primary education , 2010 , 94...
BEST PRACTICES BY SAARC COUNTRIES
233
Working method or
set of working
methods that is
officially accepted
as being the be...
BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC
COUNTRIES
 BRANCH CAMPUSES / FRANCHISING
Example
1. Karachi School of Business & Leaders...
BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES
OVERSEAS SCHOLARSHIP
Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) Govt. of
Pakistan offe...
BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES
 ACADEMIC EXCHANGE PROGRAM
Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and Study Program
(Pro...
QUALITY ASSURANCE AGENCY , HEC PAKISTAN
Established in 2005 as a policy making and monitoring
body for maintenance and enh...
QUALITY ASSURANCE AGENCY , HEC PAKISTAN
238
CONCRETE MEASURES TAKEN BY SAARC MEMBERS COUNTRIES
From all the above discussion , it has been concluded that following pr...
240
 Cross Border Higher Education:
Challenges in GCC
Dr. Tariq Al Sindi, General Director – QQA
Theme 3:
Trends & issues in ...
Manama – Kingdom of
Bahrain
www.qaa.edu.bh
Trends and Issues in
Cross Border Higher
Education:
Challenges for GCC
QA Islam...
Definition of CBHE
It may include HE by:
CBHE has been defined as the movement of people, programs,
providers, curricula, ...
Category
Forms and Conditions of Mobility
Development
Cooperation
Educational
Linkages
Commercial
Trade
PEOPLE
Students Pr...
Branch Campuses: the key TNE activity
Require large investment
in human & physical
resources.
They provide fast upgrading ...
Branch Campuses
Increasing number of BCs in the Gulf region
Asia and the Gulf region have been identified as
particular BC...
Benefits
Improves inter-cultural understanding
Improves local education standards
Increases local provision - meets unmet ...
Tension
Risks to reputations (profit driven)
Difficult recognition choices
Problems over responsibilities
Market challenge...
• Population (>5% annually)
• Infrastructure
• Use of Technology
Strategies For HE Development in
Gulf Countries
Fastgrowt...
 Develop & support national institutions
 Branch Campuses of Foreign Universities
 Partnership with Foreign Universitie...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
o No international branch campuses
o No face-to-face transnational educ...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
Sultanate of Oman
o Both, Branch campuses & franchised programs are
allowed
o Private HEI has t...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
Kingdom of Bahrain
o Few transnational higher education providers
o Mainly to support national ...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
Qatar
o Support branch campuses of top ranked foreign HEIs.
o Has 8 branch campuses of foreign ...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
Kuwait
o Few transnational higher education providers
o Encourage cooperation with foreign univ...
Which Route
To Be Adopted?
United Arab Emirates
o All HE models exist:
o National Universities
o Branch campuses
o Franchi...
Factors in decision making:
Which Route (Strategy) To Be
Adopted?
Decisions
Country’s own strategy, if available
Political...
The Role of Quality Assurance
The quality of CBHE is a shared responsibility between importing
and exporting countries
• Q...
Recognition of QA and TNE
With TNE IQA & EQA processes and procedures must be:
 no different than for traditional home-de...
BUT.. Can you claim on QA warranty?
• Institutions use EQA or external accreditation as a
reason for students to trust the...
Few Implications…
HEIs have to make numerous recognition judgements
The NQF will simplify the recognition process
It is po...
External Control
International regulation through QA & accreditation
International QA networks (eg INQAAHE, ENQA, ANQAHE)
...
The Need For Guidelines or Standards
• support and encourage international cooperation
and understanding of the importance...
The Way Forward
Quality assurance
• have a IQA & EQA system
• have fair mechanisms for recognition of qualifications
• hav...
Lesson Learned: Challenges
• There is a need for regional regulatory
frameworks to control transnational institutions
• CB...
Thank You
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full

320 views

Published on

2013 qa islamic seminar presentation

Published in: Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

2013 qa islamic seminar presentation full

  1. 1.  Dr. Jawaher Al- Mudhahki Chief Executive – QQA President of ANQAHE  Dr. Syed Ahmad Hussein President – QA Islamic
  2. 2.  Theme 1: Qualifications Framework  Theme2: External Quality Assurance  Theme3: Trends & issues in Cross Border Higher Education Agenda
  3. 3. Qualification Framework as a Life Long Learning Tool Prof. Zita Mohd Fahmi – MQA, Malaysia Theme 1: Qualifications Framework
  4. 4. National Qualifications Framework-As a Lifelong Learning Tool Zita Mohd Fahmi Deputy CEO-Quality Assurance Sector Malaysian Qualifications Agency
  5. 5. Contents • Lifelong Learning Statements and Strategies • National Qualifications Framework promotes LLL ▫ Objectives of NQF ▫ Promises ▫ Tools for Lifelong learning • Challenges
  6. 6. “Lifelong Learning” • “to include all purposeful learning activity, undertaken on an ongoing basis with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competence for employability and good citizenship.” • From early childhood to higher education and after • From cradle to grave • Delor’s Report: “Learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be
  7. 7. Lifelong Learning • In the knowledge based global economy of th 21st century, future prosperity, security, peace, social harmony, and nurturing the environment will depend on people’s access and capacity to make choices to adapt to rapid changes and find sustainable solution to pressing challenges. • Lifelong learning is an essential organising principle for realising this goal and for the contributing to the advancement of formal, informal and non- formal learning.”
  8. 8. Identified Competencies “Competencies” should take into account skills, knowledge, values and attitudes • Social competencies • Personal competencies • Competencies relating to ethical actions • Learning to learn competencies • (UNESCO 2006)
  9. 9. UNESCO, Regional and National Strategies for LLL • UNESCO Initiativies, guidelines • ASEAN-”Lifelong learning for All is essential to the realisation of ASEAN aspiration” . ▫ 15. To promote the recognition , validation and accreditation of the outcomes of all form of learning, leading eventually to an ASEAN Lifelong Learning Qualifications Framework. Hanoi, January 2013) • National Strategies- Policies and Strategies to Promote Lifelong learning
  10. 10. From cradle to ….-human capital
  11. 11. Impact of Lifelong learning Strategy
  12. 12. Early childhood Basic education Tertiary ▪ University / Colleges ▪ Polytechnic ▪ Community colleges ▪ TEVT Professional working life Retirees/ Second career Themes ▪ Mainstreaming and broadening TEVT ▪ Enhancing the competency of tertiary graduates ▪ Accelerating labour reform ▪ Attracting & retaining top talent ▪ Upgrading existing talent pool Integrated Talent Development Ages 0+ 4+ 6+ 17+ 20+ Revamping education system to significantly raise student outcomes Raising skills to increase employability Reforming labour market to transform Malaysia into a high-income nation ▪ Ensuring every child succeeds ▪ Holding schools accountable for outcomes ▪ Investing in great leaders for schools ▪ Attracting and developing the best teachers 1 2 3 Early childhood Pre- school Basic education Tertiary ▪ University / Colleges ▪ Polytechnic ▪ Community colleges ▪ TEVT Institutions Professional working life Retirees/ Second career Intervention: Comprehensive human capital framework planned in 10MP- ((OECD Talent gap 28.8 (OECD 37.6) 2008, labour force with tertiary education 24.4 (OECD 27.4)2007 13
  13. 13. Connections with NQF -(UNESCO)Shanghai Consensus: Transforming TVET for Highly Skilled Workers • 3. Adapting qualifications and developing pathways Support flexible pathways and the accumulation , recognition and transfer of individual learning through transparent well articulated outcome-based qualifications system; reliable measures for assessments, recognition and validation of qualification; including at international level; exchange of information and development of trust; and partnership among all relevant stakeholders. Quality assurance mechanisms should be integrated into all parts of the qualifications systems
  14. 14. Concurrent -Development of National and Regional Qualifications Frameworks • We need institutional architecture of LLL, institutional mechanisms, to enhance access and LLL, by promoting inclusive learning pathways and to articulation of learning within the formal, non formal and informal education system. • National Qualifications framework is one of the many initiatives with many promises • Added challenge with regional frameworks-trade & mobility issues
  15. 15. Demands of an NQF Globalisation- regional frameworks qualification comparable and transparent (RQF) Technical Advancement- practical and competency based Labor market changes- workers to be learning lifelong to be employed Political /social demand-today requires competency oriented with values Society Individual demand- requires recognition of Learning
  16. 16. 17 Generally Identified Purposes of National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) • To make national qualification systems easier to understand for learners, employers and providers; • To build public trust in qualifications • To provide standards for qualification types • To support the recognition of knowledge and skills in order to gain credit (Source Coles (2010) • To support lifelong learning articulation-recognition of Prior Learning
  17. 17. National Qualifications Framework • NQF –systematic classifications arrangement of levels of learning achievements (qualifications) • Effective NQF depends on an efficient Qualifications system for structural changes to support LLL Qualifications system NQF Educational and training policies/ structures Institutional Arrangements Quality Assurance system Stakeholders
  18. 18. “Qualifications” Learning Assessment Validation Certification Award •Considered both a process and the outcomes of this process and acquired learning outcomes and competencies. •A qualification certifies the Learning Outcomes and competencies –visibility and recognition •Currency value in labour market?
  19. 19. 20 General Core elements of NQFs • Levels of qualifications • Descriptors of learning outcomes across levels or qualification type, or both • Linkages between qualifications either at the same level or between different levels or sectors • Credits or the volume/load of learning that contributes towards a qualification • Qualification profile and purpose
  20. 20. 4/5TH Generation NQF-levels with jobs Levels Entry level sttements Sectors- Pillars-Academic, TVET & Skills Learning Outcomes-competency statement Qualifications Credits system –credit transferability Progression statements/certifications APEL Related job description-Learning Income?
  21. 21. Practical Objectives of NQF To establish National Standards for learning Outcomes Qualifications description To promote quality through regulations To promote access to learning, transfer of learning, and progression in learning To rationalise (through integration) the education and training provision To improve the infrastructure of some sectors To facilitate recognition of non formal and informal learning outcomes Dr Patrick Werquin (OECD)PPT 2013
  22. 22. 23 “Tools” to Support LLL-Learning Achievements 1. Provides National Standards for Learning outcomes (generic/specific) Level of learning achievements/competencies-know, understand and Do. 2. Level descriptors ▫ kinds of things learners would be able to do if they successfully achieve the learning outcomes of a unit or qualification ▫ The level typically indicates the complexity of learning outcomes in the qualification or unit- taxonomy. • May be further supported by Discipline Standards • Improve confidence, transparency, quality, employability and mobility
  23. 23. Cont. Tools for LLL 3. Qualifications within an NQF • Visibility of the acquired learning outcomes /competencies • Reflects the process and outcomes of learning • Value-in labour market and Lifelong Learning through recognition by respective parties  LO standards Use of Diploma Supplement  National Information Centre
  24. 24. 25 4. Parity of Esteem of Qualifications in NQF - Tools- Clear policies, certification, recognition, equivalency assessment and articulation system General academic track General vocational track- TVET Trade and occupational track/ Skills Articulation Articulation General education qualifications Discipline- based Career- focused Occupation- specific and workplace- based
  25. 25. Access and Articulation 6. Access –articulation • Variety of learners • Pathways for progression-vertical, horizontal and diagonal • Credit transfer systems • Recognition of acquired learning and competences • Tools ▫ effective and disseminated policies & systems ▫ Institutional systems
  26. 26. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) & Open Learning 7. APEL- “Learning never stops” • Widens access to all types of learners • Pathways -Upgrading and up-skilling and self improvement • Mobility-educational, occupational, geographical • Entry or entry with credit transfer • Tool-Policies • Promotional activities • Appropriate policies, quality assured systems for assessments and certifications. • Related Institutions
  27. 27. FORMAL LEARNING IN- FORMAL LEARNING NON- FORMAL LEARNING INDIVIDUALS INSTITUTIONS EMPLOYERS INDUSTRY SOCEITY NATION Recognises Different Types Of Learning And Potential Benefits CREDIT BANK
  28. 28. NQF and Equivalency Assessments 8. Assessment for equivalency • Important in situations where credentials and certification are important. • It can serve as a quality enhancement measure in all kinds of programmes • This mechanism can function effectively when there is adequate arrangement for coordination, communication and cooperation among key stakeholders.
  29. 29. Quality Assurance systems 9. Quality assurance mechanism • NQF functions must be underpinned by an effective quality assurance framework. • Competent EQAA-quality assurance, certification and assessment services • Appropriate & effective External quality assurance services and working IQA • Tools, instruments and systems of parties which support Lifelong Learning initiatives must be quality assured.
  30. 30. “The Planet cannot survive until becomes a learning Planet.” THANK YOU, Zita Mohd Fahmi zita@mqa.gov.my
  31. 31. Building Qualification Framework Ms. Margaret Cameron– SQA, Scotland Theme 1: Qualifications Framework
  32. 32. Independent Consultant Contracted by SQA
  33. 33. ..an instrument for the development and classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for levels of learning achieved. OECD Definition ..are broad and abstract descriptive maps of the structure of qualifications within national education systems designed to enable national level comparisons to be made about the equivalence of different qualifications. The Accountability for Quality Agenda in Higher Education
  34. 34. Raffe (2009)identifies 3 approaches 1. Communications Framework: Starting point: existing education and training system. Aims: to improve transparency and understanding, coherence and encourage access and highlight opportunities for transfer and progression. 2. Reforming Framework: Starting point: existing education and training system. Aims: to improve it in specific ways e.g enhancing quality, improving consistency, filling gaps in provision or increasing accountability. 3. Transformational Framework: Starting point: proposed future education and training system Aims: new qualifications, no reference to existing provision.
  35. 35. Levels Eg introductory Advanced etc Recognition of Prior Learning Qualifications Design Assessment Strategies Certification Quality Assurance Teaching and Learning National Qualifications Framework
  36. 36. There are differing views on how the development of frameworks takes place: 3 examples discussed. TUCK OND. VLAANDERAN/HOGERONDERWIJS/ Bologna Expert CEDEFOP
  37. 37. Tuck sets out 3 key requirements: 1. Purpose and Scope  What is the NQF trying to achieve and what sectors are to be included? 2. Strategy  Will it be a unified framework and to what extent is there central control?  Are complimentary policies required to help the NQF achieve what it is setting out to do?  What is required to design and implement the framework? 3. Design and Implementation  Decisions on level, quality assurance, LOs, assessment, modules/units, credit, institutional requirements.  Decisions on Governance arrangements
  38. 38. 4 stages: 1. Conceptualisation and design  Country analysis, rationale and main policy objectives 2. Consultation and Testing  NQF proposal presented, discussion and consultation 3. Official establishment/adoption  NQF is adopted and established, normally taking the form of a decree/law or formal agreement between stakeholders 4. Practical implementation  Framework moves towards full scale applied practices and requires that institutions comply with the new arrangements and end users informed about the purposes and benefits of the framework
  39. 39. 10 stage approach 1. Relevant national body makes decision to start 2. Setting the agenda: clear purpose 3. Organising the process: committee structure, stakeholders/working groups 4. Design profile: level structure, descriptors, credit 5. Consultation: national discussion and acceptance by stakeholders 6. Approval according to national tradition Ministers/Legislation/Government 7. Administrative set up: divisions of tasks of implementation between higher education, quality assurance bodies and other bodies 8. Implementation at institutional level: study programmes amended to learning outcomes based 9. Inclusion of qualifications on the NQF: Accreditation or similar 10. Self certification of compatibility with the EHEA framework
  40. 40.  Levels  Level descriptors  Qualifications Design  Criteria ◦ Outcome based ◦ Assessment  Quality Assurance  Some have Credit, if so may have accumulation and transfer
  41. 41. National Responsibilities Nation identifies reasons for a NQF. Different NQFs for different purposes. Key stakeholders in agreement Identify and agree scope The Builders Research what is already in place within the qualifications system and the legislation Listen, listen more, clarify, propose, consult and listen again!!! Important: Don’t come with fixed ideas
  42. 42. Decisions on:  Linked or unified  Tight or loose  Degree of centralisation  Level descriptors ◦ Helps understanding ◦ Provides comparison ◦ Helps progression
  43. 43.  Management of the framework, NQF Body - Degree of centralisation / regulation  Development and Promotion  Qualifications Design: ◦ Learning outcomes, modular/units/courses  Quality Assurance  Assessment  Certification
  44. 44.  Consulting with stakeholders  Developing NQF Policies  Developing guidance documents on how to implement the policies  Capacity Building  Promoting  Advising providers, stakeholders and government  Maintaining the Register of Qualifications
  45. 45. The Same Enabling Diversity
  46. 46. Different levels Institutional Teaching and learning, staffing, Programme/qualification Design, Assessment Process Placing qualifications on the framework
  47. 47. QA Body QA Body NQF Tuck cautions creating a complex and detailed quality assurance system can be a time consuming and controversial process that can delay the building of the framework itself. Staffing Resources Programme Development Moderation of Assessment Capacity Mapping Processes Ensure robust QA
  48. 48. TUCK: The task of accrediting all institutions offering qualifications on the NQF is an onerous one. There is a danger of significant delays to NQF implementation if accreditation becomes a pre-requisite. Some countries have adopted the position that all institutions recognised for many years are granted automatic recognition and allowed to offer qualifications on the NQF from the outset. All would be subject to the on-going processes at the audit/review.
  49. 49. Assessments must be: • Valid • Reliable • Practical • Quality Assured Shift from Norm Referenced to Criterion Referenced Reference to the NQF on Certification 5 1 Planning Collect evidence Make judgement and record decision Give feedback
  50. 50.  Language  Trying to do too much too soon  Policy borrowing instead of policy `creating’  Qualifications Frameworks have limitations!  Beware of unnecessary bureaucracy  Complimentary legislation and policies  Mutual Trust  Question, Read, Feedback, Question  Test, refine and consult before implementation
  51. 51.  Takes time and work for all involved  Institutions need to be `on board`. A successful framework will depend on them to embed the changes and processes  Partnerships need to be formed  Stakeholders need to be consulted  Builders need to listen to what is being said  Compromise  Legislative change
  52. 52. Quality Framework in the Turkish National Education Dr.Ömer Açıkgöz, General Director for the Vocational and Technical Education in the Ministry of Education, Turkey Theme 1: Qualifications Framework
  53. 53. Coffee Break
  54. 54.  Quality Assurance in the Arab Region Dr. Nadia Badrawi, Vice President - ANQAHE Theme 2: External Quality Assurance
  55. 55.  Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Prof. Abdulla Al Musallam, Secretary General, National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment, KSA Theme 2: External Quality Assurance
  56. 56. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Roundtable Meeting- Bahrain 27-29 October, 2013 Professor Abdullah A. Almusallam Secretary General, NCAAA
  57. 57.  The Saudi Arabian Context  The NCAAA • Objectives • Main Functions • Principles Underlying the System • Development Strategy  Phased QA Implementation • Procedures, Standards, Materials • Transition to the new system • Accreditation Process Overview
  58. 58. Saudi Arabian Context
  59. 59. • HE providers are Responsible to Several different ministries  MOHE  Technical & Vocational Training Corporation (TVTC)  Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY)  Etc. • Rapid growth over the past 7 years • 8 to 25 public universities • 5 to 29 private universities and colleges • 136,723 to 240,470 new enrolments in all Higher Education Sectors Saudi Arabian Context Higher Education
  60. 60. • Structural changes  merger of 102 girls colleges,18 teachers colleges and 50 health colleges and institutes into universities • Limited and varied experience with QA processes • Traditional emphasis on rote memory • Shortages of experienced and qualified faculty • Expatriate teaching staff from many countries  broad experience base but diverse QA backgrounds Saudi Arabian Context Higher Education
  61. 61. INSTITUNSTION 2003 2010 GROWTH PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES 8 24 200% COLLEGES IN PUBLIC UNIV 199 445 124% PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES 1 8 700% PRIVATE COLLEGES 4 21 425% MEDICAL COLLEGES 7 22 214% DENTAL COLLEGES 3 17 467% PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES 3 17 467% HEALTH AND APPLIED MEDICAL SCIENCES 16 56 250% NURSING 0 13 100% ENGINEERING 7 33 371% SCIENCE 7 38 443% COMPUTER 3 23 666% UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS 3 12 300% COMMUNITY COLLEGES 20 45 164% TOTAL 281 744 165% *Unpublished National Higher Education Record Higher Education Profile* Saudi Arabia
  62. 62. Enrollment Growth 2003 – 2010 Unpublished National Higher Education Record
  63. 63. 0 100 200 300 400 500 PUBLIC PRIVATE 2003 2010 UNIVERSITIES COLLEGES Unpublished National Higher Education Record UNIVERSITY/COLLEGE GROWTH 2003 - 2010
  64. 64. PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE GROWTH Unpublished National Higher Education Record Professional College Growth 2003 – 2010
  65. 65. COMMUNITY COLLEGES Unpublished National Higher Education Record Community College Growth 2003 – 2010
  66. 66. National Commission for Academic Accreditation & Assessment (NCAAA)
  67. 67. • The Government of SA has recognized the need to provide a national mechanism to ensure that educational standards are – Equivalent to high international standards. – Consistent throughout the country. – Appropriate for academic, professional and vocational skill requirements, – Appropriate to the particular requirements of Saudi Arabian culture and economic development. Objectives
  68. 68. • Independent body responsible to the Council of HE • Responsible for supporting quality improvement, • Responsible for accreditation of all postsecondary education except military (public and private, HE and technical training) • Accreditation of both institutions and programs • Board of Directors drawn from government, institutions, and industry NCAAA
  69. 69. • Establish standards and processes for QA and accreditation • Planning, training and support for quality improvement • Accrediting institutions • Accrediting programs • Provisional accreditation of new institutions and programs • Linking and coordination with regional and international agencies MAIN FUNCTIONS
  70. 70. 1. Q relates to all functions of institutions 2. Emphasis on Q improvement, not just meeting minimum standards 3. Q assessments based on evidence and verified 4. Diversity encouraged 5. Stakeholder involvement 6. System designed for the KSA context 7. Responsibility for Q rests with institutions 8. Trust, support and cooperation are essential 9. Learning outcome standards consistent for all institutions 10. Improvement requires leadership and widespread involvement Principles Underlying the System for Accreditation and QA in the KSA
  71. 71. • Staged development over a five year period. • Our approach to QA is to draw on good international practice but insist on developing our own system to meet our own requirements. • Strong opposition to copying any particular international system. Development Strategy
  72. 72. • Inexperience in institutions and involvement of people from many systems has required detailed explanations and standardized requirements for processes and reports • Development has involved wide consultation (local and international) • Development has required extensive training, trials, and developmental reviews. Development Strategy
  73. 73. Stages of Development
  74. 74. Stage One Stage 1: Development of procedures, standards and materials. Stage 2: Transitioning to the new system Stage 3: Full Implementation: Three overlapping stages
  75. 75. Stage 1: Development of procedures, standards and materials.
  76. 76. Stage One •Key documents – National Qualifications Framework – Standards for Institutions (and Self Evaluation Scales) – Standards for Programs (and Self Evaluation Scales) – Handbook (three parts) Overview of the system, Internal Processes, External Processes – KPIs, Student Surveys, – Draft Standards (Distance Education, Technical Training) – Draft Learning outcomes and specialized standards for Teacher Education, Engineering, Business, Dentistry, Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine) Stage 1: Development of procedures, standards and materials.
  77. 77. Standards
  78. 78. Stage One In Saudi Arabia Eleven standards in five groups have been identified, relating to broad areas of activity in post secondary institutions. Quality Standards
  79. 79. Standards Institutions Programs • Mission and Objectives • Governance and Administration • Management of QA and Improvement • Learning and Teaching • Student Administration and Support Services • Learning Resources • Facilities and Equipment • Financial Planning and Management • Employment Processes • Research • Relationships With the Community • Mission and Objectives • Program Administration • Management of Program QA • Learning and Teaching • Student Administration and Support Services • Learning Resources • Facilities and Equipment • Financial Planning and Management • Employment Processes • Research • Relationships With the Community
  80. 80. Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards • These standards are described with several levels of detail. – General statements describing expectations for each of the eleven standards. – Sub standards that explain what is expected in each area-for example processes for governance and administration include a number of different components including effective leadership, delegation of responsibility, and learning and teaching has many expectations that need to be considered. – In addition there are many detailed practices that are normally followed in good quality institutions.
  81. 81. Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards (Cont.) Standard 1. Mission, Goals and Objectives General statements of the mission: The mission of the institution must clearly and appropriately defines its principal purposes and priorities and be influential in guiding planning and action within the institution. Sub standards that explain what is expected in each area Main components in this standard: 1.1 Appropriateness of the Mission 1.2 Usefulness of the Mission Statement 1.3 Development and Review of the Mission 1.4 Use Made of the Mission 1.5 Relationship Between Mission, Goals and Objectives
  82. 82. Levels of Detail in Statements of Standards (Cont.) Standard 1. Mission, Goals and Objectives Good practices that are normally followed in good Q institutions 1.3 Development and Review of the Mission The mission statement must be developed through consultative processes and formally adopted and periodically reviewed. To satisfy this requirement: 1.3.1 The mission should be defined in consultation with and with the support of major stakeholders in the institution and its community. 1.3.2 The mission should be formally approved by the governing body of the institution. 1.3.3 The mission should be periodically reviewed and reaffirmed or amended as appropriate in the light of changing circumstances. 1.3.4 Stakeholders should be kept informed about the mission and any changes in it.
  83. 83. Self-evaluation rating scales
  84. 84. Self Evaluation Scales • In an experienced QA system most of these practices are known and understood (and generally followed) In a new system with widely varying levels of understanding that cannot be assumed and the system must build in reminder and prompts. • To address this issue an alternative presentation of the standards are presented as self evaluation scales.
  85. 85. Stage One • Institutions (or groups within them) indicate whether these practices are followed, and if they are, how well they are done. • The templates then call for – an indication of priorities for improvement, – with space for comment by an independent person. Form of Presentation of Standards
  86. 86. For Example Is this true? Y/ No/ NA  Faculty are available at sufficient scheduled times for consultation and advice to students  Adequate tutorial assistance is provided to ensure understanding and ability to apply learning  Systems are in place within each program for monitoring and coordinating student workload.  The progress of individual students is monitored and assistance and/or counselling provided to those facing difficulties.  Year to year progression rates and program completion rates are monitored, and analysed to identify any categories of students who may be having difficulty.  Progression and completion rates are evaluated by reference to appropriate benchmarks and action taken when problems are identified. 4.2 Educational Assistance for Students Standard 4. Learning and Teaching How Well is it Done?
  87. 87. 104 For Example • Reference material to support individual and self directed study is available and accessible. • Adequate facilities are available for private study with access to computer terminals and other necessary equipment. Overall Assessment Comment____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Priorities for improvement________________________ _____________________________________________ Independent opinion Comment______________________________________ _____________________________________________
  88. 88. Stage One The scales are designed for five point ratings. Numbers 1 to 5 could be used, but a starring system is preferred—range of one to five stars. • Improvement Required (1-2 Stars) – One star--practice not followed, Q very poor – Two stars--practice sometimes followed, Q weak or not systematically assessed. Using the Rating Scales
  89. 89. Stage One Acceptable Performance (3 Stars) –Three stars--practice usually followed, quality acceptable but substantial room for improvement. Using Stars for Evaluations
  90. 90. Stage One High Quality Performance ( 4 and 5 Stars) • Four Stars The practice is followed consistently. Indicators of Q of performance are established and suggest high Q but with still some room for improvement. Plans for this improvement have been developed and are being implemented, and progress is regularly monitored and reported on. Using Stars for Evaluations
  91. 91. Stage One High Quality Performance (4 and 5 Stars) • Five Stars: The practice is followed consistently and at a very high standard, with Direct evidence or independent assessments indicating superior Q in relation to other comparable institutions. Despite clear evidence of high standards of performance plans for further improvement exist with realistic strategies and timelines established. Using Stars for Evaluations
  92. 92. Stage 2 Transition to the new system
  93. 93. Stage One • Training and preparation,  Training Programs (over 200 programs, more than 11,000 participants)  National symposiums and Conferences  Descriptive brochures  International visits • Pilot reviews (two institutions and 6 programs) • Developmental reviews Stage 2: Transition to the new system
  94. 94. Pilot reviews
  95. 95. Stage One The pilot project was planned to: • Try out the proposed processes and materials for self studies and external reviews in KSA institutions; • Provide experience with the use of the documents and processes; • Identify practical issues and problems faced in institutions, and ways of dealing with them; Objectives of Pilot Project
  96. 96. Stage One • Identify any additional explanatory materials that may be needed to assist with general implementation; • Help identify matters that need to be included in the planned training processes relating to internal QA processes and external reviews; • Trial the external review procedures and templates, and identify any additional briefing material that may be required for international reviewers. Objectives of Pilot Project
  97. 97. Developmental Reviews
  98. 98. Stage One • Provide experience with the procedures for accreditation of institutions and programs • Identify matters that will need to be addressed in preparation for actual accreditation assessments Developmental Reviews
  99. 99. Developmental Reviews 2010-2011 Institutional Reviews Program Reviews Public 4 34 Private 1 5 Total 5 39
  100. 100. Developmental Reviews 2011-2013 Institutional Reviews Program Reviews Public 8 51 Private 0 0 Total 8 51
  101. 101. Developmental Reviews Fields of Study 2010-2011 2011-2013 Health Professions 10 11 Arts/Sciences and Technology 15 17 Business Management 8 5 Liberal Arts/Language/Ed ucation 6 18 Total 39 51
  102. 102. Stage 3 Full Implementation
  103. 103. Implementation of Accreditation Processes ● Eligibility Review (Assessment of Eligibility Compliance) ● Institution/Program Self-Study ● Onsite Visit and Report (External Review Panel of international peer experts) ● Due Process ( Check for factual errors/observations) Stage 3
  104. 104. Stage 3 Implementation of Accreditation Processes ● Response to Recommendations ● Accreditation Review Committee (Consistency Check) ● Accreditation Decision ● Periodic Institutional/Program Reporting ● Re-accreditation on a seven year cycle, ●Periodic reviews of the system of QA and Accreditation
  105. 105. Accreditation Review Committee
  106. 106. The Charge to the Committee: “Provide advice and comments on whether the judgement of standards applied in making recommendation for accreditation are consistent with those of other comparable reviews” Accreditation Review Committee
  107. 107. Purpose of the Accreditation Review Committee • To provide a consultative forum on the reports of the external review panels referred to it by the SG. • To provide the SG confidential advice and comments on whether the judgment of standards applied in making recommendations for accreditation are consistent with those of other comparable reviews. Accreditation Review Committee
  108. 108. Purpose of the Accreditation Review Committee • To keep under review, consistency and continuity with previous Committee reports to the SG. • To consider and provide advice on other matters referred to the Committee by the SG. Accreditation Review Committee
  109. 109. 1. Mr. Peter Williams, Chair 2. Dr. Ian Allen 3. Dr. Steven Crow 4. Dr. David Wolf 5. Mr. Denis McGrath 6. Dr. Hamad M. H. Al-Sheikh 7. Professor M. A. Ghabban 8. Professor Talal A. Al Malki 9. Dr. Saeed M. Alamoudi December 5, 2011 Members Accreditation Review Committee
  110. 110. Accreditation Decision
  111. 111. Accreditation Decision The NCAAA considers the ● recommendations of the external review panel ● findings of the Accreditation Review Committee, and ● response of the institution to the recommendations and makes a decision on the accreditation status.
  112. 112. Recommendation on Accreditation ● Full Accreditation institution or program has successfully demonstrated, through internal and external evaluation that it is in full or substantial compliance with all NCAAA Standards for Accreditation and Quality Assurance ● Conditional Accreditation institution or program has successfully demonstrated that it substantially meets the eleven accreditation standards, but there are some weaknesses that the Review Panel believes are sufficiently serious to require correction before full accreditation is granted ● Denial of Accreditation. institution or program is not in compliance with the NCAAA Standards for Accreditation and Quality Assurance. If accreditation is denied, reconsideration would normally not be accepted for at least two years
  113. 113. Accreditation Reviews
  114. 114. Accreditation Reviews 2010-2011 Cycle Institutional Reviews Program Reviews Public 2 1 Private 5 22 Total 7 23
  115. 115. Accreditation Reviews 2010-2011 Cycle Health Professions 8 Arts/Sciences and Technology 5 Business Management 8 Liberal Arts/Language/Education 2 Total 23
  116. 116. Accreditation Reports Institutions Programs Public 2 1 Private 5 22 Total 7 23 Fields of Study Health Professions 8 Arts/Sciences and Technology 5 Business Management 8 Liberal Arts Language Education 2
  117. 117. “One of our major objectives is to support the institutions and programs in achieving recognition for having met or exceeded international standards – in all areas of their activities, but most importantly, in the quality of student learning outcomes.” Conclusion
  118. 118. Thank You !
  119. 119.  The role of external quality assurance in contributing to the sustainability of a higher education system Prof Dolina Dowling, Executive Director – QQA Theme 2: External Quality Assurance
  120. 120. The role of external quality assurance in contributing to the sustainability of a higher education system October 2013
  121. 121. IslamicNetwork Conference The scope  The higher education sector and the higher education system  Key role players in the higher education system  How the different aspects of a sustainable higher education system fit together  The role of external quality assurance in contributing to sustainability of higher education system using the lens of the QQA in Bahrain  Globalization, internationality and flexibility  Some implications for the Islamic network
  122. 122. IslamicNetwork Conference Distinction between Higher education sector  Refers to aggregate of higher education institutions  Not homogeneous: includes - public /private institutions - different institutional types - different financial arrangements-for profit/not for profit - transnational providers Higher education system Set of interconnecting components which form integrated whole Structure – direct relationship between entities Behaviour – processes that transform inputs into outputs Interconnectivity – structural behavioral relationships
  123. 123. IslamicNetwork Conference Typical higher education system Legislation /Decrees Regulatory bodies NQF EQA HEIs
  124. 124. IslamicNetwork Conference Higher education - a shared responsibility between: Higher education system: Bahrain Ministry of Education through the Higher Education Council (HEC) National Authority for Qualifications and Quality Assurance of Education & Training (QQA) through - Directorate of Higher Education Reviews (DHR) - General Directorate of Qualifications (GDQ) These entities influence and interact with the HEIs and each other in a number of ways
  125. 125. IslamicNetwork Conference Roles of each HEIs Develops and delivers programmes Assesses Certifies QQA/DHR Two types of quality reviews: Assessment of programmes Institutional reviews Review reports published QQA/GDQ 10 level framework provides for horizontal and vertical articulation across education levels Standards to evaluate qualifications Supports lifelong learning Glue for integrated education and training system HEC Private HEIs: Licenses Regulates Accredits
  126. 126. IslamicNetwork Conference What makes a sustainable higher education system?
  127. 127. IslamicNetwork Conference Quality Flexibility Knowledge and expertise Principles of fairness, equity and integrity Elements of a sustainable higher education system
  128. 128. IslamicNetwork Conference A sustainable higher education system: Socio-economic needs International context Aware of trends and is flexible enough to accommodate shifts whether they are to do with the needs of the: economy, society; institutions; teaching and learning Equity Fairness Integrity Underpinned by Quality
  129. 129. IslamicNetwork Conference How does an EQA contribute to a sustainable higher education system?
  130. 130. IslamicNetwork Conference External quality reviews Accountability Increased demand for higher education – massification -security of quality learning opportunities Governments and citizens want to know public funds and private income on higher education are well spent Employers and students need to be assured that graduates have skills and knowledge to participate successfully in global marketplace – confidence in academic standards of qualifications Developmental Self-evaluation and creating portfolio of evidence requires institutions to be self- reflective Strengths and areas for improvement are identified in review reports Capacity building activities
  131. 131. IslamicNetwork Conference External quality reviews: contribution to sustainability Provide decision makers with evidence-based judgments about the quality of the institutions themselves and/or programmes Support development of internal quality assurance processes in institutions Safeguard and enhance the reputation of a country’s higher education sector Provide review reports for use by institutions, the public and decision makers
  132. 132. IslamicNetwork Conference Workshops analysis & evidence Panel comprises international, regional and local Portfolio meetings & preparation Example of work of EQA – QQA Bahrain 2 types of reviews Institutional Reviews & Programmes-within- College Reviews Peer reviewers carry out the review Extensive expertise in higher education, subjects specialists Carry out review in accordance with the QQA’s framework
  133. 133. IslamicNetwork Conference Typical external quality review process Review Report Institution preparing self- evaluation report including supporting evidence (portfolio) for submission Panel: analysis of portfolio Preparing initial comments Panel pre-site visit meeting Site visit Report Writing Approval Publication Improvement planning submission, meetings and follow-up visits and reports
  134. 134. IslamicNetwork Conference How does this contribute to a sustainable higher education system? DHR outputs – Review Reports, Follow-up Reports Inputs for DGQ Institutional Listing Programme validation Inputs for HEC Licensing and accreditation decisions Inputs for government, employers and public Gives confidence in higher education and for decision making Inputs for HEIs Improvement and enhancement
  135. 135. IslamicNetwork Conference Globalization: Internationalization in higher education means Flexibility HEIs operate not only in national and regional contexts but in international context • Research needs to be of international quality • Graduates need to be able to compete on international labor market • Learning programmes need to take account of internationalization • Need international academic co-operation as part of intellectual discourse, professional development, program development • Ever increasing sophisticated communications technology • Growing trend in online programmes
  136. 136. IslamicNetwork Conference Flexibility for all components in system Institutions, regulatory bodies and EQAs need to be flexible so that they adjust to innovation and new trends in order to have a quality sustainable higher education system
  137. 137. IslamicNetwork Conference Implications for Islamic Network
  138. 138. IslamicNetwork Conference Bahrain experience shows importance of: Political leadership Key players working together Fair, transparent and equitable external quality assurance Legislative bodies having clear robust requirements Honest endeavor by institutions International and regional networks of peers
  139. 139. IslamicNetwork Conference Partnerships  Between EQAs in Islamic network - ongoing dialogue to develop and maintain mutual understanding and support attainment of quality provision in higher education institutions  Encourage partnerships between quality HEIs across the Islamic network to facilitate cross- fertilization of ideas and sharing of expertise
  140. 140. IslamicNetwork Conference Strength of Islamic network Can work together across national boundaries to stimulate the further development of Islamic countries through regional networks
  141. 141. IslamicNetwork Conference Thank you…
  142. 142.  Role of RARE in Quality Assurance Prof. Dr. Anwar Ul Haq, Associate Dean Riphah Academy of Research and Education, Riphah International University, Pakistan Theme 2: External Quality Assurance
  143. 143. Role of Riphah Academy of Research and Education in Quality Control
  144. 144. Riphah International Univesity Riphah Academy of Research and Education –Vision –Mission –Functions of Research Wing –Functions of Education Wing
  145. 145. The Riphah International University was granted Federal Charter by Government of Pakistan vide Ordinance No.LXXVI of October 2002.
  146. 146. Mission Statement • “Establishment of State-of-the-Art Educational Institution with a Focus on Inculcating Islamic Ethical Values”
  147. 147. Certification ISO 9001..2008 certified by Lloyd’s Register, UK
  148. 148. Quality Policy “We are committed to make Riphah International University, a centre of excellence for Quality Education in all Faculties through enabling environments, adaptive academic mechanisms and competent faculty, with emphasis on inculcation of Islamic Ethical Values and Continual Improvements.”
  149. 149. Programs 31 Under graduate 51 Masters 19 M.Phil and 11 Ph.D Faculty Strength is about 1500. Ph.D degree holders 50 MS or M.Phil 100 There are 4500 students registered in the University.
  150. 150. Islamic International Engineering College (IIEC), Islamabad, (1998) Faculty of Engineering & Applied Sciences (FAES) Offers the following undergraduate programs:  B.Sc. Electrical Engineering (Communication) (Accredited w.e.f 1998)  B.Sc. Electrical Engineering (Electronics) ( Final Visit Carried out)  B.S Biomedical Engineering (Interim Visit Carried out) Riphah International University
  151. 151. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (FHMS) • Islamic International Medical College (IIMC), Rawalpindi, (1996) • Islamic International Dental College (IIDC), Islamabad, (2001) • Riphah College of Rehabilitation Sciences (RCRS), Rawalpindi, (2007) • Riphah College of Rehabilitation Sciences (RCRS), Lahore, (2012) • Faculty of Veterinary Sciences (FVS) • Riphah College of Veterinary Sciences (RCVetS), Lahore, (founded in 2012) • International Projects • RAK College of Dental Sciences (RAKCODS), Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, (established in 2007) •
  152. 152. Teaching Hospitals • Hearts International Hospital, Rawalpindi, (Established since 1996) • IIMCT Pakistan Railways Hospital, Rawalpindi, (Administered since 1998) • Islamic International Medical Complex, Islamabad, (Administered since 1998 ) • Islamic International Dental Hospital, Islamabad, (Established since 2001) • Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disables (PSRD), Lahore, (Affiliated since 2012)
  153. 153. International Linkages • Islamic Hospital Amman, Jordan, 2004. • Federation of Islamic Medical Associations (FIMA), 2004 • University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, 2007 • Queen Mary, University of London, UK, 2007 • University of Illinois, USA, 2008 • International Medical University, Malaysia • Association of Pakistani Professionals, Kuwait • Asia e University, Malaysia, 2009 • Cyberjaya University School of Medicine, Malaysia, 2010 • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia, 2011 • International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013
  154. 154. National Linkages • Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) • HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi • National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, 2011 • Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disables (PSRD), Lahore, 2012 • Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad, 2012
  155. 155. VISION • The Riphah Academy of Research and Education (RARE) endeavors to, generate, promote, coordinate and sustain world-class research and educational initiatives in all areas of learning and knowledge in accordance with the principles and ethical values of Islam, in order to play leadership role in comprehensive development of the country, Ummah and the world. • Seeking excellence in advancing research culture and disseminating knowledge and development of best learning practices in order to produce enlightened and holistic human personality required to meet contemporary needs of the society.
  156. 156. MISSION • The RARE is dedicated to inculcate culture of conducting quality research, scientific investigation in various branches of knowledge and grooming of researchers, educationists and scientific investigation with internalization and integration of Islamic ethical values and norms in its research, graduate, undergraduate programmes. • It is also responsible for quality assurance in research, curriculum development, strategies for teaching & learning in line with the vision of the University. The RARE is also responsible to initiate, pursue and coordinate academic activities at national and international levels.
  157. 157. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES RESEARCH WING • Defining research policy, setting by-laws for research support rules and regulations, streamlining research implementation procedures, and specifying requirements for research evaluation, productivity and quality. • Promoting the culture of research through the process of grant support provided to faculty and graduate students • Encouraging, advancing and awarding Graduate Students Research
  158. 158. • Encouraging the faculties to pursue research in basic, clinical, applied and social sciences, with a focus on areas of national, social and priority concern, through relevant programmes, by-laws, regulations and procedures for grant support. • Building alliances and partnerships with external institutions and R&D organizations for collaborations and would seek to provide a congenial environment for the pursuit of high quality research and educational standards. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES RESEARCH WING
  159. 159. • Enhancing global visibility through dissemination of research information, generating publications, promoting awareness through organizing events like seminars, conferences, poster days, workshops, gatherings, media/publicity, and dedicated websites. • Facilitating research implementation through resource support in line with current regulations, and expediting research processing through online procedures. • Elevating research quality, optimizing faculty research performance, encouraging excellence in attaining technological competence and e-capability. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES RESEARCH WING
  160. 160. • Identifying areas in different faculties where needs for improved professional excellence exist • Assisting in identifying motivated faculty members who think differently and are interested to develop and execute faculty development programmes in their respective faculties • Assisting in developing high quality human resource that could assume leadership role in their respective fields FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION WING
  161. 161. • Helping to meet quality assurance parameters in research, education and scholarship leading to enhance university stature • Promoting to teaching and learning in a challenging and creative environment • Training faculty to write grant proposal for raising funds from extramural sources • Seeking to develop alliances and partnerships at national and international level in identified fields for educational planning, curriculum development, learning and teaching strategies and assessment methods FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION WING
  162. 162. • Follow up of existing MoUs, if mutually agreeable, and identify new and potential understandings. • Recommending grants for educational events e.g. conferences, workshops and courses etc. • Remuneration for educational achievements FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION WING
  163. 163. Teacher Evaluation by QEC as per PEC / HEC guide line in every semester A: Strongly Agree B: Agree C: Uncertain D: Disagree E: Strongly Disagree
  164. 164. Course Evaluation Proforma being devised by QEC as per guide lines of PEC / HEC A: Strongly Agree B: Agree C: Uncertain D: Disagree E: Strongly Disagree
  165. 165. 1. Eligibility Criteria for appointments of faculty members 2. Rules for admission and examination of M.Phil./MS and Ph.D. 3. Plagiarism Policy 4. Quality Enhancement Cell 5. Teacher Evaluation 6. Faculty development programs 7. Support in Research/Travel grants applications 8. Support for research papers/Journal publications 9. Support for national / International conferences
  166. 166. Prayer & Lunch Break
  167. 167.  Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Dr Hassmik Tortian, Programme Specialist, UNESCO Theme 3: Trends & issues in Cross Border Higher Education
  168. 168. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Ms Hassmik Tortian, PhD, Programme Specialist Division for Teacher Development and Higher Education
  169. 169. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education • UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education • Defining Quality • The Process of Quality Assurance • The Cross-Border Higher Education • Managing Mobility • Evaluating Qualifications • The Growing Emphasis on Outcomes • Players • Capacity Building • Conclusion
  170. 170. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education  1998 World Conference on Higher Education  2009 World Conference on higher education  Higher education landscape  Broader social role  Regional and national economic growth  New Terms such as ‘transparency’, ‘performance indicators’ , and ‘outcome measures’
  171. 171. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education • UNESCO and Quality Assurance in Higher Education (Cont’d) Growth – Global enrollment in 2000 was 97 million ; it is estimated to reach 263 million students in 2025 (UIS, 2012)  Massification: Global enrollment in higher education is 167 million students worldwide (UIS, 2012). - China currently enrolls 27 million, - USA 18 million, - India 15 million  Diversity
  172. 172. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education • Defining Quality • At the 1998 UNESCO World Conference it was already clear that the range of activities to be evaluated was expansive: ‘Quality in higher education is a multidimensional concept, which should embrace all its functions, and activities-; teaching and academic programmes, research and scholarship, staffing, students, buildings, facilities, equipment, services to the community, and academic environment’
  173. 173. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Defining Quality (Cont’d) A decade later the definition provided in a UNESCO-CEPES report reflects the increasing complexity of the higher education environment: ‘Quality in higher education is a multi-dimensional, multi-level, and dynamic concept that relates to the contextual settings of an educational model, to the institutional mission and objectives, as well as to the specific standards within a given system, institution, programme, or discipline.’ (UNESCO-CEPES, 2007)
  174. 174. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education • Defining Quality (Cont’d) • Quality assurance (QA) in higher education is a systematic process of assessing and verifying inputs, outputs, and outcomes against standardised benchmarks of quality to maintain and enhance quality, ensure greater accountability and facilitate harmonisation of standards across academic programmes, institutions, and systems. QA can take many forms, ranging from simple self-assessment to more comprehensive inspection, accreditation, review, or audits supported by external, independent peer review. Building capacity for quality assurance that meets international standards requires a significant investment in technical assistance, training, knowledge sharing, analysis, and coordination, which are costly and time-consuming. (UNESCO, 2013)
  175. 175. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education The Process of Quality Assurance  Self Study or self-review of the institution  Self Study or self-review of program(s)  Evaluation or inspection of the effectiveness of the internal quality systems  Evaluation against own self-defined mission  quality as fitness for purpose  quality as enhancement or improvement
  176. 176. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Cross-Border Higher Education • Many new cross-border models for higher education were being created. These new models could be:  Foreign providers  Private non- profit and for-profit universities  Online delivery • The explosive growth of both traditional institutions as well as new providers in higher education raises new questions in regard to standards of quality in this ever more diverse environment. • National programs to evaluate quality will be essential to international conventions: but they vary in focus and method.
  177. 177. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Managing Mobility  The comparability of educational qualifications has become a key issue in international discussions.  The Lisbon Recognition Convention in 1997 emphasized that it is a student's right to receive fair recognition of his or her educational qualifications within the European region.  Since the late 1970s, UNESCO regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East have facilitated the elaboration of conventions that commit signatories to common policy and practice, easing the mobility of individuals within each region.  Tokyo Convention revised in 2009  Arusha is being revised (process on-going)  An International convention is under draft.
  178. 178. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Evaluating Qualifications  How educational qualifications are evaluated is a newer dimension of the quality assurance conversation.  Historically, the emphasis has been on the content covered in the course of the degree program.  New criteria include: a) relevance to the labor market, and, b) competencies developed in the course of study.  In Europe, the Educational Qualifications Framework aims to define qualifications in terms of the depth of knowledge, skills, and competencies they represent.  The "Tuning Project" in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Middle East attempts to further define these competencies within specific fields of study.
  179. 179. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education The Growing Emphasis on Outcomes • Growing emphasis on the "outcomes" of higher education.  Physical and organizational characteristics  Education-related behaviors and practices  Psychosocial and cultural attributes  Behavioral and attitudinal outcomes
  180. 180. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education The Role of the Players  ENQA – EQAR  CHEA  APQN  RIACES  ANQAHE  INQAAHE
  181. 181. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Capacity Building  There is greater recognition of the value of this process in meeting the challenges that globalization has presented to higher education  It means well-planned and well-executed self-studies, audits, and peer evaluations.  As this process is new in so many countries, few people possess the knowledge, skill, or experience to implement it. The shortage of human resources prepared to undertake and manage complex activities, like self studies and peer reviews, has become a serious challenge to building successful quality assurance programs worldwide.
  182. 182. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Capacity Building (Cont’d)  UNESCO and The Global initiative in Quality Assurance and Capacity (GIQAC Phase I) funded by the World Bank and executed by UNESCO (2008-2012)  The principal objective of GIQAC I was “to improve and expand worldwide capacity for quality assurance (QA) in higher education in developing and transition countries.  By 2012, GIQAC made an impact at national level in:  43 countries in Africa  11 countries in the Arab states  27 countries in Asia and the Pacific  33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean  31 countries in Europe and North America
  183. 183. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education • Capacity Building (Cont’d)  GIQAC Phase II Financed by the Republic of Korea and executed by UNESCO (2012-2013)  support a global environment for cross-regional learning in quality assurance.  establishing new Country Core Groups (10, or more territories);  reinforcing existing Country Core Groups of the Caribbean Area Network for Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education (CANQATE);  Developing a GIQAC webinar (an online seminar) on ‘Internationalisation and Quality Assurance: Capitalizing on Global Trends’
  184. 184. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Conclusion  Quality assurance will continue to be a high priority for higher education.  During the last decade quality-assurance schemes for higher education have been implemented almost everywhere.  Regional conferences and summits have taken place throughout the world to address this challenge. The Bologna process is guiding Europe toward shared benchmarks and standards that will make it possible to compare qualifications awarded in all participating countries.
  185. 185. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Conclusion • Quality remains difficult to define and subsequently problematic to measure. Furthermore, quality will have different meanings in different environments. • Higher education has to prepare graduates with new skills, a broad knowledge base, and a range of competencies to enter a more complex and interdependent world. • Agencies throughout the world are struggling to define these goals in terms that can be understood and shared across borders and cultures. • Since the 1980s there has been extensive and ongoing discussion within nations, within regions, and across the globe, to find new ways of assuring the many stakeholders involved that quality is being evaluated and monitored. What has resulted at the very least is an explosion of new agencies and a sufficient number of new acronyms to boggle the mind-ANQAHE, INQAAHE, GIQAC, ENQA, EQAR, QAA, CHEA, among others. • • Schemes for quality assurance are now accepted as a fundamental part of providing higher education, but national, regional, and international efforts need to be integrated • The need for international cooperation is clear, but the dialogue is really only just beginning.
  186. 186. Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Thank you
  187. 187.  Building congruence between the internal and the external QA systems Prof. Mohamed Miliani, President of the National Evaluation Committee, Algeria
  188. 188. Building congruence between IQA and EQA: The Algerian experience Prof. Mohamed MILIANI President of the National Evaluation Committee Member of the National Committee for the Implementation of Quality Assurance in HE 2013 Islamic SRTM Oct. 28-29, 2013. kingdom of Bahrain
  189. 189. PROBLEMATICS of the Ministry’s ROADMAP : BUILDING COHERENCE translated in the Strategic Plan VISION/ORIENTATIONS/ GUIDING PRINCIPLES: 2001 policy of modernisation of the sector; 2002-2003 Task force for the Reform of HE; 2012-2013: sector policy support programme; 2010-2014: 5-year programme of the Sector POLICY OF EVALUATION : * mid-term reviews; CNH; audits 2010; CRE; CPND CNEVAL * evaluation of existing processes (programmes, steering committees, sub-systems; strategies and methodologies) * evaluation of programmes, learning and competences * evaluation of establishments
  190. 190. First step (from 2010) (ad hoc Committee for the implementation of QA: CIAQES) The ROADMAP: - Elaborate and monitor a programme of implementation of a system of QA in HE. - Establish a national frame of reference of norms and criteria in accordance with international standards (CONGRUENCE) - Apply a programme of information towards the target groups (done) and organize a training plan for the QA coordinators (finished). - Organise operations of self-assessment of a pilot group of universities (will start soon). - Ensure a strategic monitoring (measures and responsibilities) in the sector of QA. - Help gather the elements for the definition of a NATIONAL POLICY and a MODEL of QA and prepare the conditions for the setting up of an AGENCY in charge of the implementation of this policy. (CONGRUENCE)
  191. 191. RELATION BETWEEN IQA & EQA Paving the way for EQA 1st step: 2nd step: UNIVERSITY’S PERFORMANCE UNIVERSITY’S INTERNAL ASSESSMENT IQA EQA ANNUAL REPORT ON-SITE VISITS REPORT ON RESULTS OF ASSESSMENT FOLLOW -UP FEEDBACK FEEDBACK
  192. 192. The QUALITY SYSTEM (building congruence) MEASURES/OUTCOMES/ACTIVITIES RESOURCES/RESPONSIBILITIES SET SCHEDULE the LMD training package - Task Force on the Reform of HE 2002-2003 - National Conference of Universities - National Accreditation Committee (CNH), 2005 - National Committee for the follow-up of the Reform, 2007 - National Pedagogical Committees (CPND) 2011 2002-2004 the National Qualifications Framework National Accreditation Committee (CNH ) forthcoming the Quality Assurance System ad hoc Committee for the Implementation of Quality Assurance in H.E (CIAQES) Started in 2008 the Quality Assurance Frame of Reference (AQI-UMED) ad hoc Committee for the Implementation of Quality Assurance in H.E (CIAQES) Started in 2010 forthcoming the National Quality Standards National Pedagogical Committee of Field of Training (CPND) forthcoming the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) ICMHESR (Saudi Arabia, 2011) National Evaluation Committee (CNEVAL) published Oct. 2011 adaptation forthcoming
  193. 193. In order to achieve coherence between the different factors of HE change, necessity to build congruence between the elements of the QA system: the following instrument should be matched to respond to the ecological validity of the system: AQI-UMED project: IQA in universities of the Mediterranean aims at development and the Reform of the Maghrebi HE systems and universities, in particular Improve quality and cogency between these countries: i.e. harmonisation with external systems of HE, but priority given to internal assessment, and improvement of governance, KPI: more harmonisation between universities of the Islamic World
  194. 194. PERSPECTIVES STRATEGY 2030 OF THE SECTOR Stated in terms of mid and long-term objectives and realisations: On the one hand: A frame of references (of training, occupational and institutional), adequate self-evaluation methodologies, a national qualifications framework, on the other hand: Improvement of the mode of governance of establishments; satisfaction to the exigencies of Quality, preparation of students to the challenges of professional world, reduction of university formation and professional projections gaps, increase of legibility of national degrees. However, this must be reinforced with more coherence, more congruence between the parts of the system, operability, reliability, systemic vision, a monitoring system for a more harmonious system of HE with its direct and external worlds,
  195. 195.  Cross Border Higher Education-Best Practices followed in SAARC Countries Ms. Sheema Haider, Director, Quality Enhancement Cell, Indus University, Pakistan Theme 3: Trends & issues in Cross Border Higher Education
  196. 196. CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION. BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES Presented by: Sheema Haider Director Quality Enhancement Cell Indus University
  197. 197. CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION  “Higher education that takes place in situations where the teacher, student, program, institution/provider or course materials cross national jurisdictional borders. Cross-border education may include higher education by public/private and not-for-profit/ for profit providers. It encompasses a wide range of modalities in a continuum from face- to-face (taking various forms from students travelling abroad and campuses abroad) to distance learning (using a range of technologies and including e-learning).” (UNESCO/OECD (2005). Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-border Education. Paris. See) 217
  198. 198. 218
  199. 199. CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION Cross-border education is a subset of “internationalization of higher education” and can be an element in the development cooperation projects, academic exchange programs and commercial initiatives. (Knight , (2006) A guide to the implication of GATS for Cross border Education) 219
  200. 200. SIGNIFICANCE OF CROSS BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION Impact of Globalization Globalization affects each country differently. It can have both positive and negative consequences, according to a nation’s individual history, traditions, culture, priorities and resources. Education is one of the sectors impacted by globalization Internationalization of higher Education It is a widely accepted maxim that 1. Like business generally, higher education is globalizing 2. In many countries, higher education is now an important export sector, with university campuses attracting international students from around the world. 3. Licensing production, in the form of franchising degree provision to international partners, is beginning to mutate into foreign direct investment and contributing in economic growth. 220
  201. 201. The SAARC member countries shares similarities in terms of : 1. Geographic and climatic conditions 2. Socio-economic aspects 3. Norma, Moral Values and Cultural aspects 4. Educational Advancement ……etc Concerns raised in the 9th summit (Male,1997) “Illiteracy is one of the measure factor contributing to the regions economic instability and social imbalance” (http://www.saarc-sec.org) The SAARC member countries corporate in number of areas : 221 Biotechnology Culture Economic and Trade Agriculture & Rural development Education Energy Environment Security Aspects Finance Funding Mechanism Information,Communication and Media Social Development People to People contact Poverty eradication Science and technology Tourisms INTRODUCTION
  202. 202. INITIATIVES TAKEN BY SAARC  Establishment of South Asian Universities (SAU) India proposed to create a center of excellence at the 13th SAARC summit (Dhaka, Nov 5th ,2005) First Academic Session was commenced on 22 August 2010 with an intake of 50 students out of which 50 STUDENTS 222 25 students in MA Development Economics 25 students in MAC Master in Computer Application
  203. 203. INITIATIVES TAKEN BY SAARC  Indian Council for Cultural Relations ( ICCR) Scholarships Under the SAARC chair fellowship scheme two scholarship are offered to each SAARC member countries.  Open and Distance Learning SAARC Consortium Open and Distance Learning SACODIL has been established “To strengthen cooperation in the joint development of educational programmers, credit transfer, and promotion of equal opportunities and access to knowledge.” 223
  204. 204. SCENARIO OF EDUCATION IN SAARC COUNTRIES
  205. 205. AFGHANISTAN Total Population 29.82 Million (2012) GDP (2012) $ 18.03 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 1993 25.7  Net enrolment in secondary education , 2007 24.1  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2009 3.3  Adult Literacy rate (2000) 28.1  Male (2000) 43.1  Female (2000) 12.6 225 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  206. 206. BANGLADESH Total Population 154.7 Million (2012) GDP (2012) $154.7 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 1990, 72.7  Net enrolment in secondary education , 2010, 47.4  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2009 , 10.6  Adult Literacy rate , 2010 56.8  Male (2010) 61.3  Female (2010) 52.2 226 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  207. 207. BHUTAN Total Population 7.4 lacs (2012) GDP (2012) $1.780 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2011 , 88.3  Net enrolment in secondary education , 2011, 53.8  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2011, 8.8  Adult literacy rate (2005) 52.8  Male (2005) 65.0  Female (2005) 38.7 227 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  208. 208. INDIA Total Population 1.237 Billion (2012) GDP (2012) $1.842 Trillion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2008, 92.1  Net enrolment in secondary education  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2010 , 17.9  Adult literacy rate (2006) 62.8  Male (2006) 75.2  Female (2006) 50.8 228 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  209. 209. Total Population 3.38 lacs (2012) GDP (2012) $2.22 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2011 , 96.2  Net enrolment in secondary education ,2002, 48.9  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2008, 12.6  Adult literacy rate (2006), 98.6  Male (2006) , 98.6  Female (2006) , 98.6 229 MALDIVES STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  210. 210. Total Population 3.38 lacs (2012) GDP (2012) $2.22 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2000 , 71.1  Net enrolment in secondary education ,  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2004, 5.6  Adult literacy rate (2010), 60.3  Male (2010) , 73.0  Female (2010) , 48.3 230 NEPAL STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  211. 211. Total Population 179.2 Million (2012) GDP (2012) $231.2 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2010 , 74.1  Net enrolment in secondary education ,2010, 33.8  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2008, 5.4  Adult literacy rate (2009), 54.9  Male (2009) , 68.6  Female (20090) , 40.3 231 PAKISTAN STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  212. 212. SRILANKA Total Population 20.33 Million (2012) GDP (2012) $ 59.42 Billion  Net enrolment in Primary education , 2010 , 94.0  Net enrolment in secondary education ,  Gross enrolment in tertiary education, 2010, 15.5  Adult literacy rate (2010), 91.2  Male (2010) , 92.6  Female (2010) , 90.0 232 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2012) UNESCAP
  213. 213. BEST PRACTICES BY SAARC COUNTRIES 233 Working method or set of working methods that is officially accepted as being the best to use in a particular business or industry. (Cambridge Dictionaries)
  214. 214. BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES  BRANCH CAMPUSES / FRANCHISING Example 1. Karachi School of Business & Leadership ( Strategic collaboration with University of Cambridge Business Judge School) 2. Shaeed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST) ( Dubai International Academic City) 3. Modi-ATI Academic Institute (MAII) ( Strategic alliance with Stratford University) 4. Mahtma Gandhi University ( Dubai)  DISTANCE LEARNING Example Virtual University Khan Academy 234
  215. 215. BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES OVERSEAS SCHOLARSHIP Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) Govt. of Pakistan offers excellent opportunities for SAARC students. Scholarship is offered by University o f Punjab in following disciplines 1. Master in Communication Studies 2. Masters in International Relation 3. M.Phil in South Asian Studies 235
  216. 216. BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES  ACADEMIC EXCHANGE PROGRAM Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and Study Program (Provides scholarship to Pakistan high school students in USA for one study session) 27 MOU’s Sign by Indus University with International Universities in Vice Chancellor’s Forum on Sareena Hotel, Islamabad on 23-24 September 2013  INDUSTRIAL LINKAGE PROGRAM Technology Incubation Centre (TIC) is an initiative of NUST to incubate technology based start up companies. International Cooperation Centre for Engineering Educational Development(ICCEED) ( Established by Japan in Srilanka) 236
  217. 217. QUALITY ASSURANCE AGENCY , HEC PAKISTAN Established in 2005 as a policy making and monitoring body for maintenance and enhancement of QUALITY in higher education  Policy making and development of practical guidelines of quality assurance related to the higher degree programs  Developing guidelines for establishment of Quality Enhancement Cells and Monitoring & Evaluation of these QEC’s.  Capacity building to enhance the standard of quality assurance in higher education at national level.  Professionals from QAA will serve as master trainer to build capacity of professionals in QECs after receiving their trainings in foreign countries.  QAA will also be a monitory and regulatory body to focus on quality and implementation of all desired237 BEST PRACTICES FOLLOWED IN SAARC COUNTRIES
  218. 218. QUALITY ASSURANCE AGENCY , HEC PAKISTAN 238
  219. 219. CONCRETE MEASURES TAKEN BY SAARC MEMBERS COUNTRIES From all the above discussion , it has been concluded that following practices being done by SAARC countries: 1. Learner mobility, credit transfer/ recognition of mutual degrees 2. ICT compatibility and connectivity 3. Development of database 4. Promoting ODL in the region 5. Academic programmes for accreditation and recognition by Member Institutions/States 6. Sustainable development capacity building, innovation in teacher education to achieve MDGs(Millennium Development Goals) 239
  220. 220. 240
  221. 221.  Cross Border Higher Education: Challenges in GCC Dr. Tariq Al Sindi, General Director – QQA Theme 3: Trends & issues in Cross Border Higher Education
  222. 222. Manama – Kingdom of Bahrain www.qaa.edu.bh Trends and Issues in Cross Border Higher Education: Challenges for GCC QA Islamic Meeting & Seminar
  223. 223. Definition of CBHE It may include HE by: CBHE has been defined as the movement of people, programs, providers, curricula, projects, research and services in higher education across national jurisdictional borders (OECD and The World Bank 2007) Public/Private Profit/non-Profit distance learning (range of technologies and including e- learning). From face-to face (students traveling abroad and campuses abroad) to It encompasses a wide range of modalities:
  224. 224. Category Forms and Conditions of Mobility Development Cooperation Educational Linkages Commercial Trade PEOPLE Students Professors/scholars Researches/ Experts/consultants Semester/year aboard Full degrees Field/research work Internships Sabbaticals Consulting PROGRAMS Course, program sub-degree, degree, post-graduate Twinning Franchised Articulated/validated Joint/double award Online/distance PROVIDERS Institutions Organizations Companies Branch campus Virtual university Merger/ acquisition Independent institutions PROJECTS Academic projects Services Research Curriculum Capacity-building Educational services “MOBILITYSHIFT” Framework For CBHE
  225. 225. Branch Campuses: the key TNE activity Require large investment in human & physical resources. They provide fast upgrading of educational quality in the country.
  226. 226. Branch Campuses Increasing number of BCs in the Gulf region Asia and the Gulf region have been identified as particular BC campus hot spots UAE is the country with the largest number of BCs in the world 40 200 BC across the world as December 2011
  227. 227. Benefits Improves inter-cultural understanding Improves local education standards Increases local provision - meets unmet local demand Increases market opportunities + student numbers/income for institutions with demographic problems Reduce the infrastructure cost to the state Trade benefits (huge commercial potential) mobility of students - increase access to higher education Globalization of labor market
  228. 228. Tension Risks to reputations (profit driven) Difficult recognition choices Problems over responsibilities Market challenges Challenges to QA processes (internal/external) Consumer protection issues – Degree Mills Commercialisation of HEI Inequitable provision compared to parent institution
  229. 229. • Population (>5% annually) • Infrastructure • Use of Technology Strategies For HE Development in Gulf Countries Fastgrowth Need for Higher Education
  230. 230.  Develop & support national institutions  Branch Campuses of Foreign Universities  Partnership with Foreign Universities Franchised programs Joint degree programs Less formal partnership Strategies For Enhancement of Educational Quality
  231. 231. Which Route To Be Adopted? Kingdom of Saudi Arabia o No international branch campuses o No face-to-face transnational education o Mainly to support national universities, and also to encourage cooperation with foreign universities
  232. 232. Which Route To Be Adopted? Sultanate of Oman o Both, Branch campuses & franchised programs are allowed o Private HEI has to be affiliated with a foreign university o Provides incentive for private HE o 1 BC
  233. 233. Which Route To Be Adopted? Kingdom of Bahrain o Few transnational higher education providers o Mainly to support national & private HEIs. o Branch campuses and franchised programs are also allowed
  234. 234. Which Route To Be Adopted? Qatar o Support branch campuses of top ranked foreign HEIs. o Has 8 branch campuses of foreign universities o Qatar Foundation has a goal to bring top 10 world class HEIs
  235. 235. Which Route To Be Adopted? Kuwait o Few transnational higher education providers o Encourage cooperation with foreign universities o 2 BCs & 5 twinning/affiliations
  236. 236. Which Route To Be Adopted? United Arab Emirates o All HE models exist: o National Universities o Branch campuses o Franchised programs o Joint-degree programs o Hosting quarter of branch campuses worldwide o UAE is the country with the largest number of BCs in the world
  237. 237. Factors in decision making: Which Route (Strategy) To Be Adopted? Decisions Country’s own strategy, if available Political , particularly in the absence of clear strategy Economic / financial
  238. 238. The Role of Quality Assurance The quality of CBHE is a shared responsibility between importing and exporting countries • QA should cover cross-border education in all its forms • Stakeholders should collaborate internationally to enhance the transparency about the quality of HE and about HE systems • CBHE delivery should have the same quality as home delivery
  239. 239. Recognition of QA and TNE With TNE IQA & EQA processes and procedures must be:  no different than for traditional home-delivered education  consistent with national and international guidelines With (JDs) ensure there is an appropriate ‘MoU’ established with clear responsibilities In the case of the recognition of TNE for admission or exemption procedures should be as rigorous. NQF will provide more transparency for the purposes of recognition and QA
  240. 240. BUT.. Can you claim on QA warranty? • Institutions use EQA or external accreditation as a reason for students to trust them and their qualifications. • Do accreditation and QA really do this job? • How well does accreditation perform in CBHE? • Does it really guarantee quality, in the way it’s often portrayed as doing? • If it does, can a student claim against the guarantee? From anywhere in the world? • If it doesn’t, what value does it have?
  241. 241. Few Implications… HEIs have to make numerous recognition judgements The NQF will simplify the recognition process It is possible that global standards will gradually evolve for QF, QA and various generic qualifications. The role of learning outcomes in recognition matters will begin to dominate recognition and QA, but only when they are in widespread use + well written and fully quality assured. Institutions need to undertake staff development in the writing, interpreting and analysis of LOs to develop new QA systems and new qualifications frameworks
  242. 242. External Control International regulation through QA & accreditation International QA networks (eg INQAAHE, ENQA, ANQAHE) International academic information and recognition networks (e.g. ENIC/NARIC Network) International qualifications frameworks (e.g. EQF) Common internationally agreed definitions or descriptors of basic terms (e.g. ‘credit’, ‘bachelor’, ‘master’, ‘doctor’) Common lexicon for international HE International code of practice for transnational consortia
  243. 243. The Need For Guidelines or Standards • support and encourage international cooperation and understanding of the importance of quality provision in CBHE • protect students and other stakeholders from low-quality provision and disreputable providers • encourage the development of quality cross- border higher education that meets human, social, economic and cultural needs
  244. 244. The Way Forward Quality assurance • have a IQA & EQA system • have fair mechanisms for recognition of qualifications • have regulatory framework at the regional levels for QA mechanism Transparency and accessibility of information • be transparent about what you do and make the relevant information accessible internationally • Enable national authorities to collaborate in devising regulation for transnational education Collaboration • Strengthen your collaboration with other stakeholders in your country, regionally and internationally • Establish cross-border agreements among countries to discourage degree mills
  245. 245. Lesson Learned: Challenges • There is a need for regional regulatory frameworks to control transnational institutions • CBHE needs to be accessible, available, affordable, relevant and of acceptable quality • Strengthen student mobility through administrative procedures  lack of solid data on the volume and type of cross-border programme and provider mobility  Ensure the quality of academics and to achieve the recognition/legitimacy of what qualifications are awarded.
  246. 246. Thank You

×