INTRODUCTION• Social network sites (SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic and industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.• Since their introduction, social network sites (SNSs) such as MySpace, Facebook, Cyworld, and Bebo have attracted millions of users, many of whom have integrated these sites into their daily practices.• We define social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to: 1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system 2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection 3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.
HISTORY• Six Degree.com, Launched in 1997• AsianAvenue, BlackPlanet and LunarStorm released in 1999.• MiGente, Launched in 2000• Cyworld and Ryze, Launched in 2001• Friendster , Fotolog and Skyblog were released in 2002.• 2003-2006 are the years in which Most of the famous and well known SNSs launched.
STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING• General Guidelines• Attracting New Members• Structure of the community• Encouraging User Participation• Guidance for a new member
GENERAL GUIDELINES OF COMMUNITY DESIGN• Communities are not created; they evolve. The growth of an online community takes time and effort. Relationships must be initiated based on trust, and then carefully cultivated.• To build a vibrant online community, organizations need more than an individual’s donation or membership application — they need ongoing interaction opportunities that will keep a constituent engaged and developing into a lifelong supporter.• General guidelines are listed below: Communicate the purpose of the community and provide guidance for new members Provide valuable content and encourage members to contribute their own Help members to establish trustful relationships and strong emotional ties Provide possibilities of growth, self-identification and individual recognition to members Stimulate interaction between members; cultivate cyclic rhythms for events and communications
ATTRACTING NEW MEMBERS• In order to facilitate the potential users decision to enter a community, i.e. to register, the community web-site should clearly show its benefits to a visitor. Practically all online network sites have it on their start pages.One of the great examples is LinkedIn:• Not less important is to clearly show that membership is free. Usually it is shown beside the Join button:
STRUCTURE OF THE COMMUNITY Member profiles Member connections Adding connections Member reputation
ENCOURAGING USER PARTICIPATION• Content is extremely important for an online community• A user’s contribution to community is categorized as a so called public good, which has the following consequences: Social psychologists found, that people exert less effort on a collective task than they do on a comparable individual task.
STIMULATING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS• Social interaction between members is what makes a community “a community.”• There are a lot of things that can be common for people. Here is the overview and each thing will be discussed in details:
DIVISION ON THE BASIS OF FEATURES:• By common: Interests• By common: current life transitions• By shared: experience• By shared: education• By showing: the distance• By service: Photo Albums• By service: Profile watching• By service: Reconnect• By service: Groups by interests
• By service: content rating Ranking systems Rating systems• By service: Invitations to offline-meetings• By service: Blogs• By service: Polls• By service: Member bookmarking
FEATURES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING• TYPICAL FEATURES• ADDITIONAL FEATURES• EMERGING TRENDS• SOCIAL NETWORKS AND SCIENCE• SOCIAL NETWORKS AND EDUCATION• SOCIAL NETWORKS AND GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING• SOCIAL NETWORKS AND EMPLOYMENT• SOCIAL NETWORK HOSTING SERVICE• BUSINESS MODEL• SOCIAL INTERACTION
NEW TRENDS IN SOCIAL NETWORKING• PRIVACY• DATA MINING• NOTIFICATIONS ON WEBSITES• ACCESS TO INFORMATION• POTENTIAL FOR MISUSE• RISK FOR CHILD SAFETY• TROLLING• ONLINE BULLYING• INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SOCIALNETWORKING• PATENTSThe patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking siteFacebook.Number of US social network patent applications published per year and patents issued peryear .
WORKERS RIGHTSWhat types of speech workers are protected from being fired for on social networkingwebsites has been an issue for American companies with over 100 complaints as of 2011 onthis topic having been made to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). The NationalLabor Relations Act protects workers from being fired for "protected concerted activity," whichprevents workers from being fired for collective action, while allowing companies the right tofire workers for individual actions they take against the company. Companies are concernedwith the potential damage comments online can do to public image due to their visibility andaccessibility, but despite over 100 cases being presented thus far to NLRB only 1 has led to aformal ruling, leaving uncertainty as to the boundaries of what types of speech the NLRB willultimately put in place.
APPLICATION DOMAINS• GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS• BUSINESS APPLICATIONS• DATING APPLICATIONS• EDUCATIONAL APPLICATIONS• FINANCE APPLICATIONS• MEDICAL AND HEALTH APPLICATIONS• SOCIAL AND POLITICAL APPLICATIONS• OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
MARKET SHARE : According to ComScore, up to end of November 2011:Worldwide Unique Visitors PercentageFacebook.com 792,999,000 55.1 %Twitter.com 167,903,000 11.7 %LinkedIn.com 94,823,000 6.6 %Google Plus 66,756,000 4.6 %MySpace 61,037,000 4.2 %Others 255,539,000 17.8 %Total 1,438,877,000 100 %
WORLD USAGE :• According to ComScore, as of December 2011, Israel leads the world in the time spent in social networks online, followed closely by Argentina.IN THE MEDIA :• In December 2010, Time Magazine named Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg as person of the year.• Released in 2010, The Social Network is a film dramatizing the origin of Facebook.
SOCIAL IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKING• Web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders. Through e - mail and instant messaging, online communities are created where a gift economy and reciprocal altruism are encouraged through cooperation.• Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the object of scholarly research.• Several websites are beginning to tap into the power of the social networking model for philanthropy.• In 2011, HCL Technologies conducted research that showed that 50% of British employers had banned the use of social networking sites/services during office hours.
TOP 15 SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES OF NOW ADAYS• Facebook• Twitter• LinkedIn• MySpace• Google Plus+• DeviantArt• LiveJournal• Tagged• Orkut• Ning• Meetup• myLife• myYearbook• Badoo
REFERENCES OF THE REPORT• Wikipedia• Book "Design for Community" / 2001• Caleb John Clark "Let Your Online Learning Community Grow"• Amy Jo Kim: Common Purpose, Uncommon Woman• A Conversation with Online Community Architect Amy Jo Kim• How Oversight Improves MemberMaintained Communities / 2005• Friendster and Publicly Articulated Social Networking / 2004• Using Social Psychology to Motivate Contributions to Online Communities / 2004• Ethnographic Survey Of LiveJournal
• Studying the Effect of Similarity in Online Task-Focused Interactions• Designing for Improved Social Responsibility, User Participation and Content in On-Line Communities• Slash(dot) and Burn: Distributed Moderation in a Large Online Conversation Space / 2004• Making Web Sites Be Places for Social Interaction / 2001• The Active Lurker: Influence of an In-house Online Community on its Outside Environment• Putting Systems into Place: A Qualitative Study of Design Requirements for Location- Aware Community• Systems / 2004• Sharing Personal Information in Online Community Member Profiles / 2000• Finding Others Online - Reputation Systems for Social Online Spaces• Think Different: Increasing Online Community Participation Using Uniqueness and Group Dissimilarity• Evaluating Social Network Services / 2003
• Mapping the Culture of an Online Community / 2004• Online Social and Business Networking Communities / 2004• Incorporating Physical Co-presence at Events into Digital Social Networking / 2005• My Advice To Social Networking Services / 2004• Everything in moderation / 2003